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• THE BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



SAN FRANCISCO'S 



Representative Men, 



THE CITY, ITS HISTORY AND COMMERCE. 



* - - i - r "' 



Pregnant Facts Regarding the Growth of the Leading 
Branches of Trade, Industries and Products 

of the State and Coast. 



In Two Volumes — Volume I. 



Published by the 

SAN FRANCISCO JOURNAL OF COMMERCE PUBLISHING CO. 

326 Pine Stkeet, San Francisco, 

1891, 




DEDICATION. 



To all patrons of the San Francisco Journal of Commerce Fdblishikg 
Company, and to all interested in the prosperity of the ciij and coast and 
the development of our resources and commerce, this volume is respectfully 
dedicated. 




PREFACE. 



" The Buildeb8 of a Great City " is, as its name implies, a series of 
sketches of some of the most prominent of those men who have done so 
much in the founding of San Francisco, and making it one of the great 
cities of the world, and not only the commercial, industrial and financial 
metropolis of the Pacific Coast, but of the whole West, as New York is of 
the East. Amongst the names presented in these pages will be found those 
of merchants, manufacturers, bankers, railroad magnates, and others, 
whose life work has been instrumental in making this city what it is to- 
day. Every statement in these sketches has been verified by the gentleman 
to whom it refers. The biographical contents of this volume thus form a 
body of personal history of leading men, the authenticity of which may 
never be questioned. In this lies their principal merit, as there is no pre- 
tension made to graces of style or ornamental or majestic diction, plain 
business statements, couched as nearly as may be in the ordinary every day 
language of commercial life, being all that is aimed at. The biographies 
nre, for easy reference, arranged in alphabetical order. As it became evi- 
dent soon after undertaking the work that justice to the subject could not 
be done in one volume, it was determined to make this the first of a series 
bearing the same name and title. 

In the introduction of one hundred pages will be found, in a condensed 
form, all that there is of interest regarding the matters therein treated of. 
These embrace a brief history of the city and State, with a description of 
the more striking features of both, the more important productions of the 
latter, its leading resources, a condensed history of gold and silver mining 
on the coast, the population of the city and its peculiarities, its principal 
institutions, and data revised to the present year regarding the commerce, 
manufactures, banking and finance of the city, and the leading staples of 
the State. All not found here will be published in Volume II. We aim 
to give in a small space, and for all time, information regarding the early 
history of the State and city that shall be invaluable to the historian of the 
future. 

The credit for the inception and successful prosecution of the work is 
due jointly to W. H. Mubbay, the Secretary, and James O' Leahy, the Editor, 
of The Journal of Commerce ; the introductory pages and much of the 
biography being the work of the latter gentleman. 

San Francisco, June 13, 1891. 



ERRATA. 



The Alia has ceased to exist since oar pages on the Press were printed. 

On page 44, the table of population gives San Francisco 350,000. It 
was intended to have the figures 330,000. However, as the table was com- 
piled a year ago, and as the figures were then deemed low, 350,000 is prob- 
ably nearer the truth than 330,000. 

Page 14. Big Trees :* Diameter should be 34 feet; circumference, 90 
feet. 

"The Last Ten Years."— Governor Waterman has been succeeded 
by H. H. Murk ham, the Republican candidate and the choice of Southern 
California. At the same time all on the San Francisco Republican ticket, 
but one, were elected by a good majority. The Legislature was Repub- 
lican by a great majority, and elected Leland Stanford United States Senator 
for the second time. 




INDKX. 



Page. 

California 9 

San Francisco 47 

BIOGR \PHIOAL SKETCHES. 

Page. 

Andrew s, A 101 

Andros, Milton 103 

Armitage, William H 105 

Badlam, Alexander 107 

Benchley, Leonidas B 109 

Bendel, Hermann 113 

Bishop, Ira 115 

Black, Henry M 117 

Block, Eiias Monroe 119 

Boone, John Lee 121 

Castle, Fred L 123 

Chase, Charles Metaphor : 125 

Curtis, John M 127 

Dean, Peter 129 

Denicke, Ernst A 133 

Dibble, H**nry C 135 

Dickinson, John H 137 

Dimond, William H 139 

Dingley, Charles L 141 

DobL*, Abner 143 

Dodge, Henry Lee 145 

Dunn, James 149 

Dyer, E. H 151 

Easton, Wendell 155 

Forderer, Joseph F 157 

Fox, Charles N 161 

Galpin, Philip G 163 

Garratt, William T 165 

Grant, Adam 169 

Haas, Kalman 171 

Halsey, Abraham 173 

Hanlon, Charles F. . . : 175 

Harney, William 177 

Hart, W. H. H 179 

Haslett, Samuel 183 

Haven, James M 185 

Hawley, Marcus C 187 

Haymond, Creed 189 

Heald, E. P 193 

Herrmann, Sigismund 197 

Highton, Henry E 199 

Hinz, A. Frederick 208 

Holmes, H. T 205 

Hopkins, Mark 209 

Hotoling, A. P 213 

Howard, John L , . 217 



INDEX— Continued, 

Huntington, F. A 21 

Hyde, George 22 

Jackson, J. P 22 

Keith, Nathaniel Skopard 22 

Kennedy, John F 23 

Killip, Jasper Newton 23 

King, Frederick R 23 

Koster, John Ludwig 23 

Kreling, William 23 

Laidlaw, Royal D 24 

Lacaa, John and J. William 24 

Macdonald, D. A 24 

McAfee, William... 24 

McMeuomy, John H 24 

Merry, William Lawrence 2E 

Mills, Darius Ogden 25 

Morrow, Frederick B 2£ 

Murphy, Samuel Green 2£ 

Newman, Carlton 2f 

Osborn, Georg* W. 2£ 

Parrott, Louis E 26 

Patterson, James 26 

Perkins, George C 21 

Perrin, Edward B 27 

Perry, John, Jr 2't 

Pbelau, James 2£ 

Pierson, William M 2E 

Pond, Edward B 2£ 

Ranlett, Horace Dodge 2E 

Rankin, Ira P 2J 

Reynolds, John 2J 

Roe, George Henry 2£ 

Rothschild, Joseph . 




CALIFORNIA. 



EARLY HISTORY. 

By what semi-civilized people Cali- 
fornia was first discovered may per- 
haps be never known, though it is 
not at all improbable that the honor 
belongs to the early Chinese or 
Japanese navigators, mayhap driven 
thither by stress of weather. There 
is no probability that it was ever oc- 
cupied by any of those ancient races 
whose renown has thrown sort of bar- 
baric light over the histories of Mex- 
ico, Peru or other less known and 
partially civilized and ancient empires 
of the new world. It was made known 
to the world in modern times by the 
enterprise of Spanish navigators 
whose renown soon after the discov- 
ery of the western continent, for a 
time in conjunction with their Por- 
tuguese and Dutch confreres filled the 
European world. Juan Rodriguez 
Cabnllo was the first who sailed along 
its coasts; this he did in 1542 or just 
three hundred and forty-eight years 
ago. Though in the service of Spain 
he was a native of Portugal. He 
reached the great western headland 
in latitude 40° 30', which he called 
eape Mendoza, now cape Mendocino. 
The land of California was, however, 
known by reputation at least a gener- 
ation prior to this, as it is described 
in a romance published at Seville. 
It was then thought to be an island. 
Aubong his discoveries were the Far- 
allone Islands, outside of San Fran- 
cisco Bay, and named after the pilot 
Farallo. In 1578 Sir Francis Drake 
landed at Drake's Bay, and not know- 
ing of Cabrillo's discoveries, took for- 
mal possession of the country in the 
name of Queen Elizabeth, calling it 
by the name of New Albion. In 1602 
Genetal Sebastian Viscayno explored 



the coast from San Diego to Monte- 
rey, including the islands in Santa 
Barbara channel. About this time 
the impression went abroad that its 
mountains contained the precious 
metals, and during the succeeding 
century, several unsuccessful expedi- 
tious in search of them were made. 
In the winter of 1769 the Franciscan 
fathers organized expeditions to 
found colonies and missions in the 
hitherto unknown land. After loss 
by sea and suffering from scurvy and 
starvation, the party landed at San 
Diego on April 11th and May 1st. 
Two land expeditions reached the same 
destination May 15th and July 1st. 
From San Diego as a starting point, 
a land expedition working northerly 
along the coast discovered the Bay 
of San Francisco, October 25, 1769. 
Six missions were founded within 
tbe limits of the State, and Christian- 
ity and civilization had their first 
beginning on these western shores. 
By the close of the first quarter of 
the present century, twenty-one of 
these missions had been established, 
the most northerly one Sonoma. So 
that the first settlements of white 
men were made in California as in New 
England, by those whose first worldly 
consideration was the furtherance of 
religion, though of course the views 
of the mission and pilgrim fathers 
were as wide as the poles asunder. 
For a period of about fifty years was 
what was called the mission period 
in California. The fathers christian- 
ized about twenty thousand Indians 
and introduced into the State the 
cultivation of the ordinary cereals, of 
the vine and the olive. Then also 
were the first rude beginnings of 
commerce; the raising of cattle be- 
came a great industry. With the 



10 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



secularization of the missions in the 
second quarter of the century, the 
Indians were scattered, while immi- 
grants from Mexico and, during the 
latter part of this epoch, a few strag- 
gling ones from the East made their 
appearance in the land. Early in 
this period the Russians settled in 
the northwestern portion of the State, 
but did not make any lengthened 
stay. About five thousand persons 
crossed the plains between 1840 and 
1845; in 1846 there were of these 
about two thousand left, as well as 
six thousand foreigners of different 
nationalities. The war between the 
United States and Mexico beginning 
July 7, 1846, added the State, then 
under Mexican rule, to the territory of 
the Republic. It had been under Span- 
ish rule from 1767 till 1822, and un- 
der Mexican from that time till July 
7, 1846, when Commodore Sloat 
raised the American flag at Monte- 
rey. It had been hoisted there iu 
1842 by Commodore Jones, under 
the impression that war had been de- 
clared between Mexico aud the Uni- 
ted States. The bear Hag, as it was 
called, had been previously raised in 
the State by a number of patriotic 
Americans. The discovery of gold 
at Sutter's Fort in February, 1848, 



grants flocking in from all sides by 
land and sea till in 1852 the popula- 
tion was estimated at 250,000. The 
first comers to the mines were as a 
rule men of good moral character 
and a miner might leave untold 
wealth in his cabin without bolt or 
bar and without fear of loss. But 
times changed; at last desperate men 
joined the throng and gambling and 
kindred vices flourished. This led 
eventually to much lawlessness and 
murder and a corruption of politics 
followed. So great had the evil be- 
come, that in San Francisco, in 1851, 
a Vigilance Committee was organized 
as a remedy and it did its work effect- 
ually for the time being, but the bad 
elements were only scotched, not 
stamped out, and in 1855, in the 
month of May, the Vigilance Commit- 
tee was organized again. This time 
it meant business; it was supported 
by a military force and had tribu- 
nals of its own. The assassination of 
James King of Wm., the founder of 
the Bulletin, was the immediate cause 
of its again springing into existence. 
It did its wort so well that there has 
never since been such occasion to go 
outside of the regular courts. Outside 
of the political disputes and struggles, 
ending in the Terry-B rode rick duel, 




CALIFORNIA. 



11 



Railroad Co., which has done so 
much to foster the material advance- 
ment of the State and to modify the 
currents of its commerce. He was 
succeeded by Frederick F. Low, also 
a Republican. But since that time, 
with the exception of the interregnum 
when the so-called "Dolly Varden" 
party held sway, governors elected 
by the two great political parties 
have taken the helm of State in turn 
with tolerable regularity. In Presi- 
dential elections in recent years, the 
vote of the State has generally been 
cast for the republican candidate. The 
agitation of the Chinese question and 
the rise and progress of what was call- 
ed "sand lot" politics gave a new di- 
rection temporarily to politics in the 
Golden State. The sand lot move- 
ment arose at a time when there was 
great distress amongst the unemploy- 
ed, which distress was charged to 
the extensive employment of Chinese. 
The leader of the sand lot movement 
was Denis Kearny, who had come to 
the coast as the mate of a vessel. 
Possessed of a rude eloquence, he 
for a time swayed the masses, and 
the movement rose from the status 
of Sunday meetings on the sand lot, 
attended out of pure curiosity, to 
that of a regular political move- 
ment as well organized as any in the 
city. There were many who believ- 
ed Kearny insincere, but these were 
the fewer in number, and when he 
with his lieutenants started to stump 
the State, they met with almost as 
signal success as they did in the city. 
The workingmen were almost univer- 
sally organized in the support of the 
movement and though opposed by 
both the old political parties, they 
swept the city in the first municipal 
election that offered a chance, the 
Democratic party in particular being 
apparently beaten out of sight. From 
carrying the city, the party then as- 
pired to carry the State and although 
thejr failed in this, they, with some 
assistance from the grangers who 
were a very powerful element among 
the farmers, at the same time united- 



ly had a majority in the legislature. 
Then came a demand for a revision 
of the Constitution; first, so as to leg- 
islate against the Chinese, but finally 
to render it more democratic, not in 
a partisan, but in an economic sense. 
The demand was successful and a 
constitutional convention was called, 
which met in 1878. It did not 
do much towards solving the Chinese 
problem, but it altered the Consti- 
tution in some important particulars 
such as taxation of mortgages, etc. 
It was submitted to a vote of the 
people and despite a strong and in- 
tellectually powerful opposition was 
adopted May 7, 1879, and has since 
been our organic law. 

THE LAST TEN YEARS. 

Many evils were predicted from the 
adoption of the new constitution, but 
none of them have materialized, and 
it is evident that sufficient considera- 
tion was not given to the fact that 
our people are by nature conservative, 
and that as a general thing violent 
or revolutionary methods have no 
chance of adoption by them. The 
excitement attendant on the agitation 
was soon allayed, and the people re- 
turned once more to their ordinary 
pursuits with such zeal that the 
decade which has since closed has 
been one of the most prosperous in 
our history. The wheat harvest of 
1880 was tne greatest ever known in 
the State, and our trade with foreign 
countries received such an impetus 
that it has become one of the largest 
and most important in the western 
world. During the past decade our 
manufactures in general experienced 
previously unwonted development, 
agriculture has become more varied, 
our fruit industry may be said to have 
arisen, and the production of wine 
in the State to have become national 
in its importance. Our railroad sys- 
tem has received a wonderful devel- 
opment, while our population has 
increased from 864,694 to a figure 
exceeding 1,400,000. There can be 
no doubt that the final adoption of 
the new constitution w^s much iu- 



12 



EUiLDEKS OP A GREAT CITY. 



financed by the veto by the President 
of the An ti -Chinese bill, but since 
then the long-wished -fur legislation 
has been accomplished, and save for 
the attempts made to nullify it in 
practice, agitation on the subject has 
well nigh ceased. Matters political 
have returned to their accustomed 
channels, and the Republican and 
Democratic parties remain constitu- 
ted as of old, and take about the 
usual rotation in office. An Ameri- 
can party has been organized, but as 
yet has exercised no special influence 
in politics, if we except the last gu- 
bernatorial election, when the Re- 
publican candidate for Lieutenant- 
Governor, R. W. Waterman, was 
elected by the help of its votes. 
The death of Governor Bartlett left 
him Governor of the State. The 
Prohibition party has notbeen strong, 
though in many places it has had suf- 
ficient influence either to close the 
saloons or bring about a high license 
compromise through those who are 
not prepared for such a radical 
measure as complete prohibition. 
And now the Nationalist party bos 
organized on the lines suggested by 
Bellamy's novel. A great develop- 
ment of the southern portion of the 
State lias taken place during the pant 



without any exaggeration, hev broad 
domain may be described as the gar- 
den spot of the United States. No- 
where else within the borders of the 
great republic is the climate so genial 
or the soil as a whole so fertile, or is 
there snch a vast variety of produc- 
tions ministering to the wants and 
the comforts of man. In other States 
the climate is either too hot or too 
cold. In California it is neither. In 
fact, one can have pretty much what 
climate he desires. The wide bounds 
of the State contain within their 
ample area climates to suit everybody 
— all ranks and conditions of men. 
Of no other part of the United States 
can this be justly said. The area of 
the State is in itself imperial. It 
encloses within its wide borders 
155,000 square miles, or 99,000,000, 
almost one hundred million acres. 
It is 750 miles in length, with a 
breadth of 260 to 300 miles. It is 
ahead of every other State, with the 
sole exception of Texas, which will 
ultimately, no doubt, be divided into 
two or three new commonwealths. 
It is nearly three times as large aa 
New York, more than twice as large 
as all the States of New England, 
and nearly double in area thenext 
largest State in the Un 




CALIFORNIA. 



18 



ten years. It has been eminently 
free from epidemics and contagious 
diseases, and while they have raged 
elsewhere throughout the world, 
California, though San Francisco has 
communication with all nations by 
sea, has been especially exempt from 
them. Its population at present 
writing cannot be less than 1,400,- 
000, so that it has nearly trebled in 
twenty years, and it is now increas- 
ing much faster than ever before on 
account of the overflow of the surplus 
population of sixty-five millions from 
the West, and because its resources 
are becoming better known. 

CLIMATE. 

We have said that in California 
one can have pretty much what cli- 
mate he desires. The boundaries of 
the State have been said to enclose 
within their limits the climatic coun- 
terpart of nearly every portion of the 
habitable globe. We nave the sea- 
sons of Italy, Spain, Greece, Asia 
Minor and Northern Africa in San 
Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Los 
Angeles, San Bernardino and San 
Diego Counties. France is repre- 
sented in the foothills of our great 
valleys, between the alluvial forma- 
tion and the limit of 4,000 feet eleva- 
tion. Lombardy, with its olives, 
silks and vines — idrtws inter vitea — is 
found again in Merced, Fresno, Tulare 
and Kern. Ireland and Southern 
Britain reappear in the foothills of 
Butte and the northern counties, 
Egypt on the Colorado River, and 
the Lower Danube, i. e., Hungary, 
Servia,- Bulgaria, and Boumama, in 
the valley of the Sacramento. Ten- 
nessee, Georgia and Alabama find 
their counterparts in Humboldt and 
Del Norte, Switzerland in Mendoci- 
no, the Atlantic States and Norway 
and Sweden above the line of 4,000 
feet elevation in the Sierra Nevadas. 
The following figures give a good idea 
of the temperature as registered by 
the thermometer : At Bed Bluff, in 
the northern Sacramento valley, Jan- 
uary ra&ges from 24 to 68, July from 



68 to 104; at Sacramento, January 
has as extremes 25 to 62, July 63 to 
100; San Francisco's winter registers 
28 to 61, her summer 53 to 94; in 
Santa Barbara, January shows 31 to 
70, July 58 to 101. Los Angeles, 
immediately after the celebration of 
the new year, has a thermometrioal 
range of 34 to 81 ; after the Fourth 
of July, 63 to 103, while the climate 
of San Diego is one to two degrees 
higher both in Summer and Winter. 

ATTRACTIONS OP THE STATE. 

Not the least amongst the charms 
that the State presents is its mag- 
nificent climate and majestic and 
beautiful scenery. To the tourist 
and the traveler, as well as to those 
in search of health, California offers 
unrivalled attractions. Every part 
of the State helps to restore to health 
the consumptive and the ailing. The 
south in particular has become known 
as the paradise of "one lung capital- 
ists." Certain it is that thousands 
of people, who, if they remained in 
the East, would have been long since 
in their graves, are now in the enjoy- 
ment of robust health. We have 
within our borders all the beauty and 
all the sublimity of Europe, and as 
says a somewhat florid author : — 
" California, the golden land of the 
West, the land of wonder, is the 

Earadise of the tourist. Here nature 
as finished her works in the grand- 
eur of omnipotent might. Lofty 
mountains pierce the regions of 
eternal snow, and valleys sink in 
eternal Summer; sparkling lakes gem 
her Sierras, and mineral springs of 
infinite variety are found in every 
section, surrounded by romantic 
scenery most attractive to all in 
search of health or pleasure. Deep 
chasms, frowning cliffs, waterfalls 
from dizzy heights, and a vegetation 
the most majestic the world ever saw, 
constitute a series of ever-varying 
attractions such as no other region 
of the globe presents. Above all 
reigns an equable climate divided 
into two seasons, the dry and the 



BDILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



wet— the formerextendingfromApril 
to October, giving a period of im- 
munity from storms, daring which 
the traveler may take his pleasure in 
the broad light of day, or encamping 
under the starlight covering of the 
night, and rest assured that neither 
rains nor heavy dews will disturb 
him." 
BEAUTIES AND GRANDEUR OF CALIFORNIA. 

■ These are eloquent, winged words, 
but they do not exaggerate the real- 
ity. Tbe world as a whole does not 
know the beauties and grandeur of 
the wonder land of California. When 
it does there will be as many pilgrims 
to its shores, its mountains and its 
valleys as there are now to those of 
Switzerland and Italy. It only takes 
thirteen days to reach San Fran- 
cisco from Liverpool or Havre ; Iobs 
time than it took in the old days of 
locomotion to go from one end of a 
European country to the other. San 
Francisco itself, with all that it has 
to attract the attention of the stranger, 
its magnificent ocean and bay, may 
well detain him for a time. Of 
course the fir^t place to which his 
attention would be directed would 
be Tosemite, the mightiest of the 
world's wonders, with its waterfalls. 



picturesque regions of the world. 
The big trees of Santa Cruz yield 
only to those of Calaveras. Paraiso 
Springs, which have been called the 
Carlsbad of the coast, are between 
grandly rising mountains, within easy 
reach of the Southern Pacific. They 
have wrought some wonderful cures, 
Highland Springs, in Lake County, 
are highly curative and surrounded 
by rugged mountain scenery. There 
is iu the State over a thousand miles 
of the most beautiful and attractive 
mountain scenery in the world. Of 
these mountains Shasta is the most 
famous. It and half a dozen others 
are from 10,000 to 15,000 feet in 
height — their heads constantly 
wreathed in eternal snow. It has 
several beautiful lakes, the most 
renowned being lakes Tahoe and 
Donner. 



Outof the total area of ninety-eight 
million acres there are twenty million 
acres of Government lands as yet un- 
entered and they are found in almost 
every county of the State. Eleven 
millions are suitable for the culture 
of the vine, oranges, lemons and ci- 
trus fruits generally; for the olive, 
for all the fruits of temperate climates 




CALIFORNIA, 



15 



large areas of private lands that sell 
all the way from $2.50 to $50 an acre 
— the latter in the neighborhood of 
towns. There is, therefore, a great 
field for settlers. Had we a popula- 
tion as dense as that of New York we 
would now have sixteen millions of 
people within our borders. Were it 
as dense as that of Belgium we would 
have seventy millions. Most of the 
State is well supplied by Nature with 
an abundant rainfall, and where this 
is lacking irrigation facilities are fast 
being abundantly provided. 

The following figures of rainfall 
are from the best authorities. They 
represent the average : San Francis- 
co 23 inches, Sacramento 19 inches, 
San Jose 15 inches, Los Angeles 22 
inches, San Diego 10 inches, Fresno 
71 inches, Bakersfield 5 inches, San- 
ta Barbara 14 inches, Monterey 15 
inches, Humboldt Bay 22 inches, 
Crescent City 34 inches, Shasta 38 
inches. 

The value of real estate, both in 
city and country has appreciated at a 
wonderful rate during 1888-9. Espe- 
cially was this the case in the south- 
ern part of the State. In desirable 
localities in Los Angeles, land sold as 
high as a thousand dollars a front 
foot, and although prices went down 
with the decline of the boom, they 
are slowly creeping up again. Land 
values near towns from Monterey to 
San Bernardino, around the coast, 
more than doubled within two years. 
First-class vine or fruit lands near a 
city bring as much as five hundred 
dollars an acre, in some instances. 
In San Francisco during the past 
eighteen months there has been an 
appreciation of sixty per cent in the 
value of lands in the suburbs. There 
will be an increase of at least sixty 
thousand made to the population of 
the city during the next four years, 
and the necessity for finding space 
for this increased population will 
still further largely enhance values. 
Bealty in any part of California to- 
day is a splendid investment. 

The value of the products of Cali- 



fornia this year is in round numbers 
two hundred millions of dollars, that 
is, one hundred and forty dollars for 
every man, woman and child in the 
State. If we add to this that of the 
raw material of manufactures we will 
have a total product of three hundred 
millions of dollars. San Francisco 
herself boasts of manufactures whose 
annual value is estimated at one 
hundred and seventeen millions of 
dollars. We raise this year forty 
million bushels of wheat. In fact, in 
a year when everything is favorable, 
we produce more wheat than any 
other State in the Union. Forty 
bushels per capita is our normal pro- 
duction of wheat. Apply this to the 
United States and we would have a 
total crop of two thousand six hun- 
dred millions of bushels, or more 
than five times the largest crop the 
the United States ever nad. Even if 
we take a bad year in California, 
with only thirty-three bushels per 
capita, the result in the whole United 
States on a similar average would be 
more than three-fold the largest crop 
the country ever raised. Of barley 
we have got up to thirty bushels per 
capita. It is with us a most impor- 
tant cereal crop. Our wheat, nour 
and barley reach all countries. In 
1888 our wine product exceeded sev- 
enteen millions of gallons. This 
year the prospects are for thirty mill- 
ion gallons if nothing untoward oc- 
curs to the grape. We have emphati- 
cally the grape country of America* 
The value of our fruits sold last year 
was reckoned in round numbers at 
sixteen million dollars. Some of this 
was canned, some dried, some ship- 
ped East in a green state. It always 
commands eood prices. We put on 
the market last year 1,000,000 boxes 
of raisins of very good quality. This 
year the product will probably be 
very much more. We are now a 
formidable competitor with Spain in 
the markets of the United States. 
We are especially famous for our ci- 
trus fruits, which will grow in most 
parts of the State. This year it is 



16 



BUILDERS OF A GBBAT OtTT. 



estimated that we will have two mill- 
ion boxes of oranges for export. 

The physical conformation of Cal- 
ifornia is quite simple. The Sierra 
Nevada lunge running northwest 
and southeast along most of the east- 
ern border. The coast range under 
various names running parallel to it 
at a distance of about fifty-five miles. 
The base of the Sierras is about 
eighty miles wide, that of the Coast 
about sixty-five miles. The Sierras 
range from four to fifteen thousand 
feet high — the coast mountains from 
one to six thousand feet. The higher 
summits of the Sierras are, as their 
name implies, robed in eternal snow. 
The two ranges nnite at Tehacbapi 
in the southern part of the State and 
at the snowy Shasta in the north. 
Between lies the most fruitful and 
one of the largest valleys on earth, 
450 miles long by 55 wide, known as 
the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
River Valleys, from the two 
great streams that drain its northern 
and southern portions respect- 
ively. It is the home of all cereal 
grains, especially wheat, of the raisin 
grape, the orange and the lemon and 
all the finer fruits, while in its south- 
erly portion cotton nourishes over a 
wide area, and at some points it is 
thi ' 



ed mountains and fertile soil; the 
valley of Russian River, that of Salin- 
as, and the various ones enclosed 
in the counties of Santa Barbara, 
San Luis Obispo and Ventura, fam- 
ous for the richness and abundance 
of their frnit and grain lands and 
their mineral riches, and, though last 
not least, for their wealth in petrole- 
um. 

Noble forests of redwood clothe 
the mountains from the borders of 
Oregon to those of Mendocino Coun- 
ty, and smaller ones the hills of San 
Mateo and Santa Cruz Counties, and 
especially the valley of the San Lo- 
renzo River. White and sugar pine, 
fir and cedar still clothe the interior 
sides of the northern Coast Range 
and the flanks of the Sierras. .Toe 
oak, manzanita, nut pine, juniper, 
yew, walnut, cyprus, poplar, live oak, 
willow, sycamore, laurel, buckeye, 
cottonwood and other valuable varie- 
ties of timber are found all over the 
State, but especially in the moun- 
tains. 

The southern part of the State, 
consisting of the counties of Los 
Angeles, San Bernardino and San 
Diego, is in some respects one of the 
richest portions of California. With 
irrigation every product of the sub- 
The so-called 




California. 



17 



and Smith rivers. The course of the 
Klamath is about two hundred and 
fifty miles. Tulare, Owens, Kern, 
Clear, Klamath, Tahoe, Mono, Hon- 
ey and Elizabeth are all lakes of con- 
siderable size. 

LEADING PRODUCTIONS. 

California is especially rich in the 
metals — gold, silver, copper, tin, 
quicksilver and lead being the prin- 
cipal, although almost every descrip- 
tion is found in greater or less abun- 
dance. As to its primacy in the mat- 
ter of gold there is no need to refer; 
it is the principal quicksilver country 
in the world; copper is abundant 
though not as cheaply worked as 
in some of the other states, while the 
cheapness of England's tin renders it 
unprofitable to work California's de- 
posit, at least at present. It has 
great deposits of iron, but the cost of 
bringing the ore to market has pre- 
vented the successful development of 
them. It has large deposits of lignite 
coal, while its production of mineral 
oil, approaching 20,000,000 gallons 
annually, will in time be second only 
to that of Pennsylvania. It has in- 
exhaustible deposits of limestone and 
some of the best cement rock in the 
world. Its clays are suitable for the 
manufacture of the best description 
of pottery and brick. It contains 
vast deposits of sodas and salts suit- 
able for the manipulation of the 
chemist and the manufacturer, large 
and pure deposits of sulphur, while 
it may be said to contain in more or 
less quantities every known mineral. 

Some of the best horses and cattle 
in the world have been raised in the 
State while it has been noted for the 
abundance of its fleeces and for the 
profits of sheep raising within its 
borders. 

In the vegetable kingdom it pro- 
duces the best wheat, barley, hops, 
vines and deciduous and citrous fruits 
in the world. Cotton grows luxuri- 
antly within its borders, as also does 
flax, hemp, ramie, jute and to some 



extent sugar *ane. The mulberry in 
this State renders possible in the 
near future the development of a 
great and prosperous silk industry. 
Beet sugar will be one of its most 
profitable farming products. In the 
variety and luxuriance of its vegeta- 
ble products it is excelled by no land 
under the sun and approached by but 
few. Honey is one of its staples and 
is shipped both to the East and to 
Europe. 

CALIFORNIA STAPLES. 

We have elsewhere referred at 
some length to California's pro- 
ducts, but a synopsis here will be 
useful : 

A leading miller calculates that on 
large tracts of land we can raise 
wheat at a dollar a cental or sixty 
cents a bushel. The profit from our 
wine, fruit and citrus lands, when 
the trees are in full bearing, does not 
average below a hundred dollars an 
acre, though much higher figures 
have been made. The olive is fast 
coining to be quite an important pro- 
duct of the State, and pays well. 
Sericulture is also assuming import- 
ance, and the production and manu- 
facture of silk will, no doubt, in days 
to come, take front rank. We now 
raise thirty-five million pounds of 
wool a year. We can raise flax, and 
the ramie fibre promises to be not 
the least important of our products. 
The sugar beet has succeeded very 
well, and as sugar from it can be 
manufactured at four and half cents 
a pound there can be but little doubt 
that we will supply the raw material 
to the whole country. 

The lumber interests of California 
are amongst the most important of 
any other and are hardly realized 
even by her own citizens. The red- 
wood is one of the most useful and 
ornamental in the world, of giant 
growth, hard to burn, almost un- 
touched by decay even after a long 
series of years, and when polished 
resembling in appearance a piece of 



18 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT Gift. 



colored marble. There are in the 
State over five thousand square mileB 
covered by it, averaging in the opin- 
ions of practical men 100,000 feet to 
the acre. Some acres, however, go 
as high as a million and even two 
milliou feet. In the Eel River Valley 
large tracts cut half a million feet per 
acre. It sells in San Francisco at 
$20 a thousand feet jobbing. Be- 
sides the redwood, California pro- 
duces many other valuable trees, such 
as the sugar pine, fir and cedar and 
California laurel. 

It is as a gold producer that this 
State has been most famed. Very 
conservative estimates give its total 

fold production as one billion three 
undred millions of dollars. Some 
mines, such as the famous Eureka 
mine at Grass Valley, have produced 
four to five millions. The yearly 

Product is now about fifteen millions. 
ts yearly product of silver is about 
two and a half millions and increas- 
ing. Those who have studied the 
matter say that there is more gold in 
the famous blue lead and its continu- 
ations, etc., than has been raised on 
the whole coast since 1849. Besides 

fold and silver, California has large 
eposits of iron, copper, lead, tin and 
other valuable metals and minerals. 



Not the least important product of 
the State is coal oil. In 1889 we 
handled 17,000,000 gallons of it. 
The supplies are practically illimita- 
ble. 

PBODDCTS in 1890. 

The yield of all descriptions of 
natural products in California this 
year will be large, and although com- 
plete statistics nave not as yet been 
gathered, sufficiently close approxi- 
mation to the truth can be made to 
furnish a few interesting paragraphs. 
In wheat and barley there have 
been few years outside of 1880, with a 
better showing than this. We count 
on a grain harvest, one of at least 
24,000,000 centals of wheat, and 
12,000,000 centals of barley. As 
to oats and similar grain the best 
that can be done under ordinary 
circumstances is to make an estimate 
based on annual receipts in this city. 
The honey crop will be good. Our 
wine crop cannot yet be reasonably 
estimated. Our wool crop will be 
greater than that of 1888. Our fruit 
crop has been very heavy and may be 
very well placed at a better figure 
than that of 1889. More green and 
dried fruit is being shipped, while 




CALIFORNIA. 



19 



Cattle and sheep slaugh- 
tered 50,000,000 

Gold and silver 17,000,000 

Fruit 19,000,000 

Wine 10,000,000 

Lumber. 10,000,000 

Dairy produce 8,000,000 

Wool 6,000,000 

Base bullion and lead. . 1,250,000 

Other metals 1,000,000 

Quicksilver 1,500,000 

Hops 1,000,000 

Coal 400,000 

Salmon 250,000 

Miscellaneous 5,000,000 

Total $190,700,000 

Manufactures, 

raw material. . . . 100,000,000 

Total $290,700,000 

Here is the largest value the in- 
dustry of the State has ever been 
reckoned at — equal to about $207 per 
capita nearly. 

TOTAL PRODUCTION OP THE STATE. 

Where exact data have not been 
kept from year to year, the compila- 
tion of a matter of this kind is no 
easy task. We can, however, make 
an approximation sufficiently close for 
all practical purposes, and this will 
give us a better idea of the advance 
made by the people of this State than 
perhaps could large and learnedly- 
written volumes. The following rep- 
resents values of some of the more 
prominent articles, calculated accord- 
ing to prices in the year of produc- 
tion, and including the year 1889 : 

Gold $1,364,300,000 

Silver 31,000,000 

Total product. . . .$1,395,300,000 

Wheat 745,000,000 

Dairy products 206,000,000 

Barley 185,000,000 

Wool 162,000,000 

Lumber 97,000,000 

Fruit , 93,000,000 



Quicksilver 74,000,000 

Wines and brandies . . 63,000,000 

Base metals 51,250,000 

These with smaller products and 
the results of manufacture will give 
a total value exceeding six billions 
of dollars, a very good showing for 
so young a country as ours. 

FRUIT. 

California will, in future, be as 
well known for its fruits as it has 
been in the past for its gold. We 
may as well say is known, for already 
the fame of California fruit has tra- 
veled to every city of any size on the 
other side of the Rocky Mountains, 
to Australia as well, and soon will be 
diffused far and wide throughout Eu- 
rope. The State has thirty million 
acres of hill lands well suited, to grape 
or fruit culture, though not much 
else. But any land in the State al- 
most, will grow fruit, while the re- 
turns are such as to throw into the 
shade those received from any other 
pursuit connected with the cultiva- 
tion of the soil. It has already as- 
sumed great relative importance agri- 
culturally. It is, of course, impossi- 
ble to arrive at exact figures regard- 
ing its value, but a very fair approx- 
imation can be made. The crop of 
1889 and its value may be estimated 
as follows : 

Pounds Value 

Green shipped by rail . 41.876,830 $2,600,000 

Green by sea 1,000,000 68,000 

Dried, by rail 32.804,130 4,300,000 

Dried, by sea 750,000 46,000 

Ueed for canning 62,500 000 2,500.000 

Home consumption . . . 100,000,000 2,500,000 

OraDges (900 U0U bxs) 2,250,000 

Raisins (1,000,000 bxs) 1,250,000 

Totel $15,614,000 

Then it is estimated by a gentle- 
man who knows whereof he speaks 
that fully one-tenth of the whole crop 
goes to waste. The value of this in 
the market last year would not have 
been less than $1,000,000 making the 
value of the whole in the markets 
over sixteen million dollars. It has 
been estimated at higher figures, but 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



these represent the actual facts of 
the case as nearly as may be. The 
grower does not receive this sum 
but it is fair to estimate that for the 
fruit actually Bent to the market he lias 
received in return not less than twelve 
millions of dollars. The consumer, 
of course, pays a great deal more 
than the hignest figure here given — 

Erobably not less than sixteen inil- 
ons of dollars. The value of the 
crop since 1880 may be given as fol- 
lows: 

$3,000,000 
4,000,000 
5,000,000 
7,500,000 

.884 7,500,000 

.885 9,000,000 

',000,000 

887 ....12,500,000 

13,250,000 
16,514,000 

Here is an increase of about five- 
fold in the short space of nine years 
—-one absolutely wonderful and to be 
equalled in but few countries out- 
side of California. For 1890 the 
value of the fruit crop may be given 
at $19,000,000. The number of fruit 
trees in the State cannot be ex- 
actly told, but from data gathered 



There were then 11,000 acres in vines 
and 500 acres in berries. The price 

Cr acre of bringing an orchard into 
arms is given as follows: First 
year — Breaking ground $3; leveling 
ground, $1 ; laying off, digging holes 
and planting trees, $6.50; cost of 
trees, $21.60; ten cultivations, $5; 
four harro wings or clod mashing, $1 ; 
pruning, $1.60; digging around trees 
three times, $1.50. Total first year, 
$41.10. Second year — Plowing, $2; 
ten cultivations, $5; harrowing or 
clod-mushing four times, $1; digging 
around trees, $1; pruning, $1.50; 
Total second year, $10.50. Third 
year — Plowing, cultivating, harrow- 
ing, etc., $8; digging around trees, 
$1.50; pruning, $2. Total third year 
$11.50. Fourth year — Plowing, cul- 
tivating, harrowing, digging, etc., 
$9.60; pruning, $2.25. Total fourth 
year, $11.75. Grand total, $99.85. 
As to profits the following samples 
are given : Ten acres of apricots (Mr. 
Righter's) at four years old yielded 
$75 per acre. At five, six and seven 
years old, including short crops, the 
average yield per year has been 
$1600; ten acres of apricots (Mr. Bo- 
deck) at five years old yielded $160 
per acre; three acres of apricots 
(Mr. Snyder), at live years old yield- 




CALIFORNIA. 



21 



these cases are not infrequent, we 
class them as exceptional. 
Los Angeles county reports : 
Forty thousand acres of orchards, 
and about 37,000 acres of vines. Or- 
anges bear in four years and will 
then yield $100 an acre. The profits 
steadily increase each year. From 
$500 to $890 is realized under favora- 
ble circumstances and $1000 to $1500 
per acre frequently under prime cir- 
cumstances from orchards in full 
bearing. 

DRIED FRUIT AND RAISINS. 

The following table shows how our 
dried fruit industry has grown : 

1883 1889. 

Product. Lbs. Lbs. 

Dried Peaches . . 600,000 3,200,000 

" Pears 200,000 50,000 

" Apples . . .750,000 500,000 

" Apricots.. 150, 000 2,000,000 

" Prunes . . . 550,000 15,200,000 

" Plums 200,000 

" Grapes 2,000,000 

" Nectarines 200,000 

11 Figs 100,000 

Total 2,250,000 23,450,000 

The year 1888 gave a yield about 
20 per cent, larger than in 1887, and 
nearly sixfold that of 1883, while 
1889 was tenfold. Early in the pres- 
ent year the yield was estimated at 
28,000,000 pounds of prunes alone, 
with 37,000,000 pounds of all kinds. 
The yield of prunes, however, has 
since then been estimated at a much 
smaller quantity. The total repre- 
sents 222,000,000 pounds fresh fruit. 

RAISINS. 

The following table represents the 
development of our raisin industry : 

1873 6,000 

1874 9,000 

1875 11,000 

1876 19,000 

1877 32,000 

1878 48,000 

1879 65,000 



1880 75,000 

1881 90,000 

1882 115,000 

1883 140,000 

1884 175,000 

1885 500,000 

1886 703,000 

1887 800,000 

1888 915,000 

1889 1,000,000 

The product of 1890 is now esti- 
mated at 1,600,000 boxes. 

There is hardly a locality in the 
State where the raisin grape does not 
flourish; the profits are steady and 
certain, while the market can hardly 
ever be overstocked. The cost of 
cultivation on soil easy to cultivate 
cannot exceed $20 an acre. From 
three to five tons to the acre is the 
average yield — it often goes up to 
ten tons. One ton of grapes will 
make six hundred pounds of raisins 
fit for the market. An acre at the 
lowest calculation will yield one hun- 
dred boxes worth at the lowest val- 
uation $100, while it does yield in 
some instances as high as 300 boxes 
worth $300 per acre; but the best de- 
scription of raisins will bring at least 
fifty per cent, more, so that a yield 
of $500 per acre is possible. 

CITRUS. 

The profits of citrus growing have 
often been dwelt upon, and the fol- 
lowing shows that a specimen orchard 
of six acres yields in six years $12,- 
000 as gross receipts. The expenses 
had been as follows : Land, $150; 
trees, four hundred and fifty, $450; 
12 years of care, $2,160; inter st at 
10 per cent, for six years, $1,656. 
Total expenses, $4416. The best 
trees, at five years old, yield 200 
oranges to the tree ; at ten years old 
100. At 200 oranges to the tree the 
yield of 100 trees to the acre would 
be $400, the expenses $100 per acre, 
leaving $300 for profits. At the close 
of ten years, of course, the results 
would be proportionately better. The 
vftlue of eftcn tres in healthy and 



22 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



vigorous bearing is, by the Rev. I. W. 
Moore, estimated at 1100. In Butte 
County some trees have yielded from 
one to four thousand oranges each 
year. The owner of a nineteen-acre 
orange orchard at Riverside has sold 
his crop on the trees for $10,000. 

THE OLIVE. 

The cost of olive cultivation is 
thus given by Adolph Flamant, a 
well-known writer : With 100 trees 
to the acre the cost is thus figured : 
Digging 100 holes and the planting 
of the trees should not cost above $5 
per acre. Two hoeings of a space 
about three feet wide around each 
tree, one in the early spring, one in 
the early summer at $1 SO each will 
make it 18 altogether per acre. The 
small rooted cuttings can be had at 
prices ranging from $10 to $15 per 
hundred, according to size, and tak- 
ing this maximum cost of $15, we 
come to a total of $23 per acre for all 
the first year's expenses, independ- 
ent of the cost of the land. During 
the following years three hoeings, 
distanced according to a more or less 
rainy season, will "be more than is 
required to keep the plantation in 
od condition; it will not cost 



population of the United States, say 
sixty-five millions, this would give 
nearly six tons yearly per capita; 
that is, 13,000 pounds, or close on 
thirty-six pounds per day. For 
apricots we might substitute fruit, 
and we can easily see that such a 
quantity could not be by any means 
disposed of on any consideration. 
We, of course, in taking the whole 
area of the State are looking at the 
matter from an extreme point of view. 
But some time or another the prob- 
lem of an immense extension of fruit 
culture must be faced, and that not 
only in California, but elsewhere. 
By the time that fruit culture in Cal- 
ifornia reaches its extreme limit there 
will be a great addition to the pop- 
ulation of the Union and also to that 
of the world at large. The state- 
meat that we have the world for a 
market requires some modification. 
We will have as competitors Arizona, 
New Mexico, part of Texas, Old Mex- 
ico, Central America, South Ameri- 
ca, West Coast Australia and South 
Africa, if not many other places. 
This, of course, has to be borne in 
mind. In twenty years from now 
there could be in this State, ten mil- 
lion acres under cultivation for fruit. 
This could produce one-third of the 




California.. 



4J3 



need 125,000,000 pounds, or say 62,- 
500 tons per day. At five tons to 
the acre, as a fair average production, 
this would take 12,500 acres for each 
and every day's supply. For a year 
it would need 4,502,500 acres. In 
twenty years from date about double 
this, or say nine million acres would 
be wanted. Five tons at 1£ cents 
per pound gives $150 per acre as the 
gross returns. The cost may be as- 
sumed to be say $50 per acre, leav- 
ing $100 as net profit, that is after 
everything has got into working or- 
der. Of course these figures can be 
modified a good deal by freight re- 
duction, etc., but we think that taking 
all in all this is a very fair presenta- 
tion of the case. It would take a 
great many years to reach the profit- 
able production given above, and the 
consumption of just so much fruit is 
not very probable, but it could be 
reduced very materially from our 
figures, say one-half, and still, 
under present circumstances, a very 
large margin left for cultivation and 
profit. Under the circumstances, no 
serious depreciation in the value of 
fruit land seems possible. 

WELL IT CONTINUE TO PAY? 

Many a man who has money in- 
vested in fruit lands or who has been 
tempted to so invest it for the past 
year or two is asking himself this 

Suestion, and anxiously, as he fears 
lat the abundant production of fruit 
looked for will bring a glut, a de- 
pressed market and a loss. At the 
outset we would say that it is a rea- 
sonable inference that if the fruit 
growing continues to expand all over 
the world as it has done during the 
past few years in California that 
prices must decrease considerably. 
In 1883, for instance, we cured 2,- 
250,000 pounds of dried fruit in Cal- 
ifornia—in 1889, 23,450,000 pounds. 
Our raisin product increased from 
140,000 boxes in that year to 1,000,- 
000 in 1889, and say a million six hun- 
dred thousand this year. Our ship- 



ment of green, dried and canned fruits 
was, by the Southern Pacific, 44,763, 
570 pounds in 1886 and 143,588,520 
pounds in 1889. Immense numbers 
of trees hav« been planted during 
the past couple of years, and on ac- 
count of the unsatisfactory returns of 
wheat and barley in dry years we 
may expect that the movement to- 
ward fruit will be rather accelerated 
than otherwise. If the rest of the 
United States and the rest of 
the world did the same the end 
would be nigh. But they are not 
likely to do so, at least for a long 
time yet. Our soil and climate are 
especially suited to fruit production 
and it will be some time before it 
can be overdone. Careful cultivation 
and knowledge of what is needed 
now returns to the cultivator $100 
an acre net in table grapes; $830 
gross in strawberries ; t $300 in peach- 
es; $600 in apricots. In the San 
Joaquin Valley twenty acres have 
yielded $4,575 or $223 75 per acre 
in ordinary fruit. Walnut trees yield 
$300 to $500 per acre; raisins $300 
to $500 per acre; $300 per acre netted 
in oranges; $500 per acre gross in 
olives; wine grapes $116 40 per acre 
net. The price at which some of 
these results has been obtained is, as 
in the case of apricots, 1 J cents per 

Sound where from thirty acres $14,- 
00 worth was sold. These prices 
and results leave a goodly margin. 

PERTINENT EXAMPLE. 

The Sacramento Union, 1888, said 
of an orange orchard twelve to seven- 
teen years old, that most of it came 
into bearing last season and that the 
first crop averaged 200 oranges to the 
tree. At $2 50 to $3 for 100, one 
tree yielded $45 worth of fruit. This 
was in Upper California, where the 
fruit ripens six weeks earlier than in 
Southern California. Large planta- 
tions of oranges were made last year. 
In an orchard of eighty bearing trees, 
one twenty-five years old produced 
the season before last, 2000 oranges 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT OlTT. 



From seventy -five young trees 14,000 
were marketed; from others 17,000 
which netted $3 per 100. From one 
particular tree, 1911 oranges were 
gathered, netting over $60. An al- 
mond orchard of 2000 bearing trees 
averages 100 pounds to the tree — 
many yielding much more. There 
are about 130 trees to the acre — the 
price never below 7 cents per pound. 
At this rate they yield $455 per acre. 
Two hundred peach trees bore an 
average of ten 25- pound boxes to the 
tree. From one of Hale's Early was 
picked two 25-lb boxes, which sold at 
40c@90c per box. Thirty apricot 
trees prodnced six hundred 25-pound 
boxes, an average of twenty boxes to 
the tree, One tree yielded thirty 
boxes. From five walnut trees were 
gathered six hundred pounds of wal- 
nuts. From one twenty two year 
old was gathered two hundred pounds 
which sold at 10c@llc per pound. 
A Smyrna fig tree yielded half a ton 
of fruit which sold at a profit of over 
$100. From the same tree two years 
previously $100 worth of cuttings 
besides $35 of fruit were sold. From 
fourteen cherry trees fruit to the 
amount of $262 was sold. Three 
acres of table grapes yielded 18 tons. 
The net income of wiue grapes was 



FIBST YEAB. 

Plowing and harrowing $40 00 

Planting 40 00 

Cultivating 100 00 

SECOND YEAR. 

Pruning {too high) 15 00 

Cultivating 100 00 

THIRD YEAB. 

Pruning 25 00 

Cultivating 100 00 

Total $420 00 

Or $21 per acre. 

BEET 8CGAB. 

A century and a half ago beet su- 
gar had not even been thought of. 
The industry of beet culture is one 
which, like the practical use of the 
steam engine, the iron rail and elec- 
tricity, is eminently characteristic of 
modern times. To Germany is ow- 
ing the discovery of the useful sac- 
charine qualities of the beet. An- 
dreas Sigismnnd Margraf, a Berlin 
chemist, in 1747 discovered 4 3-6 per 
cent, in red beets and 6 1-5 per cent, 
in white. But nearly half a century 
elapsed before anything practical whs 
the result. In 1796, one Achard, 
backed by a royal patron, Frederick 
William II of Prussia, established 




CALIFORNIA. 



25 



declare that sugar could not be pro- 
duced from the beet with profit. 
This, however, he rejected with scorn. 
Napoleon had 79,075 acres devoted 
to its culture and appropriated $200,- 
000 for the same purpose. This was 
in 1811. Eussia encouraged the in- 
dustry by appropriating funds and 
gave a remission of taxes on land de- 
voted to its culture. It died away 
in Germany for awhile. But it flour- 
ished in France and gradually Ger- 
many, Austria and Russia fell into 
line, and, with France, became the 
great beet producing countries of 
the world. In Europe beet culture 
has been encouraged by a bounty on 
exports. The first attempt made in 
the United States was in 1830. It 
was tried in Massachusetts in 1838. 
But it could not prevail against the 
Louisiana cane product, or rather 
perhaps soil and climate were against 
it. In 1863 the matter was taken up 
in Louisiana, and in 1870 in Califor- 
nia. But with the exception of the 
success in this State, all attempts else- 
where throughout the Union failed. 

IN CALIFORNIA. 

The matter of the suitability of 
the Golden State to the industry was 
the subject of considerable discus- 
sion. The more enthusiastic be- 
lieved that it would be the 
great sugar country of America. 
The approaching completion of the 
Centred Pacific gave a means of reach- 
ing the most distant markets of Am- 
erica. Experiments were made, but 
not enough to test the capabilities of 
the State. But the glowing accounts 
published of the possible results were 
not without their effect, and in 1869 
a company with a quarter of a mill- 
ion dollars capital was organized. In 
1870 the Alvarado factory was built. 
Its capacity was fifty tons a day. 
Everything was propitious, as San 
Francisco was close at hand, where 
money for the enterprise or a market 
for the product could be readily ob- 
tained . A crop was put in, and the 
factory started in November of that 



year. The first sugar was made Nov- 
ember 19th; but it was started at an 
unpropitious time as the marketprice 
of sugar steadily fell, and speedily 
carried down the enterprise with it. 
But $18,000 was made the first year. 
The next year they were not so for- 
tunate, and a change of base was ef- 
fected, the factory being removed to 
Santa Cruz. 

This, however, did no good; the 
expenses were too great. At Kio Vista 
a factory was started to make sugar 
from lemons, but was turned into a 
beet factory. Floods, however, came 
two years in succession, and the en- 
terprise was spoiled. Los Angeles 
tried the business in 1880, but with- 
out success. The Alviso factory start- 
ed up again in 1879, but after seven 
years of success was burned down 
in 1887. The same year saw what 
might be termed the renaissance of 
the industry. Mr. Claus Spreckels, 
President of the California Sugar Re- 
finery, who had studied the matter 
for years and had been to Germany, 
where he had mastered all the latest 
secrets of the industry, concluded that 
here on the Pacific Coast, and in Cali- 
fornia, was the very paradise of beet 
growing. Having come to this con- 
clusion, he placed his large fortune 
at the disposal of the industry, if we 
may so term it, and entered into the 
business with heart and soul. He 
ordered a large quantity of the best 
machinery and twenty-five tons of 
the best beet seed, and offered large 
premiums for beets containing the 
highest percentage of saccharine 
matter. He lectured at various poiuts 
in the State, and was ready to erect 
factories where encouragement was 
offered. He determined to put up 
factories at Watsonville which would 
cost $400,000. He had guarantees that 
2,500 acres would be planted in beets 
for a number of years. Thus fortified, 
he set to work and in the Fall the fac- 
tory was in good running order. It 
had a capacity of 350 tons daily. It 
could make 70,000 pounds if run 
to its full capacity, During the cam* 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



paign in 1888 there was made here 
1,600 tons of sugar. The Alvarado 
factory in the name time made 500 
tont», bo that the beet product of 
California in 1888 was 2,100 tons- 
a small beginning truly, but a prom- 
ising one nevertheless. In 1889 it 
was 2,585 tons. This year it will be 
9,000 tons. The sugar was made 
into what is known as granulated 
and brought fall prices. 

Before erecting refineries Mr. 
Spreckels his to be guaranteed good 
supply of lime, wood and water. A 
Bite of thirty or forty acres for a fac- 
tory must also be supplied. It must 
be near a railroad, so as to allow 
ready shipment to San Francisco. 
The cost of beet aeod will be about 
12 cents per pound, and it takes from 
fifteen to twenty-five pounds to sow 
an acre. This makes the cost from 
$1 80 to $3 per acre for seed. There 
can be no doubt but that the terms 
offered will bo gladly welcomed at 
numerous points in California, Ore- 
gon or Washington, and that not 
long will elapse before the beet in- 
das try will be the most flourishing 
on the coast, or indeed in America. 

PROFITS. 

The following, written some time 



ing field. The data of actual work- 
ing may be inferred from the report 
of the Alvarado factory for the vear 
1884-5. In that year 16,354 tons of 
beets produced 2,167,283 pounds, or 
967 3-o tons of sugar nearly; that is, 
it took about 17 tons of beets to 
make one ton of sugar. Iu this cam- 
paign, however, the full quantity of 
sugar was not obtained, as though 
during the first few months 10 per 
cent, was yielded, dnring the latter 

Eart only 7 per cent, could be 
ad. The factory, however, was en- 
abled to sell granulated sugar at 5}c 
per pound. For the beets $1.50 per 
ton was paid. Their cost was thus 
973.03. The result at 5Jc per pound 
would be $113,182.35, not counting 
by-products, leaving £10,189 as a 
margin for profit and expenses. It 
is even claimed that beet sugar could 
be made much cheaper. Good Cali- 
fornia laud will yield 25 to 30 tons 
of sugar beets to the acre, yielding 
in sugar 10 per cent, or the greatest 
known yield in the world. At 25 
tons there will be 21 tons or 5,600 
pounds refined sugar to the acre. 
The lowest price at which beets have 
been paid for by the company is $4 
per ton. From that, according to 
the percentage of saccharine matter, 
the Trice will bo advaiuvd. Thir 




CALIFORNIA. 



27 



ucts. Good beet land should, there- 
fore, be easily worth $500 to $600 per 
acre. 

WHAT CALIFORNIA HAS DONE. 

The following is the output so far 
as any record has been kept : 

1871 587,000 

1872 1,500,000 

1873 760,000 

1874 1,500,000 

1875 600,000 

1876 995,000 

1877 .* 1,000,000 

1878 500,000 

1879 800,000 

1880 1,300,000 

1881 1,410,533 

1882 1,000,000 

1883 1,200,000 

1884 2,134,273 

1885 1,343,178 

1886 1,688,258 

1888 4,200,000 

1889 5,170,000 

It will thus be ueen that every year 
since we have made more or less beet 
sugar, the total reaching 27,688,242 
pounds, a very small quantity, the 
whole not being quite equal to one- 
twelfth of our annual distribution, or 
one hundred and twentieth part of 
the sugar distributed here for the 
past seventeen years. It may there- 
fore well be said that in California 
the beet sugar interest has hitherto 
been in its infancy. From the above 
facts the question naturally arises 
why, with such a heavy consumption 
and the success shown by the factory 
of late years, was not the business 
more extensively entered upon ? It 
can be easily answered. During the 
seventeen years just noted or rather 
during the greater portion of that 
time, the sugar industry as a whole 
was only experimental in San Fran- 
cisco, and until sugar refining itself 
had been placed on a profitable 
basis, there was little chance that 
the production of beet sugar would 
receive attention from any practical 
man. It is not long ago since the 



failure of several refineries in this 
city acted as a deterent to the em- 
barking in any branch of the sugar 
industry. Its success being assured, 
it is but meet and proper that those 
who have been instrumental in it 
should turn their attention to the 
wider field afforded by the industry 
in question. What that field is may 
be better understood when it is 
known that the annual consumption 
in the United States is not less than 
one million three hundred thousand 
tons a year, and that it is increasing 
at the rate of sixty thousand tons, or 
134,400,000 pounds, a year, 

POSSIBLE PROSPECTS. 

Professor Hilgard estimates the 
area of lands in California capable 
of beet culture as 5,830 square miles 
or 3,731,200 acres. The probability 
is that the area is larger. This is 
scattered all over the State, in the 
most fertile valleys. Supposing that 
this yielded 25 tons of beets, or 5,600 
pounds of sugar per acre, and that a 
crop was raised once in every three 
years as wa3 suggested by Claus 
Spreckels, it would make the annual 
yield 3,110,000 tons, or nearly three- 
fold the present consumption of the 
United States. The whole of the 
Pacific States and Territories can, 
no doubt, produce six to seven mil- 
lion tons, enough to supply 50 per 
cent, more than the present consump- 
tion of all civilized countries. That 
consumption, though, is increasing 
very rapidly and it doubles in the 
United States in about twenty years. 
Thus in that time it would absorb 
all the possible production of the 
State. The value of 3,110,000 tons 
of sugar would, at 5c per pound, be 
close on three hundred and fifty mil- 
lion dollars per annum. Besides the 
return to the farmer, the industry gives 
steady employment at the rate of 
about one man to every 30,000 pounds 
of sugar. The total product of 
the sugar lands in California would 
therefore give employment to not 



28 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



less than 230,000 men, representing 
a population of 1,600,000, including 
traders, manufacturers, wives, chil- 
dren, etc. It would give besides 
support to a great and varied indus- 
try. It would need 21,000,000 bar- 
rels to contain the sugar, and thus 
five support to a vast cooperage iti- 
ustry and lumber interest. The en- 
gines would consume 19 barrels of 
oil to each ton, or 58,000,000 barrels 
to the total possible production of 
the State. This would no doubt ex- 
haust all the crude oil that Califor- 
fornia can produce. The use of two 
per cent. Black lime would call for 
over 400,000 barrels of lime a year. 
The machinery needed, too, in these 
mills, would cost forty-eight millions 
of dollars, and would require renew- 
ing say every fifteen years, thus 
creating a foundry business of over 
three million dollars a year. An im- 
mense quantity of coal would be con- 
sumed, so that it wonld give support 
to a great mining interest. And we 
have not yet nigh exhausted the list 
of all the new industries that this 

freat one would support. We have 
elineated its possibilities. It would, 
of course, take a long series of years 
to arrive at the results here presented. 
That it is possible under any circuit 



of bearing and producing plants that 
are an easy prey to the ravages of 
the phylloxera. 

Then the climate in the season of 
the vintage is mild and equable with 
no hail storms to destroy the blos- 
soming plant, and very seldom frost 
or any other unpleasant climatic in- 
fluences to mar it. It is not surpris- 
ing that under such circumstances 
the industry of wine-making should 
have rapidly expanded, and that Cali- 
fornia looks forward at on early day 
to become one of the great wine 
countries of the world. In fact, it is 
already one in the estimation of 
many of its people. 

The vine was introduced into this 
State by the Franciscan Fathers about 
100 years ago, and has since flourished 
and prospered in the land. The 
variety was what is still known as 
the Mission ; and not many years ago 
most of the grapes grown in Califor- 
nia belonged to this stock . Some of 
the old vines in the genial climate 
in the southern portion of the State 
have grown to gigantic dimensions, 
rendering it easy to understand the 
thoroughly literal application of the 
scriptural expression— sitting under 
his own vine and fig tree. The first 




California. 



29 



The first vineyards of any size were 
planted in and near Los Angeles and 
in Santa Clara County. One of the 
most noted pioneers in the business 
was Agoston Haraszthy, an Hungar- 
ian exile, who brought to the service 
of our State the experience gained 
in happier years in his fatherland. 

In 1851 ne planted a vineyard at 
San Diego. In 1853 he established 
another at Crystal Springs. He in- 
troduced several new varieties of the 
grape from the East and from Eu- 
rope, especially from Hungary, 
amongst others the famous Zinfandel 
from which a justly celebrated claret 
is made. In 1855 he purchased the 
Buena Vista vineyard at Sonoma, and 
there planted 80,000 vines. Now 
Sonoma County is one of the finest 
wine-producing counties in the State. 
Its neighbor, Napa, too, is justly 
famed for the excellence and superior 
quality of its wines. Very early in 
the history of the State a German 
colony established at Anaheim rend- 
ered important services to the indus- 
try. Colonel Haraszthy long work- 
ed with voice and pen as well as 
capital and skill in support of his 
favorite industry and at length arous- 
ed the Legislature and the people of 
the State to an active interest in im- 
proving the original stock of the Mis- 
sion grape. The result was that in 
1860 a Commission was appointed to 
Europe to make a selection of the 
best grapes grown there for trans- 

?lantation to the soil of California, 
hey introduced 200,000 cuttings of 
487 different varieties — in a word the 
very pick and choice of the vines of 
the Old World from her most cele- 
brated vineyards. This is why Cali- 
fornia has taken such 

GIGANTIC STRIDES 

In advance in the industry of viticul- 
ture; it is to-day the principal wine 
country in America, and bids fair not 
only to continue so, but to rival 
most of the lands of the Old World 
in this respect. The vines were from 



France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, Ger- 
many and we may be sure that Hun- 
gary, the native country of Colonel 
Haraszthy, was not forgotten. He 
paid all the expenses out of his own 

Socket. Amongst other pioneers was 
ames Delmas, who, in 1856, intro- 
duced the Black Malvesie — long and 
still a favorite grape — and the Char- 
bonneau. Charles La Franc first plant- 
ed in the State the Charbonneau, the 
Mataro, the Grenache and the Sau- 
vignon. 

Since that time other choice Euro- 
pean varieties have been acclimatized 
to California, and with the happiest 
results. Some of the finest wines in 
the world are made from them ; ac- 
knowledged as such by connoisseurs 
both in Europe and America. 

Endeavors have also been made, 
and with success, to produce spark- 
ling wines or champagne. But this 
success has been achieved at com- 
paratively great cost, and not till 
many years and much money had 
been wasted in vain attempts to equal 
the glorious vintage of France. In 
1857 Don Pedro Sain se vain, origin- 
ally Pierre Sainsevain, a Frenchman 
naturalized in Spain, but who sub- 
sequently found his way to Califor- 
nia, attempted the production of 
champagne. He brought from France 
one M. Debanne, an expert, and 
they tried the experiment in the 
neighborhood of Los Angeles, but 
without success. Why, is not related. 
The Buena Vista Viticultural As- 
sociation subsequently spent $100,- 
000, and with other parties $120,000 
in a vain attempt to produce the 
genuine article. But it was all a 
dead loss. Agoston Haraszthy, how- 
ever, determined that champagne 
should be made in California, and he 
sent his son Arpad to France to learn 
how to produce it. He did learn, 
and in California after many experi- 
ments success at last crowned his 
efforts. Since then California cham- 
pagne has been an article of well 
known merit, and 20,000 cases are 
annually disposed of, principally in 



30 



BUILDEBS OF A GREAT CITY. 



the United States. Champagne is 
also made from California grapes by 
an artificial process, two firms being 
engaged in the business. Sherries, 
ports and other wines similar to 
those of Europe with like names are 
also made. 

There has been a great increase in 
the acreage and the consequent pro- 
duction. This last has gone up from 
half a million gallons in 1859 to 

SIXTEEN MILLION GALLONS IN 1886, 

And was expected to be still larger 
the past year. In 1885 a yield of 
twenty million gallons was expected, 
but climatic influences reduced it to 
ten. Most of the product is taken 
by the Eastern States, but our wine 
growers are now looking abroad for 
other markets — such as England and 
France. 

France has, since the ravages of 
the phylloxera desolated her vine- 
yards, been purchasing heavily of 
Spain, Italy, and other countries, 
and our viticnlturists think they con 
have a market there also. The 
reduction in prices — 25 to 30 cents — 
in two years, though unwelcome and 
inevitable from increased production, 
lias a tendency to promote eonsnmp- 
u..ii Hi I t- ■ •■■■• ill- !■■ il. -■.■ I. i 



being industriously carried on. He- 
cent ly some European wines and 
California ones of similar appearance 
were placed together without labels, 
and connoisseurs invited to sample, 
when they failed to distinguish be- 
tween the European and the Califor- 
nian. This fact renders it easy to 
disguise the true character of the 
wine. That this is done to any great 
extent is denied by the most respect- 
able of our wine merchants. It is 
admitted that some wine has been 
shipped from this city to New 
Orleans with French labels, but not 
to any great extent. The fact, no 
doubt, is that the disguising is done 
when the wine arrives at its destina- 
tion. Of course, this is wrong. If 
people pay for French wines they 
should have them even though the 
California article be equally as good. 
France herself, however, sets the 
example in this, and a bad one, too, 
as she buys wine in all of Europe 
and passes it off as the product 
of her own vineyards. The wine 
sold by the wine merchants of San 
Francisco is generally bought of 
vineyardists, brought to this city and 
prepared for export. But some of 
our wiue merchants have wineries of 
their own in the interior where they 
buy the jjrapes from the irrowurs and 




CALIFORNIA.. 



81 



1880 6,500,000 

1881 7,000,000 

1882 7,000,000 

1883 7,000,000 

1884 10,000,000 

1885 8,000,000 

1886 11,000,000 

1887 13,900,000 

1888 16,000,000 

1889 14,750,000 

It will be seen from this that from 
1868 to 1877, inclusive, there was 
very little change in the production. 
Then it began to increase. From 
1881 to 1883, inclusive, there was a 
pretty steady yield year by year. 
Then the vines that had been planted 
from 1877 to 1880 began to make 
themselves felt in the increased 
quantity. In 1884 we had the larg- 
est vintage hitherto known. Next 
year there was a falling off. In 1888 
we reached 16,000,000 gallons; dur- 
ing the past year the vintage was 
smaller. From year to year in 
the future not only the quan- 
tity but the quality of our wine 
resembles nothing more than our own 
will improve, till California is as 
justly celebrated in the new world as 
France is in the old. By the plant- 
ing of resistant stocks all dread of 
the phylloxera will be removed, and 
in that respect we will be much 
happier than our great congener of 
Europe. 

VINES AND VINTAGE. 

From what we have already stated, 
it may be seen that much has been 
done to add to what Nature has done 
for California as a home of the vine. 
Of course it has been principally in 
the direction of importing the best 
varieties grown in Europe and trying 
to naturalize them in the soil and 
climate of California. Much has 
also been done bv experienced wine 
makers in the production of different 
descriptions that shall have more or 
less resemblance to the famous wines 
of Europe. Hence our ports, clarets, 
Burgundies, Hochs, etc. But, of 



course, much remains yet to be done, 
and we have room in the soil of 
California for the skill of at least 
another generation of viticulturists. 
It must be remembered that in 
Europe the came vine when trans- 
planted from one hill to another will 
yield an altogether different wine, 
bo that it is evident that mere culti- 
vation of noted European varieties 
will hardly suffice. For instance, 
the grape from which the noted 
champagnes of France are made 
resembles nothing more than our own 
Mission grape. Very fine wine has 
been made from this same grape and 
the probabilities are that some of 
the greatest future triumphs of Cali- 
fornia viticulture will be wrought 
out in connection with this long ne- 
glected variety. 

There is no county in California 
where the grape does not grow. The 
leading counties now devoted to its 
culture are Napa, Sonoma, Los 
Angeles, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, 
and Sacramento. We now make 
from fourteen to sixteen million gal- 
lons, but can make thirty million gal- 
lons from the area at present under 
the vine. The area is about 35,000 # 
acres, of which 30,000 acres can pro- 
duce thirty million gallons, or about 
a thousand gallons to the acre. That 
can be averaged at say 20c. a gallon, 
ranging all the way from 10c. to 45c. 
at the vineyard, so that an acre will 
average two hundred dollars to the 
wine grower. This, however, is ex- 
ceptional only. 

PRACTICAL VITICULTURE. 

Los Angeles is the oldest and till 
lately the largest of our wine-produc- 
ing counties. The extensive settle- 
ment of that county during the past 
few years has, however, caused a 
great part of the vine lands to be 
turned into building lots, so that the 
yield has actually diminished. This, 
however, may be looked upon as 
temporary only, and we have no 
doubt that in the not distant future 
it will easily eclipse its old fame in 



32 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



this regard. It has boasted of one 
of the largest vineyards in the world 
— -the Nadeau, consisting of two 
thousand two hundred and fifty acres. 
Here were grown Mission, Zinfandel, 
Blau Elben, Trousseau, and Black 
Malvesie. In 1885, with only par- 
tial bearing, the yield was 2,000 tons 
of grapes, in 1886 it was 3,412 tons, 
in 1887 it was 8,000 tons, while in 
1888 the yield was 12.000 tons. 
The crop of 1885 yielded 300,- 
000 gallons of wine and 50,000 gallons 
of brandy ; that of 1887 equalled 
750,000 gallons of wine and 130,000 
gallons of brandy, while that of 1888 
gave over a million gallons of wine 
and 200,000 gallons of brandy. This 
will be worth at a low valuation half 
a million dollars, without the full 
capacity having been reached. Iu 
Napa County from five to seven tons 
of grapes per annum is the yield. 
In 18S6 there were in the county 
6,953 acres of grape four years old 
and over, and this might be taken as 
the average; that year the yield was 
4,800,000 gallons. In 1884, with a 
much smaller acreage of producing 
vines, the yield was 4,037,000 gallons. 
The yield can be ran up to a thousand 
gallons an acre, but it goes down in 
unfavorable years to 2,500,000 gal- 
lons. The average may bi 



ever, reckoning it at $50 per acre the 
net result of 50 acres would be $2,500 
a year. This, however, can be re- 
duced considerably and still yield 
excellent results. The value of the 
land when the vines are in full bear- 
ing is $300 to $500 per acre, depend- 
ing a good deal on location. At the 
lowest price a good vineyard of 50 
acres would equal $15,000 in value. 

COTTON IN CALIFORNIA. 

Cotton growing is bound to be- 
come an important industry in Cali- 
fornia. It has been proven that it 
can be grown in Tulare and Kern 
Counties to ^renter advantage than 
in Texas. The planter is not re- 
tarded here by inclemency of the 
weather, by rain at the time of pick- 
ing. The irrigation needed is very 
moderate. It should be raised in 
one or two thousand acre lots. The 
manufacturing consumption can soon 
be raised to ten thousand bales of 
five hundred pounds each at from 10 
to 12 cents a pound. 

Along the lower foothills of Napa, 
Sonoma, Lake, Tulare, Kern, Mer- 
ced and San Diego Counties tine cot- 
ton has been recently grown which 
places its successful culture beyond 




CALIFOBNI i. 



88 



manufacture sail cloth, twine, car- 
pets, ropes and bags. The total 
amount of production for the year 
ending July 5, 1889, was $286,95o 18. 
The amount paid for the raw material 
— cotton— during the same period 
was $125,701 47; paid for jute, $29,- 
875 05; for coal and oil, $16,891 51; 
for dyestuffs, $3,239 42; for wages, 
$71,004 02. The production for 1886 
was $123,908 25. In three years, 
therefore, the increase was far more 
than double. 

There are 190 employees in the 
California Cotton Mills, of whom 
sixty - five are men, twenty boys, 
eighty-five women and twenty girls. 
The wages of the men run from 
$1 65 to $3 50 a day, women from 
$1 to $1 80, and boys and girls from 
50 cents to $1. These rates of wag^s 
are considerably higher than what is 

faid in other States for similar work, 
n the California mills the hours are 
sixty a week, or an average of ten a 
day, while in the mills in the South- 
ern States they run from eleven to 
thirteen hours a day. 

The mills are owned and controlled 
by a joint stock company with a 
capital of $600,000, of which $350,- 
000 has been paid up. 

WHEAT CULTURE. 

California is one of the great 
wheat-growing countries of the world, 
although the early pioneers, oblivious 
of the experience of the mission fath- 
ers, deemed that much of the soil was 
condemned to unutterable barren- 
ness. Such would be the natural 
supposition of those familiar with 
New England, or Atlantic, or Euro- 
pean fields, where nature always 
clothes both hill and valley with an 
unfailing vesture of emerald, and 
who found California's great inland 
plains dry and dusty from the effects 
of the dry season. But better ac- 
quaintance with the country brought 
a deeper insight into its capabilities 
and after a few years the welcome 
thought that California was destined 
by nature- to* be ope of the great 



wheat-growing'coun tries of the globe 
made glad the lie art of the early set- 
tler. Soon after the first gold dis- 
coveries the high prices of flour 
caused many parties in the neighbor- 
hood of San Francisco to grow 
wheat, and with that and vegetables 
and feed the foundation of many 
small fortunes wa3 laid by the culti- 
vation of not more than ten to fifteen 
acres. This gave a stimulus to agri- 
culture, especially wheat growing, 
so that the State not only raised 
enough for its own needs but even 
began to ship to other markets of the 
world. It is now one of the main 
sources of supply for England., while 
our wheat is also shippea largely to 
France, Belgium, South America, 
and occasionally to less well-known 
markets, k The area suitable for 
wheat culture is close on 35,000,000 
acres, while close on thirty is es- 
pecially suitable for it. We might 
go outside of these figures and say 
that outside of mountain there is 
none which would not under proper 
tillage yield abundantly of ihis great 
cereal, but we confine ourselves to 
those loc .tions which would natu- 
rally be sought out by the agricultur- 
ist for this purpose. The principal 
body of wheat lands lies in the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin Valleys, and 
consists of not less than 30,000,000 
acres, twenty of which are eminently 
suited to the occupation of the wheat 
farmer. 

The wheat acreage of these coun- 
ties may be given as fil'ows: 

SACRAMENTO VALLEY. 

Butte 1,130,000 

Colusa 1,472,000 

Placer 915,000 

Sacramento 620,000 

Shasta 2,410,000 

Solano 530,000 

Sutter 391,000 

Tehama 2,000,000 

Yolo 651,000 

Yuba 395,000 

Total... ,,..10,514,000 



BtJILDEBS OF A GREAT CITT. 



8AN JOAQUIN VALLEY. 

Fresno 5,180,000 

Kern 5,184,000 

Merced 1,260,000 

San Joaquin 960,000 

Stanislaus 876,500 

Tulare 4,100,000 

Total 17,560,500 

The wheat area of hoth as here 
given is 28,014,000 acres. The av- 
erage production in 1880 was a little 
over eighteen bushels to the acre. 
At this rate the wheat lands of the 
valley would raise in an equally good 
year not leas than five hundred mil- 
lions of bushels, or more than the 
whole of the United States does at 
present. But nnder a proper system 
of cultivation and irrigatiou they 
would yield much more and might be 
expected to rival England's twenty- 
five bushels per acre. This would 
give the valley a wheat harvest of 
700,000,000 bushels and the whole of 
California one of not less than 875,- 
000,000 bushels. These are figures, 
ofcourse, that will proba bly never 
be approached even remotely, as 
we are now every year having a 
more and more diversified agricul- 
ture, fruit, vines and sugar beet 
taking the place of wheat and barley 



50,000 acres in wheat and harvest- 
ed 27,000 tons off it. General Bid- 
well had 22,000 acres in wheat. 
But these large ranches are fast be- 
ing subdivided and after a few years 
will be known no more. But wheat 
fields of a thousand to fifteen hun- 
dred acres are still found in portions 
of our great valleys. 

The annual production of particu- 
lar counties has varied much, Co- 
lusa wiih 8,000,000 bushels in 1889 
being reckoned the banner county, 
while early in the year it was even 
given at 10,000,000 bushels. Stan- 
islaus and Tulare have gone as high 
the one as 4,500,000 bushels, the 
other as high as 7,000,000 bushels, 
and Fresno up to 3,000,000. 

The soils of thd great interior 
plains are divided into adobe and 
loamy, both equally fertile when well 
cultivated. Summer fallowing is 
now well nigh becoming universal, 
and almost invariably secures crops 
with that and deep plowing and irri- 
gation where needed. Wheat crow- 
ing cannot fail to be profitable in 
California. The same land has for 
a succession of twenty-five years 
yielded from twenty to fifty bushels 
of wheat to the acre, and a compe- 
tent authority estimates that when 




CALIFORNIA. 



35 



its hidden riches. Bat as far as can 
be learned they were all doomed to 
failure. The honor of first discover- 
ing the precious metal in California 
belongs to Stearns, and the locality 
Los Angeles, though Sutter's Fort is 
more generally credited with the 
glory. But nothing came of the Los 
Angeles find, while that at Sacra- 
mento has been heard of round the 
world. James W. Marshall, a mill- 
builder, employed by Captain Sutter, 
on the 19th of January, 1848, found 
gold in the mill-race. He and the 
other mill-builders worked quietly 
for a month, discovering several 
pieces, one as heavy as a ten-dollar 
gold piece. Bennett, one of the 
parties, toward the close of Febru- 
ary, took half an ounce to San Fran- 
cisco to test it, when Humphreys, a 
Georgia miner, unhesitatingly de- 
clared it to be gold. Kemble, editor 
of the San Francisco Star y left for 
the locality towards the close of 
March, but soon came back, declar- 
ing that there was no gold there. 
The same day gold, to the extent of 
half a pound, was sold in San Fran- 
cisco to merchants at eight dollars 
per ounce. To be sure, tnis was not 
much, and the price small, but it was 
an earnest of good things to come, 
and the people began to flock to Sut- 
ter's Fort. But it took three months 
to do this. Then the precious dust 
began to flow in, and in such quan- 
tity that it sold as low as four dol- 
lars per ounce, while provisions grew 
to be enormously high. The bud- 
ding city was deserted, and first the 
California and then the Star sus- 
pended. Nothing was heard but the 
cry of Gold! Gold! A cry which 
soon found an echo all over the 
world. In the two succeeding 
months a quarter of a million dol- 
lars' worth of dust came to the 
Golden City, which had already be- 
gan to assume an air of importance. 
This soon became the normal monthly 
product of the mines received at San 
Francisco, and in September a cargo 
of gold dust and lumber arrived at 



Honolulu. Two million dollars 
were shipped by sea in 1848, to say 
nothing of the quantity remaining 
in the country or carried off by land. 
Gold dust then, and for long after, 
was the general medium of exchange. 
From June of 1848 right on, people 
began to flock in from all quarters, 
ters and in September there were 
6000 people at and near Sutter's 
Fort. On the 20th of that month 
the news had traveled East, and 
amidst general ridicule the Baltimore 
Sun announced the fact. From that 
on California became the cynosure 
of all eyes — the gaze of the world 
was riveted on it as the news crossed 
the Atlantic to Europe early in Octo- 
ber. Meanwhile at the mines the 
value of gold dust had risen to 
twelve dollars an ounce and it was 
soon advanced to sixteen dollars, 
though the rapid increase in price of 
everything salable deprived the miner 
of much of the advantage of the 
increased value of his product. Be- 
fore the close of Januarv, 1849, 
ninety vessels, carrying eight thou- 
sand men, had sailed for California, 
and seventy more vessels were laid 
on, while a great multitude of peo- 

{>le had started on the arduous over- 
and route. The magic word Cali- 
fornia had been heard in every land, 
and in certain sections of the Atlan- 
tic States, particularly, almost every 
family had a representative in the ad- 
venturous throng that sought the 
shining portals of the far-off land. 

In 1§49 the population had trebled. 
In San Francisco it had increased 
to 15,000 in despite of the con- 
stant depletion by the gold fever. 
The adventurous crowds even spread 
beyond the neighborhood of Sutter's 
Fort, and the valleys of the Sacra- 
mento and the San Joaquin and their 
tributaries were soon crowded by 
adventurous gold-seekers. From 
Mariposa to Trinity new and valu- 
able placers were discovered, throw- 
ing the old ones far into the shade. 
So great was the gold fever that San 
Francisco harbor counted four hun- 



36 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



dred vessels deserted by their 
crews. During this year 35,000 
people for the mines arrived by sea 
and 40,000 by land. As a sign that 
the news had spread all over the 
world it may be stated that 24,000 
were natives of foreign climes. 
From 1400,000 a month in 1848 the 
yield of the mines rose to one million 
and a half dollars in 1849. The 
next year, 1850, saw the yield more 
than doubled. By sea 127,600,000 
in gold was shipped, but as this was 
undervalued, the true value was 
doubtless much more. A host of 
66,000 arrived came with intent to 
try the mines. These arrived by 
swift-sailing clippers, making the 
voyage in three months, and charg- 
ing as high as #50 a ton for freight. 
They were gold mines in themselves. 
They brought 27,000 immigrants in 
1851, during which year $34,000,000 
in gold dust was shipped by sea. 

The golden harvest still continued 
to be reaped and the stream of immi- 

f rants, in search of the golden 
eoce, to flow into the land. Sixty- 
seven thousand came in 1851, while 
$46,000,000 in California gold dust 
went East to enrich the merchants, 
the manufacturers and farmers, who 
supplied the toilers in the golden 
land. 



1854, and the Adams Express Cora- 
r.any closed their doors. It vu 
thought that the golden promises of 
the earlier days were to be realized 
in the placers of Kern River, in 
Southern San Joaquin Valley, but the 
sanguine were doomed to disappoint- 
ment. The next two years were 
ones of comparative quiet, but in 
1858 the gold fever broke out in the 
form it had assumed in 1849. Dur- 
ing the greater part of 1858 San 
Francisco was as it had been ten 
years before. Its streets were filled 
with excited multitudes seeking the 
new El Dorado. From April till 
September of that year the public 
mind was aflame. During this time 
the number that went to the Frazer 
was 23,428, or 6 per cent, of the 
total population. There were five 
times as many ready to go, when 
there came a revulsion of feeling and 
the drain ceased. The mining re- 
gions felt the movement worst, as 
some of the towns lost fifty percent, 
of their inhabitants, and for a while 
it was dreaded that the State would 
be depopulated. Real estate went 
down one-half to three-fourths. Fra- 
zer River proved a disappointment, 
aud the vast majority soon came 
back, when matters returned to their 
normal channel. 




CALIFORNIA. 



37 



$12,000,000 — a fraction of what it 
was in the fifties. It would have 
averaged about $16,000,000 for the 
past few years but for the agitation 
against hydraulic mining and the 
way that it is at present carried on. 

From California the prospectors 
poured rapidly over the other sec- 
tions of the Pacific Coast. They 
soon found their way to Oregon, 
and placer deposits in Jackson and 
Josephine Counties have been work- 
ed since 1851, and have yielded up- 
wards of $25,000,000. Grant County 
has given to the world about $12,- 
000,000 in gold. From 1866 to 1870 
Oregon and Washington Territory 
together yielded each year an aver- 
age of about $3,000,000 worth of 
the precious metal; in 1868 it rose to 
$4,000,000. Since then it has been 
gradually declining, but still sends 
forth $1,000,000 a year. From Ore- 
gon the gold hunters soon found 
their way to Idaho, and a year after 
Oregon had entered the list of gold- 
bearing lands, Idaho was added. 
The first discovery was made on the 
Pend d'Oreille Kiver in 1852, but 
there was little done till 1869, when 
the Clear Water River became the 
seat of valuable placer mines. Since 
then the Territory has yielded richly, 
the production reaching $7,000,000 
in 1868. Until 1873 the mines kept 
up very well. 

For the past ten years the yield 
has varied from $1,500,000 to $3,500,- 
000 per year, improving during the 
past two years. It has no doubt great 
undeveloped auriferous treasures 
still. The great Territory of Montana, 
whence spring the mighty streams of 
the Missouri and Yellowstone, was 
early added to the gold-bearing reg- 
ions of the country. The first dig- 
gings at Alder Gulch, Deer Lodge 
Vauey and Confederate Gulch were 
amongst the richest in America. 
They were worked out, or nearly so, 
in a remarkably short space of time. 
From 1864 to 1870 the Territory 
yielded largely— from $13,000,000 to 
$14,000,000 a year. Since then it 



has dwindled, going as low as $3,000,- 
000 in 1869. From that on there 
has been a gradual improvement, and 
in 1883 the mountain land gave to 
the world over $8,000,000 in the pre- 
cious metal. 

Nevada is more famed as a silver 
State than as a gold mining region, 
nevertheless it has produced gold in 
large quantity — from one-fourth to 
one-half of the product of various 
mines on the Comstock. In the 
Humboldt and Walker Eiver regions 
a good deal of gold has been found. 
In 1876 the gold yield of Nevada 
was $18,000,000— other years from 
$3,000,000 to $10,000,000. 

While the gold-mining excitement 
was still at its height, in 1857, a band 
of Cherokee Indians tried, unsuccess- 
fully, to explore Colorado. Next 
year, however, a company of white 
men from Georgia and one from Kan- 
sas discovered gold near Pike's Peak. 
In 1859 it was discovered near the 
sources of Clear Creek. This was 
succeeded by a rush of gold-hunters 
from the South, and in 1860 the Ter- 
ritory had 35,000 people. Gold min- 
ing in Colorado was not what it had 
been in California — it required skilled 
labor to extract it from the ores in 
which it was found. This checked 
the ardor of the gold-hunters, and it 
was some years ere the output of the 
Territory reached any considerable 
figure. The product has principally 
been silver— -gold taking second 
place. In 1887 it was $5,500,000. 

Utah has been celebrated for her 
mineral treasures from a very early 
date, but it is to the restless Gentiles 
that the development of that Terri- 
tory has been principally due. In 
precious metals its production is 
mainly represented by silver. But 
for every $13 in silver, it gives to the 
world about $1 in gold. In 1883 its 

fold yield was valued at $500,000. 
n some years it has been about 
$1,000,000. It has added altogether 
about $14,000,000 to the gold pro- 
duct of America. 
New Mexico has been famed for 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



¥>ld as far as three centuries bock, 
his is one of the regions where it 
was supposed were to be found the 
seven cities of Cibola, the center of 
the greatest auriferous region on 
earth. We have few accounts of 
what was done till after the American 
occupation. In 1870 the gold pro- 
duced was about $343,250, and in 
1874, $500,000. Since then there 
has been a slow increase in the pro 
dnction of the precious metals. More 
attention has been given to silver 
mining of late, and the average gold 
yield has not exceeded that of 1870, 
or about $6,500,000 during the past 
fourteen years. 

Though the mines of Arizona have 
been worked for over a century, there 
was very little done prior to the 
American occupation. Since then, 
and especially during the past few 
years, the mineral riches of the Ter- 
ritory have been rapidly developed . 
Its production of cold has been gen- 
erally about one-fifth that of silver — 
in 1883 being $1,300,000. Since 
1877 it has added about $11,000,000 
to the stock of the world's gold. 

The restless spirit of adventure so 
characteristic of our prospectors, car- 
ried them, a few years ago, into the 
Blackhills of Dakota. The first year 
the production was $2,500,000. From 



as it has, while the commerce of Eng- 
land, France and Germany would 
have been twenty years behind what 
it is to-day. u this gigantic sum 
were withdrawn at once from the 
circulation of the world, the value of 
every commodity would at once fall 
fifty per cent., and universal bank- 
ruptcy and stagnation would prevail. 
A great part of the world's fleets 
would rot at the wharves, while the 
plough would rust in the furrow, the 
loom would lie idle, and grass would 
grow in the streets of many a city. 

California still supplies one-half 
the gold produced in the United 
States, which does not vary much 
from $31,000,000 a year. There has 
been a steady decrease from the de- 
cade of 1850- '60, when it was double 
the amount, and when the Golden 
State supplied almost the whole of it. 
The following table gives the yield of 
California, year by year, as nearly as 
can be ascertained : 

1848 $5,000,000 

1849 22,000,000 

1850 59,000,000 

1851 60,000,000 

1852 59,000,000 

1853 68,000,000 

1854 64,000,000 

1855 58,000,000 

1850 03,000,000 




CALIFORNIA.. 



89 



Am't forward $1,097,600,000 

1874 25,000,000 

1875 25,000,000 

1876 22,000,000 

1877 19,500,000 

1878 17,700,000 

1879 17,600,000 

1880 17,700,000 

1881 17,000,000 

1882 16,500,000 

1883 15,000,000 

1884 15,000,000 

1885 14,000,000 

1886 14,500,000 

1887 15,000,000 

1888 17.000,000 

1889 15,000,000 

1890 12,000,000 

Grand total §1,393,100,000 

Some of the mines of California 
have been almost fabulously rich. 

The Eureka Mine, at Grass Valley, 
in nine years yielded $4,272,148. of 
which a little over $2,000,000 was 
paid in dividends. The Idaho Mine, 
in the same district, has paid $1,284,- 
950. It 1873 the product was valued 
at nearly $1,000,000. The average 
number of tons of quartz crushed in 
California, for a great many years, 
exceeded 500,000 tons a year, the 
value of which ranged from $50 to 
$250 a ton. It has now gone up over 
2,000,000 tons and averages $5 per 
ton. The celebrated Eureka, above 
noted, has averaged a little over $80 
a ton. Hydraulic mining has long 
been one of the notable features of 
California, although it is doubtful 
whether the decisions of the courts 
will not altogether stop it, or very 
much change its nature. It has 
been followed for about thirty-one 
years and it is indicative of the energy 
and vim of the early California pio- 
neers. Thousands of miles of ditches 
have been built through the moun- 
tains to convey the water necessary. 
By it gravel deposits, even when 
found in high hills, are washed 
away. The water is directed through 
a pipe at a pressure of as much, 
spmetimes, as 500 feet. It is directed 



sometimes with a velocity of 160 feet 
per second. With this, equal in 
itself to a small Niagara, the base of 
the hills is washed away, while the 
summit topples over like a building 
undermined. Great rocks of hun- 
dreds of pounds' weight are tossed 
about like straws in the current. 
Sometimes it is necessary to use gun- 
powder, and as much as 2,000 pounds 
has been fired at a single blast. Gold 
mining in California is by no means 
a thing of the past. The deposits 
are mostly those made by mighty 
rivers in past periods of geologic 
time. In their beds, far beneath the 
surface of the earth, the accumulated 
riches of ages lie. Those who are 
well acquainted with those deposits 
say that the blue lead alone can yield 
$20,000,000 a year for one hundred 
years. And the noted blue lead is 
only one out of many of those old 
world river beds where the legacy 
of long ages, of myriads of years, 
has been hidden to bo uncovered in 
the light of the nineteenth century — 
the century of marvels ! Drift min- 
ing is bound to assume more promi- 
nence, as hydraulic mining is ren- 
dered more difficult under the laws 
of the State for the impounding of 
debris. It is of most importance 
now in Placer, Nevada and Sierra 
Counties. It was pursued to a con- 
siderable extent earlv in the histo- 
rv of the State, and for the past 
ten years has been resumed with 
very satisfactory results. In most of 
the mining counties of the State, 
progress is the watch -word of to-day, 
Rich ledges of six feet in thickness, 
and yielding from $40 to $80 per 
ton, as is the case in Siskiyou, are 
being opened up every day. Old 
Gold Bluff, after being idle fully 
twenty years, has yielded $15 to $20 
per ton at a depth of 1,000 feet. 

Drift mining has done a good deal 
to replace the millions added to the 
annual production of the State under 
the old system. Very profitable oper- 
ations are being conducted at Forest 
Hill Divide, Placer County. The 



40 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



same is true of other localities. Drift 
mining will, in future years, add 
scores of millions to the wealth of 
the State and of the world. Despite 
the fact that hydraulicking has been 
practically stopped for many years, 
the owners of the rich claims have 
not lost heart, but are trying, on the 
proposition to impound the debris, 
to be allowed to resume operations 
again. If this could be done so as 
not to inflict injury on the farmers of 
the valley or to shoal the bay, there 
is no doubt that it would be a grand 
thing for the State, for its gravel de- 
posits can yield in the future hun- 
dreds of millions of dollars. It looks as 
if they would be successful. Millions 
are now invested in it and lying idle 
which can be rendered eminently 
productive, and not only be a benefit 
to California, but to the Union, and 
we may add humanity. The average 
annual yield of gold under the system 
was, according to conservative au- 
thorities, 15,000,000 per annum. But 
the friends of hydraulic mining now 
claim that it can be made to yield 
fully $20,000,000 per annum. Take a 
goodly slice off of this and there is 
still a large margin left. The United 
States Commission will aid largely in 
the practical solution of the question. 
The system is still carried on in the 



Eureka, over $7,000,000 

Idaho 7,000,000 

Empire 7,000,000 

Allison Ranch 4,700,000 

Rocky Bar 4,500,000 

GoldHill 4,000,000 

North Star 3,000,000 

New York Hill 3,000,000 

Scodden's Flat 2,000,000 

New Rocky Bar 2,000,000 

Besides these there are many other 
mines which have yielded over $1,-- 
000,000 each. 

The census of 1880 gave the yield 
in detail of the different States and 
Territories, from which we take the 
following excerpt: 

GOLD. 
DEEP MIMES. PLACES MIXES. 



The following is the total number 
of ouuces and value: 

iniM 




CALIFORNIA. 



41 



most important mining regions of 
America, and her yield now exceeds 
$1,000,000 a year. It will probably 
keep on increasing indefinitely. Some 
of our leading mining men have vast 
interests there. 

SILVER. 

Gold was the lode-star that allured 
the companions-in-arms of Cortez. 
Gold it was which drew the pioneers 
to California, over desert, plain and 
heavy-climbing mountains, and over 
thousands of leagues of ocean. Yet 
silver, in the new world, has held a 
prominent place ever since the Span- 
iard set foot upon it. Mexico, in 
300 years, has yielded over $2,000,- 
000,000 in silver, and it is not, there- 
fore, marvelled that some amongst 
the earliest pioneers should single 
out that glittering metal that is so 
often the fount of inspiration in 
poesy and song. But their labors 
were not crowned with any success 
till 1858, when the mines of Washoe 
began to give indications of riches in 
silver and gold combined, greater 
than the wildest imagination of man 
had ever dreamed of. That discovery 
was a matter of the merest accident. 
In the placer mines of the Gold and 
Six Mile Canyons, the rockers be- 
came clogged with a black deposit, 
which was thrown awav. One of the 
miners, however — James Fenimore — 
examined it and worked the crop- 
pings whence it was derived, obtain- 
ing a good deal of free gold there- 
from. He took up a claim cover- 
ing the location of the Mexican and 
Ophir Mines. In the Spring of the 
next year it was found that the crop- 
pings extended far below the surface, 
and the indications of richness at- 
tracted the attention of those who 
knew something of silver mining. 
About two years previously the 
Grosch brothers had discovered the 
metal at the site of Silver City. Corn- 
stock, one of Fenimore's chums, pur- 
chased his interest for a bob-tailed 
Indian pony and a bottle of whisky. 
He himself j3pld put &qoq after for 



$6,000, but gave his name forever to 
the famous lode. A year after, the 
property sold for over $1,000,000. 
There was very little known of the 
celebrated lode till 1860, when the 

Sroduction of silver was about $70,- 
00 — about one-third as much more 
being gold. Theu miners began to 
flock into the new El Dorado, and 
the next year witnessed $1,750,000 in 
silver raised from the soil of Nevada. 
In 1862the lode yielded about $6, 250,- 
000 in silver aud gold — three-fourths 
beiDg the former metal. Then it be- 
came a world's wonder, and Washoe 
was in every one's mouth. Adven- 
turers flocked in from every country 
on the earth, and people began to 
dream that the fabled wealth of the 
Mexican mines might be yet surpass- 
ed amongst the barren Mountains of 
Nevada — and it was surpassed. Iu 
1863 Washoe gave $9,250,000 in sil- 
ver and $3,250 ? 000 in gold. Com- 
panies by the score were formed to 
work the mines, a Mining Exchange 
was organized, and the stock specula- 
tion that has burned so fiercely ever 
since was given birth to. The shares 
in the mines reached values almost 
fabulous. Gould and Curry, named 
after two Irishmen, the discoverers, 
sold in June, 1863, at $6,300 a share; 
Savage at $4,000; Ophir at $2,700; 
Hale aud Norcross at $2,700; and 
Chollar at $1,000. Of these the 
Gould and Curry was the principal 
one, and after a few months that be- 
gan to give out. Stocks went down 
as fast as they advanced, and in San 
Francisco thousands of people be- 
came beggars. Still there was a 
great stimulus given to the growth of 
the city, and the increase of wealth 
and the losses of the unfortunate were 
soon forgotten. 

The yield of the Nevada mines 
still continued to increase, till 1864 
saw $12,500,000 in silver and about 
$3,000,000 in gold produced, while 
the next two years showed no dimi- 
nution in the yield of veiny silver 
and of golden ore. In 1867 there was 
another wonderful bQuansa revealed 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITS. 



at Gold Hill, and the Ophir mine 
did not belie its name. Nevada that 
year yielded $15,000,000 in silver 
and $5,000,000 in gold, while the 
dividends paid in San Francisco 
reached $3,800,000. This was a 
phenomenal year, and in 1866 and 
1869 fell off $4,000,000 in the value 
of gold and silver extracted. At this 
time White Pine was discovered, and 
showed ore that yielded the unparal- 
leled product of $10,000 a ton in sil- 
ver. The ore was three times as 
rich as that of Washoe, and a great 
rush took place thither. In 1870 
White Pine made the world richer 
by $4,000,000 in silver, while the 
State at large, though the Comstock 
had declined in richness and glory, 
reckoned her yield of the precious 
metals as worth $115,000,000. The 
excitement about White Pine lasted 
one brief year, and then it and the 
mines and the towns that they gave 
rise to collapse as suddenly as they 
had risen. 

Nevada was not yet stripped of 
its silver, and in 1871 there were 
three great mines opened — the Bel- 
cher and the Crown Point on the 
Comstock, and the Raymond and Ely 
mine at Pioehe. The stonk excite- 
ment took a new lease of life, and 
the value of tin; stocks listed on thi 



the whole State reckoning its pro- 
duction at $36,000,000 in 1873, and 
nearly as much in 1874. The latter 
year was famed by the discovery of 
the greatest bonanza yet known, and 
so far as anyone can tell, the last in 
the world-renowned district of 
Washoe. Consolidated Virginia 
opened its magnificent treasure to 
the gaze of the multitudes through- 
out three continents . Before the end 
of the year experts pronounced that 
the ore iu sight was worth the im- 
mense sum of $15,000,000,000, and 
the market value of the mine rose at 
the rate of $1,000,000 a day. The 
California Mine was a part of the 
Con. Virginia, and the the two were 
valued at $150,000,000. For two 
years these two wonderful mines con- 
tinned to pour forth their treasures, 
as it were, iu a flood — the Con. Vir- 
ginia paying $1,000,000 a month in 
dividends. The total production of 
the mines up to November, 1888, 
amount to $121,192,487.94. 

Nevada, which in 1874 had yielded 
$35,000,000 in the precious metals, 
advanced to $45,000,000 in 1876, and 
to $53,000,000 in 1876. This was 
the highest— 1877 yielded $1,000,000 
less, or $52,000,000— from this the 
yield rapidly falling in 1879 to $16,- 
OUO.OOO, in'lKSd jo $11,500,000 in 




CiUFORNU. 



48 



and the two following years $10,000,- 
000, nearly all silver. This was the 
flood of the tide, the year 1875 show- 
ing a falling off of about one-half. 

In our reference to gold we have 
related the discovery of the precious 
metals in Colorado. Gold was first 
looked for, but silver is the principal 
product, and Colorado has now 
earned the distinction of being called 
the Silver State. And for a long 
time gold formed a very large pro- 
portion of the precious metals yield- 
ed. In 1878 the silver yield was 
$6,400,000. It doubled in 1879. In 
1880 it had reached $15,000,000, 
while in 1881 and 1882, respectively, 
it had reached $18,000,000. It was 
about the same in 1883, and seems 
to have arrived at a stand-still. 

Arizona is another silver State, 
and in the future may prove to be the 
richest of all. Its mineral wealth 
has been known for more than 100 
years. But it is only since the ces- 
sion to the United States that any 
serious attempt has been made to 
develop it. And, indeed, while it 
was overrun by the wild Apaches, 
who had desolated the Mexican set- 
tlements for centuries, nothing could 
be done. It is only within a few 
years since the red man has been 
cowed; it will not, therefore, supprise 
any one to learn that it has not cut 
much of a figure in the galaxy of the 
treasure-producing Territories of the 
United States, save since the seven- 
ties. In 1887 the total yield was 
estimated [as being worth $2,000,000, 
principally silver. This increased to 
$4,500,000, or thereabouts, in 1878 
and 1879, to $7,500,000 in 1880, and 
to $10,000,000 in 1881. In 1882 
there was a falling off to $9,000,000, 
while in 1883 the product was $8,400,- 
000, of which over $7,000,000 rep- 
resented silver. This has dropped 
to $3,000,000. 

This metal also forms the largest 
part of the treasure from New Mex- 
ico, which is gradually taking a 
prominent place in the ranks of gold 
and silver producing lands. The 



value of these metals has risen from 
$500,000 in 1877 to $2,350,000 in 
1883, $2,000,000 being silver. 

Though last, not least, California, 
which shines resplendent as the 
Golden State, lays claim to the title 
of a silver producer also. There 
have long been found silver ores on 
the Western spurs of the Sierra 
Nevada, and when the gold fever had 
somewhat abated, attention was paid 
to them. From year to year the yield 
of the silver lodes increased, culmin- 
ating in 1877, when it reached $3,000,- 
000. It has varied all the way from 
$1,000,000 to $1,500,000 a year—in 
1883 being estimated at the latter 
figure. 

The silver production of the United 
States, as given by the census of 
1880, was defective, inasmuch as 
Arizona was estimated; the estimate 
falling short of the true product. 

The figures of the report are as 
follows: 

Deep Plaeer Total 

Mints, oe. Mines, oz. Or. Value. 

Alaska 89.4 89.4 951 

Arizona 1 ,798 722 198.8 1 .798,920.8 99,825,826 

California.. 847,854 62.804.2 890,158.2 1,160.887 

Colorado... 12,799,067 1,068.8 12,800.110.8 19,649,274 

Dakota 54,577 198.0 54,770.1 70.813 

Idaho 847,676 11,638.1 359.800.1 464,660 

Montana.... 2,240.597 6,341.4 2,246,938.4 2.905.068 

Nevada... . 9,614.280 881.8 9,614,561.3 12,430,667 

N.Mexico.. 308,455 303,466.0 892,837 

Oregon 15,166 6,331.2 21,496.2 27,793 

Utah 8,668,432 182.6 3,068,665.6 4,748.087 

Washington. 788.6 788.6 1,019 

We have left out the States east of 
the Rocky Mountains, which, how- 
ever, amount to but little. The total 
number of ounces mined, according 
to the report was 33,797,474.3, worth 
$41,110,957. It was in reality, con- 
siderably larger, as the estimates for 
Arizona were only a fraction of the 
total yield of that Territory. 

The yield of silver throughout the 
world is considerably larger than that 
of gold, and fears are expressed of 
the steady depreciation of the less 
valuable metal. This, however, is 
probably altogether groundless. The 
variation in the value of silver as 
compared with gold has run all the 
way from say $1 to $10 to $16, and 
within these limits it will probably 
ever remain. The increasing use of 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



silver in coinage and the progress of 
the policy of bi-metallism, will prob- 
ably stay the downward course of 
values, while California and the 
Pacific States are not yet exhausted 
of their gold. 

POPULATION. 
California, for a greater part of a 
century after its first settlement by 
white people, grew very slowly; so 
much bo that after the two years' im- 
migration, ending in 1850, the total 
population, including these of Span- 
, iBo and Mexican descent, did not ex- 
ceed 92,957. Since that time it has 
grown as follows : 

1850 92,957 

1860 379,994 

1870 560,247 

1880 864,694 

1889 (eat) 1,398,300 

The greatest increase was, there- 
fore, from 1850 to 1860, when people 
poured into the land of gold from all 
sides, by land and sea, in a perfect 
torrent. During the next decade the 
increase was about 22 per cent and 
during that from 1870 to 1880 54J 
per cent nearly. During this period, 
that of railroads, it might have been 
expected to have shown a still furth- 
er proportionate development, but 
the glamor of gold mining had pass- 



The following is the present popu- 
lation of the State, as nearly as can 

be estimated from a school census, 
voting at last election and other 
data: 

Alameda 96,000 

Alpine 500 

Amador 14,000 

Butte 25,000 

Calaveras 11,500 

Colusa 18,000 

Contra Costa 15,500 

Del Norte 3,500 

ElDorado 12,000 

Fresno 26,000 

Humboldt 26,000 

Inyo 3,500 

Kern 14,000 

Lake 8,500 

Lassen 4,800 

Los Angeles 130,000 

Marin 11,500 

Mariposa 6,000 

Mendocino 18,000 

Merced 9,000 

Modoc 6,000 

Mono 3,000 

Monterey £0,000 

Napa... 18,000 

Nevada 22,000 

Placer 13,500 

Plumas 6,500 

Sacramento 50,000 




CALIFORNIA. 



45 



Am*t forward 1,318,300 

Tulare 27,000 

Tuolumne 11,000 

Ventura 11,500 

Yolo 17,500 

Yuba 13,000 

Total 1,398,300 

San Francisco has an estimated 
population of say 330,000. Its trade 
last year reached, including foreign 
and domestic imports and exports, 
manufactures, etc., not less than two 
hundred and fifty million dollars. 
The resources of tne banks, January 
1, were about $176,550,081, those of 
the State $279,467,163. The bank 
dividends last year in San Francisco 
were over five million dollars. The 
total dividends of all local incorpora- 
tions and mines paid in San Francis- 
co were about fourteen million dol- 
lars. There are several rapidly grow- 
ing towns and cities outside of the 
metropolis. Los Angeles claims 
80,000, Oakland 50,000, Sacramento 
40,000, San Jose and Stockton each 
about 18,000, San Diego 25,000, 
Eureka, Santa Rosa and Santa Bar- 
bara 7,000 each, with half a dozen 
others each about 5,000. 

And last, though not least, our 
railroads have a length of 3,100 miles. 
The length of those under construc- 
tion or projected is, say, 1,000 miles. 
From the synopsis here given it 
would appear as if California was in- 
contestaoly the most flourishing 
State in the Union — the one with 
most natural resources, and the one 
whose future offers indications of the 
most abundant prosperity. 

The growth of the population of 
the State has not been uniform. In 
the early days the mining counties 
were full of an industrious and enter- 
prising people, while the towns and 
cities adjacent were populous and 
wealthy. But with the altered cir- 
cumstances a change has come over 
the scene, and though some of the 
mining counties have held their 
own, this may be regarded as the ex- 
ception, save where the search for 



gold has been followed by fruit-grow- 
ing or agriculture. The great in- 
crease has taken place around San 
Francisco Bay — in Southern Califor- 
nia, and in the San Joaquin Valley. 
The attractions of climate and citrus 
fruit-growing have about quadrupled 
the population of the southern por- 
tion of the State in eight years. Lios 
Angeles and San Diego especially 
have taken the lead. The southern 
tier of valley counties, though not 
showing the same advance, have add- 
ed one hundred thousand to their 
population in eight years. The 
southern coast counties have also 
participated in the development of 
the rest of the State, and with in- 
creased railroad facilities will, on 
account of their fine climate and 
magnificent resources, not fall behind 
any in the race of progress. The 
central and northern portions of 
California have not participated 
equally with the rest in general im- 

Erovement, but in proportion as they 
ecome better known, will equal if 
not surpass their sister counties in 
the vigor and permanency of their 
development. 

THE CENSUS ESTIMATE. 

We elsewhere give estimate of the 
population of the State, based on 
the voting population and the num- 
ber of school children. The follow- 
ing table gives the census, and while 
we claim for our figures merely ap- 
proximate correctness, we believe 
that they come nearer to the truth 
than those of a defective census. 



County. 1890. 1809. 

Alameda... 93,516 62,976 

Alpine 667 539 

Amador.... 10,315 11,380 

Butte 17,904 18,721 

Colusa 14,614 13,118 

Calaveras . . 8,871 9,094 

ContraCosta 13,503 12,525 

Del Norte.. 2,570 2,584 

El Dorado.. 9,206 10,683 

Humboldt.. 23,424 15,512 

Inyo 3,541 2,928 



In. 

CREASE. 

3,540 

128 

*1,069 

*817 

1,496 

*223 

978 

*14 

*1,477 

7,912 

616 



BBILDEBS OF A GBEAT OIT¥. 



Ooumv. 1890. 

Lake 7,103 

Iios Angeles 101,410 

Lasses 4,144 

Mendocino . 17,573 

Modoc 4,936 

Marin 12,643 

Nevada 17,375 

Napa 16,304 

Orange 13,564 

Plmnas 4,846 

Placer 16,089 

8. Francisco 297,990 

Shasta 12,109 

8. Bem'd'o. 26,486 
San Diego.. 34,878 

Sierra 5,047 

S. Barbara. 15,730 
Sacramento. 28,576 



1880. Is " 

CREASE. 

6,596 607 

33,381 68,029 

3,340 804 

12,800 4,773 

4,399 537 

11,324 1,319 

20,823 *3,448 

13,235 3,069 



6,180 *1,332 

14,232 857 

233,050 64,031 

9,492 2,617 

7,786 17,700 

8,618 26,260 

6,623 »1,576 

9,513 6,217 

24,349 4,227 



Oomrrv. 1890. 1880. 

San Mateo.. 10,054 8,669 

Siskiyou.... 12,113 8,610 

Santa Clara. 47,894 35,038 

Solano 20,485 18,475 

Sonoma.... 32,661 25,926 

Sntter 5,465 6,159 

Tehama .... 9,878 9,301 

Trinity 3,685 4,999 

Tuolnmne . . 6,028 7,848 

Ventura.... 10,066 5,073 

Yolo 12,684 11,772 

Yuba 9,556 11,284 

The total of the State as | 
the census authorities was 1,' 
Now however, a recount gives 
130. 



IH- 



1,385 

3,503 

12,856 

2,010 

6,735 

306 

577 

•1,314 

•1,820 

4,993 

912 

•1,728 

van by 
M.002. 
1,208,- 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



^ AN FRANCISCO, or as it is 
^t^w sometimes called, the Golden 




City, is not only the metrop- 
olis of California bat also of 
the whole Pacific Coast and will 
in time occupy the same posi- 
tion with reganl to the western half 
of the continent, leaving to New 
York the empire of the east. Its 
location on the map is 37 deg. 
47 min. 22 sec. north latitude, 
and 122 deg. 25 min. 40 sec. 
west longitude, and as far as 
climate is concerned occupies one 
of the finest positions on tne globe. 
Like many other seats of com- 
merce and empire it may be called 
a seven hilled city, ft has one 
of the best harbors in the world. 
The Golden Gate — as such well 
named — forms a magnificent approach 
t>j this fair city, as it is about 
five miles long by one wide, with a 

Eicturesque, ifrugged, coast on either 
and. The bay, one of the finest in 
the world, extends forty miles south 
of the city, and with its sinuosities 
reaches twenty-five miles to the north- 
ward, affording a wealth of beautiful 
and picturesque scenery on either 
hand — some of it, especially around 
Sau Pablo Bay, reminding one of 
mingled lake and mountain scenery, 
as here the hills appear from a dis- 
tance to come to tne water's edge. 
The muddy currents of the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin, however, at 
times mar the general effect which, 
nevertheless, is always striking and 
often grand. The average width of 
the bay is abont eight miles, while 
its shore line is over three hundred 
miles in length. The depth of water 
varies from sixty to one hundred feet. 
It contains three islands: Angel Is- 



land, Alcatrazand Goat Island, each a 
government reservation. Goat Is- 
land, opposite the business part of 
the city, is about half a mile square. 
Angel Island, which is hilly, contains 
about eight hundred acre*. Alca- 
traz, which has a fort of the same 
name commanding the Golden Gate, 
has an area of aoout thirty acres. 
Manv of the most important com- 
munities in California, such as 
San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland. 
Alameda, Petaluma, Vallejo and otl - 
ers, are on or near its shores. It has 
been compared for beauty with the 
far famed Bay of Naples. Thus for 
a noble situation, San Francisco is 
unequalled, and with lake-like bay 
and ocean, the Mission Mountains 
within its borders and the many high 
hills on which the residence portion 
of the city is built, has unsurpassed 
panoramic features. The numerous 
cable roads afford an endless variety 
of views, all picturesque, some grand 
and imposing in the extreme. Sun- 
rise over the distant hills of Contra 
Costa, and sunset on the western 
sea, have a thousand charms, while 
the witchery of moonlight on the bay 
and the distant ocean, and the 
shimmering pathway of the beautiful 
orb of night can nowhere be ob- 
served to greater advantage than on 
our own widely extending waters. 
Pleasant and picturesque suburbs are 
within easy hail — the most distant of 
them being accessible by rail and 
steam in thirty-seven minutes. Such 
are Oakland, Alameda, Berkeley, 
Sausalito, San Rafael, Fruit Vale, 
Menlo Park, Belmont, San Mateo, 

and Redwood City. 

• 

The average temperature is usually 
delightful, no great extremes of heat 



43 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



or cold. It is much more highly 
favored than almost any other por- 
tion of the State. Summer heats do 
not enervate, and there is no such 
thing as excessive winter cold. Snow 
has made its appearance in our streetB 
but twice in a score of years. The 
temperature until Christmas is gen- 
erally most delightful. After that it 
becomes bracing, but it would be re- 
garded as pleasant in the East. The 
average temperature of January is 
49.3, and that of July 58.8 Fahr. 
From November until April is what 
is called the rainy season, but no 
continuous rains fall. Flowers bloom 
in the city gardens all the year. The 
only drawback are the Summer fogs, 
but as these are usually cleared off 
by an early hour in the day, they can 
hardly be regarded as inconvenient. 
Part of the city is entirely free from 
them. Trade winds prevail during 
the Summer and Fall, the result of 
which is one of the healthiest cities 
in the world. There are no tornadoes, 
no hurricanes, no thunder storms, a 
feeble electrical display once or twice 
every couple of years being the b»st 
that San Francisco can afford in that 
direction. 

San Francisco is situated on a pen- 
insula between its noble bay and the 
Surrounded on three sidi 



lino southeast from it. North and 
east, beneath the feet almost, extend 
the placid waters of San Francisco 
bay. East and by south, to nse a 
nautical phrase, the prospect is inter- 
rupted by hills within the urban 
limit. Southeast again appear the 
shining waters of the bay, ex- 
tending afar off to the horizon. 
West and southwest, looking toward 
China and Japan and the tropical 
islands of the Malaysian Archipel- 
ago, and extending to the far horizon 
where sea and sky commingling 
meet, are the waters of the blue Pa- 
cific. The hills of Marin County, 
with Mount Tainalpais proudly rais- 
ing its head over all, close in the 
prospect to the north. To the north- 
east the waters of the bav are con- 
tinued to those of San Pablo Bay, 
one of its wide-reaching arms, which, 
however, is invisible. The hills of 
Contra Costa and Alameda form the 
eastern horizon. South are Bernal 
Heights, with the hills of San Mateo 
rising behind them and the summits 
of the Coast Bange closing ont the 
view. In the southwest the Twin 
Peaks of the Mission mountains di- 
rectly overhang one of the most 
thickly populated sections of the city. 
Within the metes and bounds here 
'tfd, the r< -siih-ncc portion of San 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



49 



Francisco cannot be seen, for this 
is a city of magnificent distances, 
even in its infancy, one to which 
New York, cribbed, cabined and con- 
fined within the narrow limits of 
Manhattan, cannot for a moment be 
compared. To note the great heart 
of San Francisco throbbing and in- 
stinct with life and its business arte- 
ries pulsating with a steady stream 
of humanity ceaseless in its flow, we 
must transport ourselves to another 
of the heights of the seven-hilled 
city of the West. From those — from 
the turret of one of the enchanting 
residences of our millionaires, or 
from the towering heights of Tele- 
graph Hill — a coup d'oeU can be ob- 
tained which it were hard elsewhere 
to equal. Here the commercial life 
of the city flows all around and be- 
neath like the ocean tides round 
some rocky promontory. Market 
street, the great central artery, is 
black with an ever-moving throng. 
Kearny street, the principal retail 
avenue of the city, is gay with richly- 
dressed ladies and with sight-seers. 
Montgomery and Pine streets over- 
flow with the speculative throng. 
And then from Telegraph Hill to 
Mission Bay, like the squares on a 
checker-board, stretch block after 
block devoted to commerce, law and 
manufactures, all with their inter- 
secting streets filled with crowds of 
soberly dressed business men, eager 
speculators, artisans and workers 
that hail from all lands. Here the 
active Yankee jostles the indolent 
native of Spanish America, whose 
motto is ever manana (the everlast- 
ing to-morrow), the sanguine Irish- 
man, the sober Englishman, the 
staid, contented-looking German, the 
heathen Chinee, and a score of other 
peoples and nations and tongues, who 
all mingle in the sample perennial 
stream of humanity. Not the least 
among these mighty arteries of trade 
and finance is California street, 
named after the State, its first born, 
its representative mart, and the one 
most characteristic of its people. 



From the same point from which all 
this is presented to the view scores 
of deep-water vessels of all nations 
may be seen at the wharves dis- 
charging or in the stream waiting for 
their turn, and steamers crossing and 
recrossing to Oakland and Alameda, 
which over the bright waters look 
like Venice as seen from the Adriatic. 
The island of Alcatraz, with its fortifi- 
cations, Angel Island and Yerba 
Buena or Goat Island serve to break 
up thfe bay into so many smaller in- 
lets and add a charm to the whole. 
There are other points of van- 
tage from which most glorious views 
of city, the bay, and the broad 
Pacific may be had, such as the Mis- 
sion Peaks, Russian Hill and Bernal 
Heights, but from none of them is 
the whole city visible. Here is am- 
ple room for an imperial metropolis, 
with its miles on miles of houses and 
business streets and wharves and 
its residence and manufacturing 
quarters, equaling the greatest city 
on earth. As yet it is only sparsely 
settled, though its houses are scat- 
tered over all this broad space, clus- 
tering more thickly in certain quar- 
ters. A population of at least three 
hundred and thirty thousand souls 
dwell within its borders. A little 
over a hundred years ago there was 
no city and no settlement. Half of 
the area noted was nothing but a bare 
sandy peninsula, the sand continu- 
ally driven in from the ocean, drift- 
ing over its surface, leaving only the 
tops of the high ridges bare, kept so 
by the strong westerly breezes. 
Where the business portion of the 
city now is was then a sequestered 
cove, or bay, over which the hills 
rose sharply to the sky. A few In- 
dian settlements were found here 
and there, the occupants next to the 
savages that roam the great solitudes 
of South America, the lowest on 
earth. They may have been happy, 
but so far as outward appearance 
went there was nothing stirring or 
romantic in their lives, and they 
were incapable of appreciating the 



50 



builders of a cheat city. 



beauties by which they were sur- 
rounded. They had remained for 
untold ages in their ignorance, pos- 
sessing no more of aught having 
human interest than the Paleozoic 
man of geology, and they have now 
passed away forever. Yet it was an 
effort to bring them within the Chris- 
tian fold and make of them a civil- 
ized and Christian people that gave 
birth to the little settlement that pre- 
ceded in order of time the present 
flourishing city. 

There is no record of who first dis- 
covered the Bay of San Francisco or 
when, but it was known by that 
name before the close of the sixteenth 
oentury, and while Elizabeth was 
still on the throne of England and 
Philip II on that of Spain, and it 
was always known as the Bay of San 
Francisco. And now a century and 
three-quarters elapsed ere it was 
again, as far as is recorded, seeu by 
white men. 

THE MISSION FOUNDED. 

The Jesuits had been driven from 
New Spain and its domains, and the 
Franciscan monks were appointed to 
fill their places. Father Junipero 
Serra was at the head of those des- 
tined for California. There were 
two great missions to be supplied. 



not finding Monterey Bay, or rather 
not recognizing it, they passed np 
the coast, and on the 7 th day of No- 
vember, 1769, after a weary journey 
over rngged hills, terminated by a 
march over sand dunes, they reached 
the Golden Gate. Friar Crespi, who 
is credited with the honor of the re- 
discovery first as far as known, lo- 
cated the Bay of San Francisco 
about one hundred and twenty-one 
years ago, and nearly seven years 
pnor to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. How little did he dream 
that he had discovered a new seat of 
empire for those who were even then 
planning to establish one in the cob 
ony of Massachusetts Bay. But it 
was even so. It was not, however, 
till the year of the Declaration of 
Independence, and just eleven days 
before that Declaration was promul- 
gated to the world, that the settle- 
ment was established. Two years 
previously Friar Falou, the biogra- 

Eher already noted, again saw the 
ay, and his representations caused 
the fitting out of an expedition to es- 
tablish a colony and a mission. Lien- 
tenant Ayala surveyed the bay in 
August, 1775, and reported that it 
was not a harbor, but a multitude of 
harbors, in which all the fleets of 
Spain" could play hide and Bgdfe 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



51 



Palou says that Portala, com- 
mander of the expedition, traveling 
from the southward along the shore 
of the bay, came to tne cove of 
Llorones (or Cry-Babies) and crossed 
a creek which is the outlet of a large 
lagoon, called the Lagoon of Dolores, 
and this appeared to him a good site 
for a mission. The first settlers in 
San Francisco reached the spot on 
the day previously noted. They con- 
sisted of seven civilians and their 
families, likewise seventeen dragoons 
and their families, under the leader- 
ship of Friars Palou and Cambon, 
the soldiers being under the com- 
mand of Don Jose Moraga. The 
foundation of the settlement was 
made amidst great rejoicing. Friar 
Palou celebrated mass and raised 
the cross while Moraga took posses- 
sion in the name of the King of 
Spain amidst salutes by land and 
sea. The next day the Mission of 
San Francisco was dedicated in like 
manner and the city's history be- 
gan. The civilization and Chrfstian- 
ization of the Indians was at once 
taken in hand. It was, however, 
slow work, and then rough and 
crude, but it was a wonderful ad- 
vance over their previous condition. 
At sunrise all living at the Mission 
had to rise and attend mass. Break- 
fast being partaken of, the men and 
unmarried women had to work until 
eleven o'clock. There was then a 
respite of three hours, after which 
they worked again until sunset. They 
were taught all sorts of trades neces- 
sary in the settlement. The first 
work done was the erection of the 
church; which is said to have taken 
seven years. At that time there 
were two hundred and sixfrjr Chris- 
tianized Indians at the Mission. 
They increased gradually till 1813, 
when they numbered one thousand 
two hundred and five. The settle- 
ment of whites from Mexico and old 
&pain, the political revolution, by 
which the Mexicans then cast off the 
Spanish yoke, and other causes, di- 
wnished tbw gum^er till 1823, and 



ten years later there were only a few 
left. The secularization of the mis- 
sion did its work, too, and now there 
are no Indians on the peninsula of 
Saji Francisco. Many of the whites 
married Indian women, and have left 
a handsome, sturdy, prolific race be- 
hind them, but they, too, are few in 
numbers. There was a slow, a very 
slow, increase in the civil population 
of San Francisco. Gradually the 
lands became divided up among the 
Spanish and Mexican grantees. 
These raised vast herds of cattle, 
whose hides and tallow they sold 
yearly to small vessels visiting the 
bay for the equivalent of five dollars 
each per head of stock in American 
money. Good wines were made 
from grapes grown in the valleys of 
Santa Clara and Sonoma. Now, 
though both Mission and Presidio 
are within the limits of San Fran- 
cisco, the Mission one of its most 
thickly populated sections, neither 
was the center from which it sprang. 
The Presidio had a population of 
perhaps three hundred soldiers while 
the Mission had perhaps two thou- 
sand people — Indians, etc. At this 
time dealing in furs and peltry 
was a very profitable occupation. 
Elk were so plentiful that they 
swam in herds from the main 
land to Mare Island. Sea otter, 
three to six feet in length, and sell- 
ing from forty to fifty dollars each, 
swarmed in the waters of the bay. 
They were sold to Boston ships. 
Beaver skins from the Sacramnto 
and San Joaquin Valleys were plenti- 
ful. The goods for which the hides, 
pelts, tallow, etc., were exchanged 
were tea, coffee, sugar, clothing and 
blankets for the Indians. Then 
there were blankets made at the 
Mission from the wool of the sheep 
kept there and known as Mission 
blankets. 

YERBA BUENA. 

The first house was built upon the 
slope of the hill above the quiet lit- 
tle cove of Terba Puena, on tb© Hm 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT C1TT. 



of what is known as Dupont street, 
in the Summer of 1835, by one Wil- 
liam A. Richardson, an Englishman, 
who had dwelt twenty years in the 
country. Reckoning from this time, 
San Francisco has had a little over 
half a century of history. Mr. 
Richardson was a dealer in hides and 
tallow, and his home was the head- 
quarters of the trade around the bay. 
A very humble origin it was for 
commercial San Francisco, whose 
merchandise is found in eveiy land 
and the sails of whose ships whiten 
every Bea. Contemporaneously with 
Mr. Richardson dwelt here John 
Reed and Timothy Murphy, natives 
of Ireland, and James Black, an 
Englishman. 

Meanwhile some slight measure of 
progress was made in the Mission 
.Dolores, and an Alcalde, J. J. Estu- 
dillo, was elected, with power to 
grant lots to settlers. The pueblo, 
or settlement, was, as in California 
towns, four leagues square. In 1834 
an ayuntamiento, or town council, 
was formed, consisting of an Alcalde, 
Regidores and a syndic, which first 
met at the Presidio, afterwards at the 
Mission. Richardson was reinforced 
by Jacob Leese, an American from 
Los Angeles, who entered into the 



the first white child, a girl, was born 
here. 

For many years there was very lit- 
tie to note in Yerba Buena'g history. 
The firt>t house for long remained 
solitary and alone on the hillside over- 
looking the bay. The trade invited a 
few merchants who grew rich by a 
profitable trade in these commodities. 
Among these were Mr. Richardson; 
already nott-d, William Heath Davis, 
and, in 1838, Nathaniel Speur and 
William S. Hinckley. Mr. Spear 
was the first to catch and can salmon 
on the Sacramento. Messrs. Spear 
and Hinckley first settled in Yerba 
Buena in 1838. In 1839 Captain 
Sutter arrived at the little village in 
the "Clementine." He had with him 
a number of Swiss and Hawaiians. 
With William Heath Davis he start- 
ed up the Sacramento and established 
the first settlement in that valley. 
In 1840, when all the foreigners m 
the city were arrested by order of 
the Mexican government, there were 
only twenty-five of them all told. In 
1840 Nathaniel Spear established his 
headquarters on the comer of Mont- 
gomery and Clay streets. In 1841 
the Hudson Bay Company, as already 
stated, erected a warehouse. John 
J. Vioget, one of these early business 




BAN FRANCISCO. 



58 



son, Broadway and Pacific streets. 
Montgomery street, in the *arty days, 
was on the water front. In 1845 a fif ty- 
vara lot would sell for $12.50 on 
Montgomery, Market or Bush, these 
being considered the best locations. 
The land, however, was in the nature 
of a grant, as the purchaser was re- 
quired to fence tne lot and build a 
house on it within a year, or his title 
would be forfeited. Lots as far as 
the Chronicle building, that now com- 
mand from $2,000 to $3,000 t>er 
front foot — fifty-vara lots were sola at 
this figure. The final location of the 
«ity at Yerba Buena was determined 
because the anchorage in front of the 
Presidio was unsuitable. The ex*ct 
adoption of Terba Buena as a proper 
place for shipping, was, however, 
only after North Beach had been 
tried without the desired result. 

The Alcaldes of the Mission set- 
tlement during the ensuing nine 
{rears made eighty-three grants of 
and in Yerba Buena, of which 
forty-nine were to Americans or Eng- 
lishmen. Thus even before the 
American occupation Yerba Buena, 
or San Francisco, was to all intents 
and purposes an American town. 
The first mill, a grist mill, was 
erected here in 1839. It arrived 
on . the " Corsair." It was put 
up on the north side of Clay 
street, between Kearny and Mont- 
gomery. It was worked by six 
mules and made from twenty to 
twenty-five sacks of flour each day. 
In 1840 the Hudson Bay Company 
established a depot at Yerba Buena 
and soon drove the Americans out of 
the hide, tallow and other trades. 
Its supremacy was, however, tempo- 
rary only, for in 1844 it disappeared 
from the scene. In the same year 
the number of houses was only fif- 
teen. About this time Captain Paty 
started a line of packets between 
San Francisco and Honolulu. In 
this year the first steamer was seen 
at San Francisco. It was built by 
the Russians at Sitka in what is 
now Alaska, and towed to Bodega 



River. Civilized man has been 
on these shores over sixty-seven 
years, an infiltration of American 
blood has made its presence felt, 
and we are rapidly approaching 
1848, the year of gold and revo- 
lution, and in California also the 
era of the Argonauts. Many nations 
had long looked on the wonderful 
land witn a longing eye. Years be- 
fore the Russians had a settlement 
at Russian River, on the coast north 
of San Fraucisco, which they after- 
wards abandoned. In the United 
States it was only looked upon as a 
question of time when there should 
be added to its domain the fairest re 
gion of the new world. A steady 
stream of emigrants, principally from 
Missouri, but from all the States and 
from all nations, poured into Cali- 
fornia for the next four years. 
Between this time and the annexation 
of the country to the United States 
Fremont led an expedition into it 
which bore a hostile attitude toward 
the Mexicans, while the "Bear Flag" 
party revolted and proceeded to 
declare the independence of the 
country. 

AN AMERICAN CITY. 

On the 7th of June, 1846, Com- 
modore Sloat heard of the war with 
Mexico, and on July 23d, arriving at 
Monterey, took possession in the 
name of the United States. The 
American flag was hoisted at Yerba 
Buena by Captain Montgomery of 
the "Portsmouth" in the same month. 
For two years a desultory war fol- 
lowed, but San Francisco was be- 
yond its reach. Yerba Buena, as 
it was still called, had been mainly 
American in population and soon be- 
came the center of American activity 
in California and from that time grew 
rapidly in importance. The Mexican 
Alcalde at the Mission Dolores was 
set aside and Washington A. Bart- 
lett, o lieutenant on the "Ports- 
mouth," was appointed in his stead, 
and, as remarks a writer of the his- 
tory of San Francisco, "undertook 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



to administer Mexican law as inter- 
preted by American -whims." Soon 
after the occupation the advent of a 
strange vessel full of people caused 
great excitement in the town. It 
was not an enemy, but was found to 
be the "Brooklyn" with two hundred 
and thirty-eight immigrants, princi- 
pally Mormons, who had come here 
to set up a State of their own under 
the shadow of the Mexican flog. 
Great was their dismay to find that 
the flag of Mexico had floated here 
for the last time. Sam Brannan was 
their leader. He had published a 
Mormon sheet in New York and had 
brought presses and type with him 
to set up again the standard of Mor- 
monism in the wilderness. Most of 
the men had to enlist in the service 
of the United States and all settled 
for a time in Yerba Buena, which 
was, for a while at least, a prepon- 
derating^ Mormon settlement. On 
the 9th of January, 1847, Brannan 
commenced the publication of the 
California Star, a weekly paper, and 
the avant courier of journalism on 
the Pacific Coast. In the same 
month the name of Yerba Buena, 
now applied to an island in the har- 
bor, was dropped, and by a decree of 
the Alcalde that of San Francisco 
substituted. In March of the 



was taken in the same month, dis- 
closing the fact that the population was 
459, half American citizens, the rest 
being Hispano-CalifornianB, Indians 
and Kanakas. And now came the time 
when 'California was to be opened 
wide to all the world and San Fran- 
cisco as her commercial metropolis 
was to take rank among the great cit- 
ies of the earth. This was the era of 
the discovery of gold in California, 
which was to revolutionize the finan- 
cial world. The story of its discov- 
ery at Coloma, on January 19th, by 
James TV. Marshall, is a twice-told 
tale. The news traveled slowly. 
Some gold had been found in Cali- 
fornia before, and themission fathers 
knew that the Sacramento Valley 
was one of the most promising lo- 
cations. Indians digging up roots 
forfood were the first discoverers, and 
picking up a few small pieces in a 
mill-race was not likely to attract a 
great deal of attention. It was not 
till February that the tidings of the 
discovery reached San Francisco, 
and not until six weeks later did the 
Star, the solitary California repre- 
sentative of the press, take any par- 
ticular notice of it. Towards the 
beginning of April the editor of that 
paper, with a few others, visited the 
scene of the discovery, came back, 




SIN FKANOISCO. 



66 



"The whole country resounded with 
the cry — 

•gold ! gold P " 

Bat slow as it was in making an 
impression in San Francisco it 
made this np by the rapidity with 
which it spread to the outer world. 
On the wings of the wind it 
spread to the ends of the earth. 
The immediate result was the al- 
most total abandonment of San 
Francisco. Town lots were of- 
fered for little or nothing; but soon 
her fortune changed. Gold hunters 
had to live, and Ban Francisco was 
the only avenue of communication 
with the outer world. Soon land 
became valuable enough. It was 
not long till most of the population 
of California was centered at the 
mines. In the Fall they came troop- 
ing from Oregon and tne Hawaiian 
Islands. Few or none remained in 
Yerba Buena. The first American 
lady arrived here in the American 
brig "Eagle" February 2d of this 
year. October brought gold seekers 
from Mexico, Peru and Chile. Two 
millions of dollars, the first fruits of 
the mines, were exported in 1848. 
The Baltimore Sun of September 
20th published the news and by the 
close of that year the exodus had 
begun. It is a curious commentary 
on the changes that have occurred 
everywhere since that news which 
would now be flashed round the 
world in a single day then took a 
year to travel from the Pacific to 
the Atlantic. A million dollars' 
worth of goods were imported this 
year. January, 1849, saw ninety 
vessels with 8,000 men from East- 
ern cities all bound for San Fran- 
cisco, thence for the gold fields. 
Gold dust, sixteen dollars an ounce, 
was the currency of San Francisco. 
The Collector of the Port on No- 
vember 13, 1849, wrote to Washing- 
ton: " I am astounded at the amount 
of business done at this office. Six 
hundred and ninety-seven vessels ar- 



rived within seven and a half 
months." 

At this time board without room 
was five dollars per day. A small 
room rented for one hundred and fifty 
dollars. Wood cost four dollars a 
cord, flour forty dollars per barrel, 

{>ork sixty dollars a barrel. For 
ack of storage room nineteen ves- 
sels were employed as warehouses. 
At the same time beef sold at sev- 
enty-five cents and one dollar per 
pound. In this year thousands of 
cattle fed on the Alameda hills and 
men in small boats went over and 
killed them at night. 

The Golden City in 1849 at- 
tained a population of sixteen thou- 
sand. Its citizens were coining gold 
in their several avocations. Labor- 
ers earned part of the time sixteen 
dollars a day, during the rest of the 
year eight dollars a day . The first 
brick building erected was in Sep- 
tember, 1849, by W. H. Davis. 
It was on the southwest corner of 
Montgomery and California streets, 
and was leased to the Government 
for a custom-house at $3,000 per 
month. It was destroyed in the 
great fire of May, 1851. A great 
fire in December almost swept the 
new city out of existence. During 
that year San Francisco gave still 
farther promise of its importance as 
a seaport, for not less than five 
hundred and forty-nine vessels, 
winged messengers of the sea, ar- 
rived in the harbor, that previously 
but for an occasional whaler or ves- 
sel to carry away hides and tallow 
was almost unfurrowed by a keel 
and as lonely as a lake in the moun- 
tains. The same year forty-one 
thousand people ariived overland 
and the population of California 
increased to one hundred thousand, 
mostly employed at the mines. The 
need for wharfage accommodations 
became urgent at San Francisco, and 
what was known as Long Wharf 
was built extending out eight hun- 
dred feet into the bay to what is now 
known as Front street. The wharf 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



known as Central Wharf was located 
where Commercial street is now. It 
started a little to the west of San- 
some and ran 400 feet into the bay. 
Subsequently an extension was made 
to Davis street and finally to Drumm, 
The first section cost $110,000, the 
second, $200,000. C. V. Gillespie 
was President and William Heath 
Davis, Treasurer, From eight to 
nine hundred vessels from every part 
of the globe, between Clarke's Point 
(Broadway street) and Rincon (Harri- 
son street) were anchored east of it, 
presenting such a sight as the world 
probably never saw before or since. 
Where once this wharf was is 
now dry land and fur beyond 
it. The pioneer of ocean steam- 
ships, the "California," arrived Feb- 
ruary 28th of this year, having 
R. F. Smith, the Collector of Cus- 
toms, aboard. In March the steam- 
ship "Oregon" came to hand from 
New York with three hundred and 
fifty passengers. On August 15th 
the first Protestant church was dedi- 
cated. It belonged to the First Bap- 
tist Society. In October steamers 
began to make regular trips on the 
Sacramento. A little steamboat was 
brought out in sections from Boston. 
Fiont street tells the first advance 
of the city on the bay, but now 



worth $26,600,000. Its population 
was 30,000. Two great conflagra- 
tions, each involving the loss of 
millions, took place that year. In 
1851, in May, came the great fire 
which destroyed property worth 
$7,000,000. The burned district was 
three-quarters of a mile long, and 
at one time presented the appalling 
spectacle of almost a mile of names 
fanned by a high wind. But mis- 
fortunes never come alone. An- 
other great fire came in June and 
the people began to think of re- 
moving from the unfortunate city. 
They, however, took the sober sec- 
ond thought and remained. There 
were no more really great fires, and 
our city continued to advance stead- 
ily in population and importance 
despite the fact that in little more 
than a year fifteen millions of prop- 
erty had become the prey of the de- 
vouring flames. The first Directory 
was now published. In 1853 the 
San Francisco Gas Company was 
laying pipes and building its 
works. It is not necessary to trace 
the city's growth historically much 
further. In 1860 the population bad 
grown to 56,802, and in 1870 to 149,- 
473, in 1880 it reached 233,959, and 
is to-day, although the census figures 
are 29f,990, reckoned at 330,000. 




SIN FRANCISCO. 



57 



lines in San Francisco and several 
others are projected. The gold and 
silver of the coast has been lavishly 
spent in building up the city and in 
providing the fortunes of its million- 
aires. The combined product of 
both precious metals has reached an 
amount estimated at two and a quar- 
ter billion of dollars, most of the 
profits on which have contributed to 
enrich San Francisco. It has been 
the great heart and center of silver 
mining no less than that of gold, and 
the silver era was in its way of as ro- 
mantic interest and of groat practical 
results as that of gold. In 1863 
shares in the silver mines of the Corn- 
stock were at fabulous prices, from 
one thousand dollars eacn in Chollar 
to six thousand three hundred dollars 
in Gould & Curry. In 1869 some 
ore at White Pine yielded ten thou- 
sand dollars a ton. In 1874 the 
Crown Point and Belcher mines wera 
in the heyday of their glory. "In 
three years they had yielded forty 
millions of dollars, but a much 
greater mine was to eclipse theirs 
and to remain to the present, as far 
as is known, the greatest heard of in 
history or even in tradition. There 
have been mines in Mexico and Bo- 
livia, the grand aggregate of which 
was larger, but none that yielded 
such amazing results in such a short 
space of time. In May, 1874, it gave 
dividends of $300,000 per month. 
Being examined by experts it 
was declared that thelore body 
in sight was worth I a billion 
and a half of dollars. Under the 
stimulus given by this the value of 
the shares in the mines in the San 
Francisco market advanced a million 
dollars a day for about two months. 
This mine was next divided into two, 
the Consolidated Virginia and the 
California, with over half a million 
shares in each. They were owned 

Srincipally by Flood, O'Brien, 
[ackay and Fair, whose names have 
become renowned throughout the 
earth for their riches. For two 
years a steady stream of wealth 



from the mines flowed into San Fran- 
cisco to the extent of over one hun- 
dred and twelve million of dollars. 
The Stock Exchange became a rec- 
ognized institution and thousands 
were, some of them in a day, ele- 
vated from poverty to wealth. The 
picture has had a reverse side, and 
shares during the past few years have 
sold as low as half a dollar each. 
Such are the fluctuations of mining 
stocks; but whatever fate betide / 
particular industries, San Francisco / 
does not cease to progress. / 

THE POPULATION 

Increases at the rate of about 
twenty thousand a year or two hun- 
dred thousand in a decade. It is 
now three hundred and thirty thou- 
sand. By 1893 it will be four hun- 
dred thousand, or nearly three times 
as much as in 1870. Since 1880 
over eleven thousand six hundred 
)houses have been built, and despite 
bad times, bad crops, through good 
report and evil report they continue 
to be added to our city at the rate of 
one thousand four hundred a year. 
Before the twentieth century has 
been reached the population of the 
Golden City will be midway between 
six hundred and seven hundred thou- 
sand. 

ouit TRADE. 

Its foreign imports increased from 
about twenty millions in 1870 to 
close on forty millions in 1886, and 
$51,562,403 in 1889. Then its for- 
eign sea-borne trade is only a part of 
the whole as its commerce with other 
States and Territories, by rail, 
steamer and clipper, is not less than 
seventy millions a year, imports and 
exports. It buys and sells over two 
hundred million dollars' worth of 
merchandise annually, and this 
amount is steadily increasing. Hither 
come for exchange the surplus pro- 
ducts of three continents, the teas, 
silks, coffees, spices and sugars of 
Asia and the Pacific islands; the 
sugars, rice, fruit and cotton of the 
Hawaiian and other Pacific islands 



58 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



the coffee, hides, sugar, orchilla and 
silver of Mexico and Central Amer- 
ica; the iron, chemicals, cement, 
woolens, cottons and liquors of Eng- 
land; the wines, silks, cloth, sar- 
dines, olive oil, perfumery and arti- 
cles de Paris of France; toys, liquors, 
mineral waters, etc., from the Ger- 
man fatherland; gold from British 
Columbia and Australia; coal from 
Australia, British Columbia and 
Great Britain; furs from the Aleu- 
tian Islands and British Columbia; 
cod from the Pacific banks, the 
most extensive in the world; whale 
oil, bone and ivory from the Arctic. 
From the Eastern States, by ship, 
steamer and rail, come most of our 
manufactured goods which are not 
produced at home; drygoods, boots, 
shoes, hata, hardware, cooperage, 
tobacco, drags, oils, paints and do- 
mestic liquors forming the bulk of 
our imports thence. Our export 
trade by sea has increased from 
nearly eight millions in 1870 to over 
forty millions in 1890 — seventy- 
six millions by sea aud rail, almost 
equally divided between home and 
foreign. In this is reckoned a transit 
trade of about eleven millions fig- 
ured also in our imports. Some of 
the trade by rail from California is 
from interior points but wo hav 



the most curious of all our articles 
of exports is ginseng, brought prin- 
cipally from the East — a potent heal- 
all in China, Japan, Core* and other 
Orient lands, and selling here at an 
average of two dollars a pound. 
Shrimps and shrimp shells form 
quite a large item of export to China. 
Leather was formerly shipped in 
largo quantity to Japan, which is 
still our best foreign customer. 
But the Japanese are learning to 
make a good article themselves, and 
our shipments to their country are 
growing small by degrees and beau- 
tifully less. 

To the Atlantic and Mississippi 
Valley States wo send refined sugar, 
coffee, wool, wine and brandies, 
canned and dried fruits, oranges, 
green fruits, raisins, salmon, borax, 
barley, leather, quicksilver, lead, 
hops, hidos and pelts, whale oil, furs. 
Sometimes our merchants ship con- 
siderable tea that way, but on the 
whole that is a transit trade as also 
is that in raw silk, all of which 
reaches New Jersey's looms via San 
Francisco. This great trade by rail has 
grown to 570,421,970 lbs. in 1890-- 
310,135,970 lbs. from San Francisco, 
but almost all handled by its mer- 
chants. ', During the put year the 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



59 



nually send a cargo to Cape Verde 
Islands. 

Manufacturers paying the highest 
average wag* s in the world, $2, $3 
and $4 a day, we have difficulty in 
competing with the East in industrial 
matters, but the railroad tariff pro- 
tects us, or did until recently, the 
result being that our manufactures 
have grown rapidly. In 1870 the 
census credited us with $37,410,829; 
to-day the value of our industries is not 
less than $110,000,000, or over $300 
per capita of our population. This 
is a very healthy exhibit and one 
that San Francisco need not blush at. 
There are 33,000 workers steadily 
employed, who produce at the rate 
of $3,000 per year. Of these, 15,- 
000 are Chinese, whose wages range 
from half a dollar to $2.50 per day, 
the latter amount received by some 
exceptionally good workers in the 
cigar trade. Their great triple 
stronghold is the cigar, boot and 
shoe and clothing trades, though 
they have representatives in almost 
all. There are, or were, 6,000 
Chinese of all grades in the cigar 
trade, 3,000 in the boot and shoe 
trade, and 2,000 in the clothing 
trade. The cigar business is one of 
the greatest of our industries. We 
made during a couple of years 150,- 
000,000 cigars, just 500 for every man, 
woman and child in the city. These 
were valued at $5,000,000. They 
are smoked from San Francisco to 
Chicago, large quantities having 
been formerly shipped East, but 
since the anti-Chinese agitation, 
Eastern goods are supplanting them 
to some extent, and the number has 
dropped to 120,000,000. 

Despite its great value, the cigar 
trade, and in fact every other carried 
on in the city, is cast in the shade 
by the sugar refining industry. It 
has progressed with giant strides. 
This year over 300,000,000 pounds 
will be refined. We have now the 
cheapest sugar in America, and dur- 
ing past years have sold our product 
as far East as the Mississippi, indeed 



even in Chicago. Its great develop- 
ment is altogether due to the Hawaii- 
an treaty, at first opposed by our re- 
finers. But we now take all the 
sweets of Hawaii and soon shall be 
ready for much more than it can pro- 
duce. We ship both raw and re- 
fined, and the latter this year will 
sell for $17,000,000. Our beet 
sugar trade is increasing fast, full data 
concerning it being given elsewhere. 

The manufacture of boots and 
shoes is of a value of $5,000,000 an- 
nually. Our iron industry is of the 
same average annual value, but it is 
not as active as formerly, owing to the 
fact that the great quantities of ma- 
chinery wanted to work the mines of 
the Comstock are no longer needed, 
and though last, not least, the great 
strike. But we have recompensed our- 
selves in other directions, and iron and 
steel ship building is at least a real- 
ity with us. The construction of the 
cruisers "Charleston" and "San 
Francisco" has given us the standing 
of Chester on the Tyne, and by and by 
a great business will come to our 
doors. We have, in fact, already in- 
quiries from Chile and Japan in con- 
nection with the shipyard. We have 
one of the largest foundries in the 
United States, aud our mining ma- 
chinery has no equal for its ingenuity 
and variety. We make about 500,- 
000 barrels of beer every year that 
sells for close on $3,500,000, and this 
notwithstanding the abundance and 
cheapness of wine, of which, how- 
ever, very little is made in this city. 
We may, though, except 20,000 cases 
of excellent champagne. 

The manufacture of doors, sashes 
and other articles of lumber is very 
extensive as all the Pacific Coast is 
supplied hence. The total value of 
these manufactures is $3,000,000. 
The production of canned goods is 
valued at $4,000,000; that of clothing 
at $4,000,000 also; about 500,000 
barrels of flour represent tho in- 
dustry of the millers of the Golden 
City; $1,500,000 may be given as 
the value of blankets, cloths, etc.; 



60 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



91,000,000 that of shirts. Within 
urban limits leather to the value of 
$3,300,000 is produced. Of fine fur- 
niture, $2,000,000 a year is made. 
Of other goods, bags are made to 
the value of $1,500,000; boxes to that 
of $1,000,000; saddlery and harness 
worth $1,000,000 are produced. Tbo 
dynamite product is worth $1,500,- 
000 a year; coffee and spices $1,500,- 
000, while tlio production of news- 
papers, printing and kindred arts 
cannot bo placed at less than $-1,000,- 
000 in value. Here is set down 
everything worth $1,000,000 and up- 
wards, making a total of close on 
$65,000,000. A multitude of smaller 
industries helps to rouud out the 
total. A cotton mill at East Oak- 
land is the beginning of California's 
cotton industiies. The coal oil of 
Southern California is refined at 
Alamedn. In carpet, dry goods, 
men's clothing, hats, hardware, pork 
packing, and a few minor industries, 
the city is backward, but promises 
to take a great stride ahead in pork 
packing. 

MONEY. 
San Francisco is one of the great 
financial centers of the United States. 
Here the Branch Mint turns out $23,- 
000,000 a max in gold and silver. 
The capital of the banks of the cit 



G. Fair, Charles Crocker, and oth- 
ers, own nearly $100,000,000 among 
them. All San Francisco's million- 
aires are worth unitedly $250,000,- 
000. The assessed value of city pro- 
perty is $230,000,000, the true value 
not less than $500,000,000. 



San Francisco is, or will be, a city 
of magnificent distances. Even now 
Market street from tho ferries, 
where it terminates ueath the shadow 
of the Mission mountains, is one of 
the finest thoroughfares in the West 
Broad, ample and imposing, with 
lines of magnificent buildings, it will 
in a few years be one of the finest 
streets in the world. It will proba- 
bly be continued to the ocean. Van 
Ness avenue is to-day noted for its 
splendid residences. It runs from 
the Bay over the hills and away 
down to Market street, and is full of 
magnificent mansions. The great 
Catholic Cathedral of St. Mary's 
has been built there. It will be one 
of tho noblest resident streets in 
America. The business portion of 
the city is built of brick and stone, 
principally of the former. Most of 
the leading establishments are also 
built of the game material. But 
as far as regards its 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



61 



ace, the Baldwin and Grand Hotels, 
St. Ignatius, St. Mary's and St. 
Dominic's Churches, the Chronicle 
building, and the Odd Fellows' build- 
ing. D. O. Mills' building on 
Montgomery street will be a fine ten 
story structure. San Francisco is 
promised a grand Postoffice for 
which a large appropriation has al- 
ready been made. The City Hall, 
now in an unfinished state, will prob- 
ably cost $4,000,000 before comple- 
tion. San Francisco is well supplied 
with churches and schools, having 
ninety-six of the former and seventy 
of the latter. The Hebrews have 
seven synagogues. The children of 
school * age number 75,000. The 
Chinese children have one school 
with a very light attendance. The 
theaters of the city number twelve. 
The California, the finest theater 
building in the city, has wit- 
nessed the early efforts of some lead- 
ing American actors. Amongst its 
ola stock company were numbered 
John McCullough, Tom Keene, 
Henry Edwards, James O'Neil, and 
others of national reputation. The 
Grand Opera House, though a fine 
theater, nas proven a magnificent 
failure. The Alcazar, a theater in 
the Moorish style of architecture, has 
been built by one of our most suc- 
cessful newspaper men, and is itself 
already a success. The Baldwin 
was built by the millionaire of the 
same name. 

ELEMENTS OF POPULATION. 

San Francisco is now a cosmopoli- 
tan city and its foreign-born citizens 
exceed in number the native born. 
They have come from all lands be- 
neath the sun, but more especially 
from Ireland and Germany. Some 
years ago out of 35,000 registered 
voters, not less than 10, (XK) were 
Irish born, while the Germans, hail- 
ing from all parts of the fatherland, 
numbered not less than 8, 500. France 
contributed 2,000, Italy as many 
more. Four nationalities thus gave 
close on 23,000 to the electoral roll. 



Then came England, Scotland, Mex- 
ico, Chile, Spain, Austria, Denmark, 
Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Por- 
tugal and many other nations and 
tongues. Since that time the pro- 

Sortion of foreign voters has lessened. 
>f the total registered in 1890, the 
natives of the United States num- 
bered 32,971; foreign born, 26,743, 
45 per cent. The figures of 12,373 
represent the native sons of Califor- 
nia; New York, 5, 565; Massachusetts, 
2,776; Pennsylvania, 1,588; Ohio, 
1,270; Maine, 1,227; Illinois, 890; 
Ireland, 9,824; Germany, 7,454; 
England, 2,118; Canada, 1,113; Italy, 
955; France, 785; Scotland, 670; 
Sweden, 633; Austria, 507; Russia, 
436; Denmark, 423; Switzerland, 391. 
The exact number of Chinese is 
not known, but it is said to exceed 
30,000. The city has a distinctively 
foreign quarter, bounded by Mont- 
gomery, Broadway, Stockton and 
Clay streets, where French, Spanish, 
Italians and Hispano-Americans 
abound and where everything has a 
decidedly foreign flavor. The irre- 
pressible Chinese occupy all that 
portion of the city lying between 
Kearny, Stockton, Broadway and 
California streets, with the exception 
of the buildings facing on the afore- 
said streets. 

OUR CHINESE. 

Dupont street from California to 
Broadway, a distance of six blocks, 
Sacramento, Commercial, Clay, 
Washington and Jackson streets are 
arteries of this great Chinese settle- 
ment in the heart of San Francisco, 
an imperium in imperio intersected by 
narrow alleys like the streets in Hong- 
Kong or Canton, and teeming with a 
strange population, having its own 
laws, its own tribunals, its secret 
societies, etc., a human hive where 
the busy hum of industry never 
ceases day or night, and where 
every foot of space is utilized as a 
store, workshop, or place for sleep- 
ing in — sometimes for all together. 
It is, as it were, a slice of China set 



fi2 



BTJILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



down in San Francisco, and but for 
the buildings might well be described 
by selections from some of the works 
that treat of Chinese cities. It has 
its Joss houses, opium dens, stores 
where every article Bold in China 
maybe had, butcher shops, restau- 
rants, cigar factories, boot and shoe 
and clothing factories, barber shops 
where customers' heads may be seen 
shaved iu full public view all day 
long, and others where carpenters, 
tinsmiths, watchmakers, photograph- 
ers, tailors and a score more trades 
carry on their several avocations. 
The women may be seen as busy as 
the men. The roofs of the houses 
are in many places covered with 
clothing, hung out to dry, or meat or 
shrimps to be shipped to China, or 
some thing else of the same kind. 
The sidewalks are crowded with a 
ceaseless throng; little fruit aud 
candy stores are found at every cor- 
ner; cobblers ply their trade and 
mend their customers' shoes on the 
sidewalk. Here, too, glides along 
the treacherons highbinder or Chi- 
nese bravo, always well provided with 
concealed arms, pistols, dirks, or 
small hatchets, ready to execute the 
behests of the secret tribunals on 
those of his countrymen that may 
have been marked out for punish- 



change! No regard to hygiene or 

cleanliness of surroundings is found. 
Scenes like those mentioned by 
travelers who have visited the inter- 
ior of Canton or Shanghai every- 
where meet the eye. Of course pov- 
erty is the cause of this, for the 
Chinese work for very low wages, 
live economically where opium is not 
concerned, and save their earnings 
to return to China with them. From 
$7,000,000 to $12,000,000 are sent 
to China in this way every year by 
public channels— how much by those 
returning is unknown. Chinatown 
is essentially Asiatic, and but little 
impression can be made on it by out- 
side influence. The Chinese masses 
are essentially unchanged and un- 
changeable; a people to themselves 
and apart from others. All are 
either members of one or other of 
the seven companies as they are called 
— great co-operative institutions that 
take care of the Celestial almost 
from the cradle to the grave. The 
social conditions obtaining here are 
very similar to those found in China 
itself — the same extremes of wealth 
aud poverty, the same combination 
of freedom and slavery, for many, 
especially women, are in a state of 
virtual slavery-. There is a dark Bide 
to Chinese as well as Caucasian life, 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



68 



being at an end, they return to the 
city again. They possess neither 
the excellent virtues nor the hideous 
vices attributed to them, but they 
are essentially a people apart to 
themselves. Some few comparatively 
have been brought under the influ- 
ence of the Protestant missionaries, 
and there are a few Catholics, but 
generally they go to the mission 
school to learn English so as to get 
to work in private houses. The com- 
munity is occasionally represented in 
the press by a paper published in 
their own language, which never 
seems to enjoy a verv prosperous ex- 
istence. The Chinese born and 
raised here are much superior in ap- 
pearance to those from China. 

OTHER ELEMENTS. 

The Japanese have of late in- 
creased considerably in numbers. 
They are generally, when not stu- 
dents, employed in private families, 
but there are some artists amongst 
them who paint on porcelain, etc. 

The colored element is not large. 
It is indeed very small as to num- 
bers, but hardworking and indus- 
trious. It has no distinctive pe- 
culiarity save what is physical. 
The men are generally employed as 
waiters, janitors, etc. There are a 
few wealthy colored people. They are 
represented in the press and have a 
couple of church organizations with 
churches and Sunday schools. 

There is little difference to be ob- 
served, at least exteriorly, between 
the different white elements of which 
our population is composed. Here, 
as elsewhere, our Jewish fellow citi- 
zens are mostly found in the walks 
of trade and finance where they are 
very numerously represented and 
very influential. As to the rest, the 
New Englander, the native of the 
Middle States, the Western man, the 
citizens hailing from the chivalrous 
South are found in most of the walks 
of life outside of unskilled labor, 
though stress of circumstunces have 
driyeg eyeu cultured people to seek 



temporary employment even there. 
Our Irish and German-born citizens 
fill every position from that of a bank- 
ing president to a member of the 
rank and file of the grand army of 
labor, roost of the skilled, as well 
as the unskilled, workmen being 
recruited from their ranks. Most 
of the leading retail drygoods stores 
are owned and served by those 
born in Ireland, while in the 
manufacture and sale of boer and 
in the retail grocery trade the Ger- 
mans have an overwhelming pre- 
dominance. The French, Spanish- 
Americans and Italians occupy that 
portion of the city stretching north 
from Jackson street and west from 
Montgomery street, a couple of 
blocks each way, though large num- 
bers of them are scattered all over 
the city. Some of our leading 
wholesale houses are carried on by 
French and Italians. The English 
and Scotch elements of our popula- 
tion control the import and export 
and shipping trade of the port with 
Europe, as also the export grain 
trade, while the ranks of skilled 
labor are largely recruited from their 
numbers. AH the distinctive ele- 
ments of our population have spe- 
cial newspaper organs of their own. 
As regards religion a large major- 
ity of the Irish, Spanish, Portuguese, 
French and Hispano- American fam- 
ilies are Catholic in belief as also 
are a considerable proportion of 
German and a smaller one of Ameri- 
can families, while the vast majority 
of the latter, as also of German and 
British families belong to some one 
or other of the Protestant denomi- 
nations. The Hebrew places of 
worship ure many and well support- 
ed. The Greek Church has its ad- 
herents. However, a large number 
of adults attend no particular church, 
while many are professed free-think- 



ers. 



POPULATION. 



There can be no better way to esti- 
mate the population of this city than 



64 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



to note the increase in the number of 
houses supplied by the Spring Valley 
Water Company. This was, in 1880, 
20 ,128, the consumption of water daily 
averaging 12,648,000 gallons. The 
population being 233,057 in 1880, 
this gave about 12 persons to each 
houses supplied. In 1800 the number of 
houses supplied was 33 ,248 , the number 
of gallons averaging 20,430,000 daily. 
It will be seen that the consumption 
increased about exactly as the number 
of houses. It is therefore fair to esti- 
mate the same number of people per 
house, etc. , as in 1880. This would 
give, at 12 to each, 398,976 souls as the 
population of San Francisco. It is 
therefore evident that the census fig- 
ures of less than 300,000 must be all 
wrong, and that an estimate of 330,- 
000 is conservative indeed. 

REAL ESTATE. 

San Francisco has not of late years 
been blessed or cursed, as the case 
might be, with a real estate boom. 
We have, however, had our share, 
when all sorts of hinds — outside 
lands particularly — wero inflated till 
they reached a price which, with all 
the extension of the city, they have 
never attained since, aud when the 



this did not afford good anchorage 
ground on account of the heavy 
swell from the " Golden Gate," and 
the idea was abandoned. Yerba 
Buena, as it grew up originally, was 
without much order or regularity. 
Even after h survey had been made 
matters were much confused. The 
first Directory ever published sajB 
that in 1850 scarcely a house was 
numbered, the city extended from 
Washington street south, and lay 
between Kearny and Montgomery 
streets. Streets were built up in a 
week and whole squares swept sway 
in an hour. A large portion of the 
fixed in habitants lived in tents. In 
1845 a rifty-vara lot sold for $12.50 
on Montgomery, Market, Stockton or 
Bush street. Deeds were signed 
by the Alcalde. A charge "of three 
dollars was made for recording. 
Lots near the Chronicle building, 
now worth $2,500 to $3,000 per 
front foot, then sold for $12.50 a full 



instances can be given to 



fifty -vara lot. 

Mao, 
show the advance in real estate from 
the early days to our own, and many 
more to illustrate the rapid apprecia- 
tion in values that took place in two 
or three years, followed Vv a depre- 
ciation equally marked. Two blocks 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



66 



by the Rev. S. H. Willey, one of 
whose first cares was to buy a lot for 
a church building. This he secured 
where the Redington Block stands. 
It cost $500, but is now said to be 
worth $450,000. In 1850 a builder 
who had about a thousand dollars 
was advised to buy in the neighbor- 
hood of Twelfth and Howard, or 
Twelfth and Mission. He did so, 
and to-day his thousand-dollar in- 
vestment has increased in value till it 
has reached $100,000. In 1853 the 
law firm of Halleck, Peachy, Billings 
& Park leased the lot on the south- 
east corner of Montgomery and Wash- 
ington streets for a term of ten years. 
The rental was a thousand dollars 
per month, with the privilege on the 
part of the lessees of purchasing at 
the end of the time for $100,000. A 
building was erected at a cost of 
half a million dollars, carpenters and 
bricklayers being paid at the rate of 
$15 a day. At the end of the time the 
lot, 122xl37£, was duly purchased as 
agreed on. The old Bank Exchange 
leased the corner as a saloon, paying 
therefor on a twelve months lease 
the enormous sum of $2,250 per 
month. 

To-day, however, the same saloon 
rents for $100 per month. Not long 
since Judge Hoge, one of the first 
occupants, rented two rooms in the 
block for which he paid $30 per 
month, but which in the olden days 
cost him $250 per month. This suf- 
ficiently illustrates the decline in 
rental values in certain quarters of 
the city. In 1848 General Halleck 
purchased, for $7,000 for a home- 
stead, four fifty varas on the corner 
of Second and Folsom street*. His 
wife willed it to an hospital in New 
York, and it was recently sold. 
Kohler & Frohling and Wells, Fargo 
& Co. were the purchasers. The 
purchase price was $115,000— $65,- 
000 to Kohler & Frohling, the bal- 
ance to Wells, Fargo & Co. A 
block away the Postoffice Commis- 
sion recommended the purchase for 
$750,000 of four similar lots o» Sec- 



ond and Howard. This shows the 
tremendous appreciation that has 
taken place in the values of realty 
since the early days of the city. 

It has not, of course, been accom- 
plished without considerable fluctua- 
tions in value, which has lifted many 
to the pinnacle of great wealth, 
others — fewer far though — have by 
it been reduced to poverty. One of 
the first great sales was that of water 
lots on December 30, 1853. Those 
on the coiner of Clay and Drumin 
streets brought $15,500. One hun- 
dred and twenty-two lots (25x59.6 
feet, from East street to California 
street wharf) were sold for an average 
of $27,600, a pretty good price for that 
day, and not contrasting unfavorably 
with what they would sell for at the 

{>resent. From the mention of water 
ots it may be seen that a consider- 
able portion of what is the business 
section of the city had not been re- 
claimed from the bay. The year 
when this sale took place was one of 
violent speculation, and the following 
was correspondingly depressed. As 
might have been guessed from the 
prices just given, rents, which had 
run as high as four to six thousand 
dollars a month, were reduced sud- 
denly to as low as five hundred dol- 
lars a month. For three or four 
years water front lots had been the 
rage. But now residence lots began 
to be inquired for. In 1854 the com- 
missioners decided in favor of the 
pueblo title, and thus decided a 
question that for some time had been 
a bar to the city's progress. Bat 
realty was not prosperous owing to 
the speculations referred to, and a 
large proportion of the best prop- 
erty was held subject to heavy 
mortgages . By degrees the depres- 
sion wore off, and real estate began 
once more to slowly recover itself. 
Money became cheaper, and in 1858 
it was possible to borrow money on 
real estate security at 1J to 1£ per 
cent per month. In this year the 
Fraser River excitement had posses- 
sion of the city, and it seeraed at one 



BUILDERS OP A GBEAT CITY. 



time as if it would be half deserted. 
Under such circumstances real es- 
tate became very depressed. The 
sales in that year amounted to only 
$4,110,806 in value. Nextyear there 
were considerable improvements, and 
Precito Valley, the Hayes Tract and 
the land contained within the limits 
of the Pioche estate were added to 
the city. In this year the Liman- 
tottr & Shereback claim of 5,963 
acres was settled. Claims hav- 
ing some real or fraudulent basis 
were the terror of those who pur- 
chased land in early days in 
San Francisco. But by degrees 
either the courts disallowed them or 
they were settled in some form or 
other. In 1860 an immense amount 
of capital came seeking investment 
in San Francisco, and the realty mar- 
ket assumed some life again. The 
Market Street Hail road was now 
opened. In that year sales had 
arisen to $8,851,229 in value. In 
1861 another real estate speculation 
opened up in this city. There were 
no less than fifteen incorporations 
formed to supply their members with 
homesteads and building lots in the 
new parts of the city, and especially 
on the line of the San Jose liailroad, 
where ihey strung along three miles 
from the City Hall. The original 



annum. In 1870 sales were only half 
the amount, and tiio speculative 
fever had commenced to abate. For 
three years more sales did not exceed 
twelve to fourteen millions of dollars. 
In 1874, however, they suddenly 
jumped up to close on to twenty- 
four millions, in 1875 to $35,889,374, 
and thcu came another period of de- 
cline. Bv 1879 the volume of sales 
had shrunk to 810,318,744. From 
this on there has been a gradual ap- 
preciation, till the present year. 
The a les of the past four years thus 
compare: 

1887 $20,745,059 

1888 24,744,479 

1889 33,769,069 

1890 36,545,887 

Here is an increase in sales of 
seven ti -five per cent in about four 
vears. The system of auction sales 
lias assumed unu-ual prominence, 
There is a slight excitement in realty 
tliis year in San Francisco, but it is 
a healthy one. There is added every 
year to our population an average of 
sixteen thousmd souls, po that there 
should be a good healthy activity 
uuder normal circumstances. 

SOME PUBLIC BUILDINGS, 

The United States Appraisers' 

Building is situated on Sausoine 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



AT 



torneys and Assistants ; while on the 
fourth are the headquarters of the 
Board of U. S. Surgeons and the 
Pension Department, also the rooms 
of the Grand Jury and Petit Jury. 

The United States Mint, on the 
corner of Fifth and Mission streets, 
is one of the finest and most impos- 
ing structures in the city. It has a 
frontage of 217J feet on the first 
named street and 160 J feet on the 
latter. It is built in the Doric style 
of architecture of granite and sand- 
stone, is two stories high, and has a 
commodious basement. At the 
right of the entrance is a collection 
composed of the most rare and valu- 
able medals and coins of all nations, 
from the earliest coinage of tbe 
ancients down to the present time. 
This is the largest mint in the world 
and the best methods and processes 
are utilized in all its operations. 
The monthly product is about two 
million dollars. Visitors are admit- 
ted every working day from 9 to 
11 :30 A. M. 

The Mercantile Library Associa- 
tion was organized January 24, 1853. 
The handsome building it at present 
occupies on Bush street, between 
Montgomery and Sansome, built by 
the society in 1868, although pro- 
vided with elegantly appointed rooms, 
has been sold. The association has 
purchased an elegant lot on the 
northeast corner of Van Ness and 
Golden Gate avenues, upon which it 
is erecting a large and finely equipped 
building for its new home. 

The library possesses about 60,000 
volumes, including an unusually 
good collection of periodical and 
reference literature. The initiation 
fee is $1, and the quarterly dues 
$1 50. 

THE SEAWALL. 

San Francisco in a few years will 
have one of the finest water fronts in 
the United States in the shape of 
the seawall. It will, within a year, 
be completed from Mission street to 
Taylor. When it has been completed 



it will extend from Van Ness avenue 
to the borders of San Mateo County, 
a distance of eight miles. 

Three-quarters of a million dol- 
lars will be spent at the foot of 
Market street. A depot will be con- 
structed, of two ana three stories, 
built of iron, steel, glass and con- 
crete, very little wood being used. 
The dimensions will be 800x150 feet. 
There will be a central elevation to 
be used for a clock tower. All the 
ferries will use one building, as 
there will be ample accommodation 
not only for them, but for many 
others. The building will extend 
across Market street about 400 feet 
each way. The ground floor will be 
used for baggage, express and mail 
rooms, and for a portion of the pas- 
senger travel. The second floor will 
be devoted to the bulk of the pas- 
senger travel, to ticket and other 
offices. The third floor will be oc- 
cupied by ticket and auditiug depart- 
ments. A branch Postoffice will be 
on part of the first and second floors. 
The second story will be reached 
by a steel bridge over East street, 
and extending to the south side of 
Sacramento street, and connected 
directly with the upper decks of 
steamers. The building is estimated, 
with the bridge and approaches, to 
cost about $504,000. 

There will be the same number of 
ferry slips that there are now. The 
depth will be 150 feet ea<t of the 
present seawall line and 450 feet west 
of the pier-head line, leaving the 
place indicated for slips. 

The total cost of constructing 
7,361 feet of seawall has been $1,- 
800,672 85. The average cost per 
lineal foot has been $176 70. 

The cost of the several sections 
is shown by the following: 

Sec. A, 561 feet long. $86,614 53 

Sec. 1, 1000 feet long. 165,63140 

Sec. 2, 1000 feet long.. 167,504 09 

Sec. 3, 1000 feet long . 235,049 51 

Sec. 4, 1000 feet long.. 240,872 01 



BUILDEES OP A GREAT CITY. 



Sec. 5, 1000 feet long.. 169,893 57 
See. 6, 800 feet long.. 126,779 73 
Sec. 7, 1000 feet long. . 109,327 99 

A belt railroad will, in future 
days, encircle all the water front. 

STREET NAMES IN SAN FRANCISCO. 

While the hamlet of Terba Buena 
was under Mexican rule, the names 
of all the streets had the Spanish 
term "calle" prefixed. They were, 
however, laid out in no regular order 
until 1846. After the American oc- 
cupation this, of course, was dropped. 
On the principle of honor to whom 
honor is due, those who hud out the 
city in early days named the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares after men promi- 
ment in our early history. Alcades 
Bartlett and Hyde had a good deal 
to do with our street nomenclature. 
Thus Stockton street received its 
name from Commodore Stockton, 
who was the commanding officer of 
the fleet on this coast, and who suc- 
ceeded as Governor, Commodore 
Sloat, who first raised the American 
flag at Monterey ; Montgomery, from 
Captain Montgomery of the United 
States sloop of war Portsmouth ; 
Powell street from a surgeon ou the 
issel ; Mason street was 



growing on it, and Pine, Sansome 
and Post streets from well known 
streets in Philadelphia. Market 
street being also one of Philadel- 
phia's great thoroughfares was re- 
vived in San Francisco by Alcalde 
Hyde, who first applied it to Cali- 
fornia street. But in February, 
1847, Alcalde Bryant had it changed 
to California street in honor of the 
State, when Mr. Hyde, who was 
then helping to lay out the city, gave 
the name in August, 1847, to the 
present broad thoroughfare, which 
even then he had the foresight to 
see would be the city's great com- 
mercial artery. Broadway was so 
called because it was thought that 
it would be similar in importance 
to its great namesake in Mew 
York. Vallejo street brings to mind 
the career of one of our most 
distinguished native Culifornians. 
All streets north of Vallejo re- 
ceived their names from Mr. Hyde 
when he was Alcalde. The gentle- 
man himself was honored by the 
name of Hyde street, running north 
from the now City Hall to the 
bay. Spear street brings to mind 
Nathan S. Spear, one of our oldest 
merchants, as does Leidesd. irff street, 
W. A. Leidesdorff, one of the. oldest 
traders in California ; Davis street 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



69 



Mission street, leading for a time to 
the "Mission Dolores." Front 
street was long the water front of our 
city, while Commercial and Mer- 
chant streets, as names, are suffi- 
ciently explanatory in themselves. 

THE STOCK AND BOND EXCHANGE. 

The Stock and Bond Exchange of 
San Francisco, so called to distin- 
guish it from the Stock Exchanges 
of this city, though, to use a figure 
of speech, young in years, may be 
looked upon as the foundation of a 
great future business that will be 
overshadowing in its importance. 
It is only of late years that the at- 
tention of our capitalists has been 
seriously directed to the bonanzas 
that lay untouched in the undeveloped 
resources, many and far outreaching, 
of our coast. Previously, mines and 
mining were the only tilings deemed 
worthy of attracting their attention, 
and millions for mines, not a cent 
for anything else, cannot be deemed 
a very grave exaggeration when given 
as the shibboletn of most of the 
moneyed men of San Francisco. 
Nor can this be wondered at, when 
the fact is remembered that the pro- 
duct of the mines of the coast within 
the lifetime of the present genera- 
tion has exceeded two and a quarter 
billions of dollars in value. Slowly 
but surely, however, conviction 
dawned on the minds of men that 
there were undeveloped and never- 
failing bonanzas in other directions, 
and that while our resources in those 
of auriferous and argentiferous 
wealth were, as regards the present 
generation, practically illimitable, 
there were others that had no limit 
as long as a race of civilized men 
dwelt on our shores. Many were 
the companies formed in early days, 
cradled amid the hills and gulches 
of the mountains, where our precious 
metals were sought, that knew but 
little of the conventionalities that 
attend such matters amongst more 
conventional surroundings, but there 
comes slow but surely an end to all 



these things. Companies for the 
furtherance of steam navigation, for 
the supply of gas and water, etc., 
began to be formed, and informal 
dealings in such securities to begin. 
Amongst the earliest stocks sold in 
this way were those of the Pacific 
Mail, the California Steam Naviga- 
tion Company, and some others. 

The business gradually grew in 
importance and standing, but the 
mode in which it was carried on was 
the reverse of satisfactory. Brokers 
did business on the street — on the 
curbstone perhaps would be the bet- 
ter mode of expressing it. The cor- 
rect value of the stocks dealt in was 
difficult, often impossible to ascer- 
tain, the result being that bankers 
and others had no method of finding 
.out what they could loan on them or 
how; while brokers themselves were 
but too frequently speculators, ad- 
vancing or depressing the market as 
suited their convenience, making ex- 
orbitant commissions and gains, 
sometimes as much as $5 per share. 
The result of all this was that busi- 
ness in them was restricted, the 
market values of the stocks unduly 
inflated or depressed, while the total 
volume of business was lessened, 
and its natural growth prevented. 
It was then proposed to organize a 
Board of their own. A call was is- 
sued for a meeting which was held 
in the office of Wohl & Pollitz. All 
the brokers responded and an or- 
ganization was effected. 

The first meetings were held in 
the same office — that is, for two or 
three days. The first business ses- 
sion was held on September 19th at 
the office of A. Baird, 320 California 
street. A committee was then nom- 
inated which found suitable rooms at 
312 California street. Here, how- 
ever, the Exchange held its sessions 
only a few weeks. The spacious 
rooms at 22 Merchants' Exchange 
were then taken and since that time 
the Exchange has there held its ses- 
sions. There were 21 members at 
starting, which number was increased 



70 



BUILDERS OF A GKEAT CITY. 



to 30 by sale of seats, which has 
been reduced to 2G since, by pur- 
chase and retirement therefrom. It 
is not the policy of the Exchange to 
increase its membership, but to keep 
it at its present number. There are, 
therefore, no seats for snle. The 
Exchange was organized September 
18, 1882, and has had a brief bat 
prosperous existence of somewhat 
over eight years. It is, therefore, in 
its infancy. It is, however, a very 
lively infant, and we may as well ask 
if such it is now, what is its future 
development to be? That must be 
answered by referring to the stock 
exchanges of London, Now York 
and the bourses of the great cities 
of continental Europe, which in its 
methods it somewhat closely resem- 
bles. To show what this means, we 
- may say that the sales on the New 
York Stock Exchange in 1880 were 
100,80*2,050, or over one hundred 
million shares of the value of 
$5,885,662,200, or close on six bil- 
lions of dollars. Applied to the 
Stock and Bond Exchange of San 
Francisco this may seem like a 
wild and fanciful dream, but ths 
New York Stock Exchange had 
equally humble beginnings with that 
whose career we are endeavoring so 
briefly to chronicli 



eight different banks, of seven insur- 
ance companies, of six powder com- 
panies, besides twenty-three other 
different stocks and bonds. This is 
much more desirable than the old 
style, where sometimes the brokers 
mude a big plum; but all the better 
pleased with the mode of business in 
fashion now. The bankers and com- 
mission houses were always sending 
round from one broker to another 
trying to get quotations, and no one 
knew what any stock was really 
worth. And those who lived at a 
distance found it impossible to do 
anything in them. 

Many of the brokers were opposed 
to the change involved in the new 
departure, but the majority favored 
it and all ultimately came round. 

There are no California State 
bonds for t^ale. There has been an 
enormous accumulation of money in 
the city during the past fourteen 
years, and any good stock or bond is 
eagerly sought after. 

It is next to impossible to get hold 
of a share in the Savings and Loan 
Society. It is very hard to buy any 
of the stock of the Grangers' Bank. 
Pacific Bank stock cannot be had as 
it is all liuLi by those that do not 
want to part with it. Tbnt of the 
San Jose First National 




SAN FRANCISCO. . 



71 



stock worth about six millions of 
dollars. Oakland Gas stock sells 
freely. Amongst powder stocks the 
Atlantic Dynamite, Giant, Safety 
Nitro and Vigorit are the favorite 
subjects of purchase and sale. In 
insurance stocks the California, Fire- 
man's Fund and the Union seem to 
be more dealt in than others. In 
fact, most insurance stocks are splen- 
did investments and holders do not 
care to let go. There has been a 
great sale for the shares of the Elec- 
tric Light Company. The Hawaiian 
Commercial Company's shares have 
also proved favorite stocks during a 
couple of years past. 

The State cannot pay over 6 per 
cent for money and cannot issue any 
unnecessary bonds, so no increase 
of business can be expected irom 
this source. The counties are re- 
ducing the interest on their bonds 
and can redeem them at any time. 
They are thus less desirable objects 
of investment. Los Angeles county 
reduced the interest on its bonds 
from 7 and 8 to 4J per cent. New 
York stocks might be sold here to 
some extent, and in fact are. 

There is, however, balm in Gilead. 
The organization and growth of new 
towns and cities must give rise to 
companies for the supply of gas and 
water, electric lighting companies 
and various others, all of whose 
shares can be placed on the Stock 
and Bond Exchange. Besides this, 
investors, finding that it is very diffi- 
cult to buy other securities, will 
come to be increasingly interested 
in stocks and bonds representive of 
sound manufacturing enterprises. 
A great many new banks, too, will 
spring up all over the country whose 
snares will be legitimate objects of 
purchase and sale. There is, there- 
fore, a great and certain sphere of 
usefulness before the Stock and 
Bond Exchange, which may well 
look forward to a career as a future 
rival of the leading exchanges of the 
old and new worlds. 



Twelve years ago there were only a 
few brokers in this business. The 
majority of the brokers have not 
been in the business more than seven 
years. The charter members of the 
Board were: John Perry, Jr., 
August Helbing, R. G. Brown, Ed- 
ward Pollitz, Andrew Baird, Edward 
Barry, H . Berl, George F. Bowman, 
N. Duperu, M. H. Grossmayer, J. 
Hausmeister, Mathias Meyer, I. 
Strassburger, Charles Sutro, Gus- 
tave Sutro, W. C. Bousfield, A. "YV. 
Blow, George L. Bradley, S. J. 
Frank, S. D. Hovey, and Frank 
Wohl. The last mentioned four are 
no longer members. All coming in 
after the first or charter members 
had to pay $500. 

Considerable business is done on 
behalf of country clients in Spring 
Valley, gas, and other stocks. In 
every town where there is a bank 
there are more or less investors. 

Railroad securities are in most of 
the exchanges of the world the main- 
stay of the business, and so it must 
be here. The great hope for the fu- 
ture of the Exchange is the building 
of railroads controlled here, and the 
establishment of San Francisco as 
one of the foremost centers of the 
world where securities and enter- 
prises of every grade will be nego- 
tiated as they are now in London. 

About seven years ago there was a 
very great speculation in local se- 
curities, but apart from that the 
business for the past six months has 
been very lively in the Exchange. 

As a matter of curiosity, we ap- 
pend the sale of the first few days, 
so that our readers may compare 
prices prevailing then and now. 

September 19, 1882—20 shares 
Omnibus R. R., $62; 20 do Presidio 
R. R., $69; 50 do Safety Nitro, 
$16 50; 50 do California Electric 
Light, $7 75; 100 do Hawaiian 
Commercial Company, $62. 

September 20, 1882—20 shares 
Atlantic Dynamite, $84; 100 do 
Safety Nitro, $16 J; 50 do San Fran- 
pisco Gas Light, $56; 15 do Spring 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Valley, $117; 20 do Safety Nitro, 
$15 75; 60 do Presidio R. R., $70. 

September 21, 1882—50 shares 
Presidio R. R., $69; 50 do Atlantic 
Powder, $82; 25 do Oakland Gas, 
$27J; 7 do Union Insurance, $123 75; 
10 do Bank of California, $167; 50 
do San Francisco Gas Lignt, $56 50; 

September 22, 1882—20 shares 
Presidio R. R, $69 25; 50 do 
Heeia Sugar Company, $7 50; 25 
do San Francisco Gas Light, $56 50; 
30 do Presidio R. R., $69; 20 Ha- 
waiian Commercial Company, $60. 

September 25, 1882—1000 Spring 
Valley bonds, $120; 50 ahares Oak- 
land Gas Company, $28; 10 do Ha- 
waiian Commercial Company, $6; 
50 do Safety Nitro, $15 50; 100 do 
California Electric Works, $7 50. 

September 26, 1882—100 shares 
Hawaiian Commercial Company, $59: 
60 do Presidio R. R., $69. 

Toward the close of 1890, saleB 
were made of the same securi- 
ties as follows: California Electric 
Light $15 to $18; San Francisco 
Gas Light, $56| to $59; Spring 
Valley Water, $93 50 to $97; Omni- 
bus R. R., $31 asked; Presidio 
B. B., $50; Safety Nitro, $10; Ha- 
waiian Commercial Company, $14j 
to $18; Atlantic Dynamite, $U 00 



Howard Fire Company was then or- 
ganized, with Mr. Howard as fore- 
man. Of this company all the mer- 
chants and all the best citizens were 
members. There were many storiea 
of heroism and devotion connected 
with the conflagrations of those 
days. One of the most courageous 
deeds was that of Thomas H. Selby 
and his companions, who shut them- 
selves up in Mr. Selby's store and 
obtained from awell in the basement, 
dug for just such an emergency as 
this, water, which they continued to 

four on the building to cool it, 
eeping this up with all the energy 
of despair. For hours the iron 
shutters were red hot and the party 
would fain have escaped from their 
perilous position had it been pos- 
sible. But they could not ; walls of 
fire enclosed the building on every 
hand. At last, however, the struct- 
ure was saved, as the whirlwind of 
flame passed on. 

On November 15, 1853, the Fire 
Department had thirteen engines, 
thirteen hose-carts, three book and 
ladder companies, with 1200 names 
on the rolls. But these days of vol- 
unteering could not last forever, and 
by degrees the present department 
whs organized. An attempt which 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



78 



the Western world for the efficiency 
of his force, and his success in fight- 
ing fires. The department as now 
organized consists of a Board of Fire 
Commissioners, who act without com- 

Sensation, a Chief Engineer, one 
list Assistant Chief Engineer, one 
Second Assistant Chief Engineer 
and five Assistant or District En- 
gineers, seventeen steam fire engine 
companies, seven hose companies 
(including a fire-boat) and five hook 
and ladder companies, comprising a 
force of 362 men of all grades and 
positions. 

THE PRESS. 

We have # already given the story 
of the genesis of the newspaper 
press in San Francisco when the 
Californian filled the field, and not 
unacceptably for that day and gener- 
ation. We have also noted how it 
came to be merged into the Alia 
California, at present the sole link in 
the newspaper world connecting the 
present with the past. San Fran- 
cisco had scarce begun to assume 
form and consistence as a city ere 
other aspirants for journalistic fame 
appeared. In 1850, when the ad- 
dresses of people could not be given 
in the first Directory because the 
houses had no numbers, E. Gilbert 
& Co. published the Alia on Wash- 
ington street, opposite the Plaza, 
which was then the center of city 
life. Washington Bartlett, after- 
wards a distinguished lawyer, then 
Mayor, then Governor, fathered the 
old Journal of Commerce, which 
hung out its shingle on Montgomery 
street near Washington. The Jour- 
nal was not destined to a very pro- 
longed existence, and was subse- 
quently merged in another paper. 
It did not bring editor Bartlett many 
shekels and he found it dull, stale, 
flat and unprofitable. John Nugent 
was the presiding genius of the 
Daily Herald, published by Nugent 
& Co., not far from the office of the 
Journal of Commerce. For long years 
the Herald was the leader in San 
Francisco journalism and literally 



coined money, but in an evil hour it 
fell. It had been the Democratic 
representative, but it so antagonized 
the feelings of the mercantile com- 
munity on questions connected with 
the war, that its principal patronage 
was withdrawn. The story goes that 
on a certain occasion it published an 
article strongly Southern in its ten- 
dencies. The evening before, it is 
also said, the proprietors of the Alia 
had two articles written, one favor- 
ing the South, the other, the Union, 
and could not decide which to pub- 
lish. It was only at midnight that 
one of the proprietors, a gentleman 
formerly well known, but now num- 
bered with the majority, rushed back 
to the office, had the pro-Southern 
article distributed, and the other pub- 
lished in its place. Next, a crowd 
of merchants could be seen going to 
the office of the Herald, ordering out 
their advertisements and taking them 
to th3 Alta, which thus took the place 
previously held by its competitor, 
and for a long series of years retained 
it. The Herald lingered along, 
finally ceased its separate existence, 
and though Nugent afterwards re- 
suscitated it, its prestige was gone, 
and now the later generation of San 
Franciscans hardly even know that 
it ever existed. Nugent was a 
talented journalist, and a duel- 
ist. The Alta has experienced sev- 
eral changes of ownership. It was 
once owned by Messrs. Fitch and 
Pickering of the Bulletin and Call, and 
for a long time by McCrellish and 
Woodward, and has for some years 
been edited by John P. Irish, a 
talanted journalist and a noted factor 
in the political world. For long it was 
Republican, but under Col. Irish's 
management and now flies the flag of 
the Democracy. But to return to 
1850. There were also published the 
California Courier, the Pacific News, 
and the Evening Picayune, all daily, 
and the Watchman, a monthly. Six 
dailies for a small community such 
as that of San Francisco at that early 
day was a respectable representa- 



u 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



lion, seeing that after the lapse of 
forty years we have only nine d«ws- 

Saiiers published daily in the Eng- 
sh language. Iu the interim mxny 
have be.n the journalistic ventures, 
only a comparative few of which have 
survived, and fewer still that have 
nourished. It is, of course, not our 
intention here to tell the secrets of 
the prison house, but we would if we 
could a tale unfold. However, we 
forbear. One of the old papers of 
the oily was the Placer Times and 
Transcript, which, as its name im- 
plies, was the result of a journalistic 
pooling of issues on the gold fields. 
It was moved from Placer to San 
Francisco, and as it was the medium 
for a great deal of profitable legal 
advertising, laid the foundation of 
the fortunes of its proprietors, 
Messrs. Fitch and Pickering. 

The Call was founded in 185b 1 by a 
number of printers out of employ- 
ment, the only one who is now 
connected with it being Mr. George 
Barnes, the father of dramatic criti- 
cism in San Francisco. It was after- 
ward-t purchased by Messrs. Fitch 
and Picturing, previously of the Alia. 
Ever since it has nourished, and 
now may be considered one of the 
leading papers in the West, occu- 
a somewhat similai 



the brightest and best papers Son 
Francisco has ever seen. He fought 
the corrupt elements unceasingly. 
After an attack on J. P. Casey, the 
editor of a rival paper, he was shot 
by that gentleman. Casey was after- 
wards executed by the Vigilance 
Committee. Subsequently, the Bui' 
It-tin wue purchased by Messrs. Filch 
it Pickering. The Bulletin has long 
beeu one of the leading papers of 
the city, and has a character for con- 
servatism, solidity and reliability, 
especially amongst business men. 
The Chronicle, the World of San 
Francisco journalism, was founded 
by Charles and M. H. De Young in 
1865, and has long been the es- 
pecial rival of the Call, the same 
love existing between them that 
usually does in such cases. The 
Chronicle was at first simply a dra- 
matic paper, but grit uud energy, 
with good business judgment, soon 

Eushed it beyond tiio.-e narrow 
ounds, and it became a regular 
daily paper. It has nourished ex- 
ceedingly, and no better proof of 
tlie tact need be adduced than the 
magnificent building in which it is 
now housed. Charles de Young, for 
long years the conductor, was shot 
by I. M. Kalloch. Since that 




San FfcANCisco. 



ft 



a morning paper of it. He was bit- 
terly opposed on the occasion of his 
running for United States Senator 
by most of the other papers, but he 
made them pay dearly for it, as he 
doubled the size of the Examiner, 
and all the other morning dailies 
were obliged to follow his example. 
He poured out money like water in 
his effort to make his paper the lead- 
er in metropolitan journalism, and 
with the hope eventually of being 
reimbursed. He was one of our 
richest mine owners. The Examiner 
always has been staunchly Demo- 
cratic, and leans towards the free 
trade wing of the party. The Even- 
ing Post was started as a penny or 
cent paper in 1871 by Harry George, 
of Single Tax fame, Wm. M. Hinton, 
Frank Mahon, and a young French- 
man named Rap p. It was quite 
successful, but m an evil hour its 
proprietors concluded to add a morn- 
ing daily to their newspaper prop- 
erty. They for a long time publish- 
ed one of the smallest morning 
dailies ever seen in any city. But 
it did not pay, and at hist involved 
the proprietors so deeply in debt 
that they were obliged to part with it 
to Senator Jones of Nevada, who 
placed it in the Republican column, 
where it has ever since remained. 
It has changed proprietors many 
times. It is bright, newsy, and 
spicy, and a favorite as an evening 
paper, irrespective of the politics of 
its readers, but we do not believe 
that its conductors have laid by 
any shekels. The DaUy Report orig- 
inally saw the light of day as a daily 
stock list — the Stock Report. Away 
back in the seventies it was owned 
by Alfred Wheeler. After a while it 
commenced publishing a little 
mining news, and developed into 
a daiiv mining paper. Being sue 
cessfuf in obtaining a contract to 
do the city printing, it began to ex- 
tend its sphere of usefulness and to 
adventure into the domain of general 
news. Being successful year after 
year in holding the city printing 



contract, no matter what the politics 
of the Board of Supervisors, it pros- 
pered and became more and more of 
a newspaper, until at last it came to 
compete strong'y with the other 
evening dailies in their own field. 
The fact that it has continued to 
hold the city printing against all 
comers has started an irrepressible 
conflict .between it and all its con- 
temporaries, whose commentaries on 
the situation have been bitter and 
caustic, and the Report has not been 
backward in returning the compli- 
ment. 

The commercial interests of the. 
city being special in their nature have 
for a long series of years called for 
the publication of journals specially 
devoted to them. Of these, in the 
order of seniority, we may mention 
the Commercial Herald, which date3 
away back in the fifties, the Journal 
of Commerce, established in 1872, the 
Commercial News, the Grocer and 
Country Merchant, and the Herald of 
Trade and Wood and Iron, the two 
lattet weekly. The founder of the 
Journal of Commerce was William H. 
Murray (now its Secretary), while he 
and James O'Leary Tits editor) have 
together labored in the field of pub- 
lication for a long series of years. 
A feature with it, is its commercial, 
industrial, financial and other statis- 
tics. In this field it bears the palm, 
and is accepted as authority by the 
bureaus at Washington and by the 
Consuls of all the leading nations 
represented in our city. It also does 
business in the legal, insurance and 
mining fields, and is devoted to gen- 
eral news and information as well. 

The number of papers devoted 
to specialties is legion. We may 
mention here the Scientific Press 
and the Pacific Rural Press, pub- 
lished by Dewey & Co. The 
editor of the Rural Press is W. B. 
Ewer, a gentleman also interested in 
the Journal of Commerce, one of the 
oldest editors not only on the Pacific. 
Coast, but also in America, and one 
of erudition and industry. Charles' 



n. 



BUILDERS 01" A GREAT CITY. 



G. Tale and W. F. Wickson, editors, 
the one on the Mining and Scientific 
Press, the other on the Pacific Sural 
Press, are each an authority in hia 
line. 

The Monitor represents with ability 
the interests of our Irish-born ana 
Catholic fellow citizens. 

Amongst mag <zines we can boast 
of the Overland Monthly, originally 
established by John H. Carmany & 
Co., and where Bret Harte laid the 
foundation of his fame, and under its 
revival edited for a long time by 
Charles H. Shinn, a poet and able 
writer. It has not, however, proved 
a gold mine to its owners. 

Amongst strictly religions papers 
we have the Occident, the Christian 
Advocate and the Hebrew, as well as 
many others. 

Amongst the literary weeklies we 
have tbe Argonaut, the News Letter 
and the Argus. The Argonaut is in- 
debted for its success to the person- 
ality of Frank Pixley, who is a good 
hater, and whose dislike — in print — 
of the Hebrews and the Pope's Irish 
is proverbial. Outside of the«e two 
favored classes, which are nearly 
always remembered, he hits around 
pretty impartially. He is a good 
writer and speaker, and, too, a good 
hater. The News Letter is also sup- 



can ideas. Both are well conducted 
papers, the Demokrat being a morn- 
ing and the Abend Post an evening 
paper. La Republica is the oldest 
and most important of oar Spanish 
papers. La Voce del Popolo and 
L 'Italia represent our Italian-speak- 
ing citizens, L'Elvezia those of Swiss- 
Italian origin, La Voz Portuguesa 
those who speak Portuguese. Our 
local French press has always been 
important. It is now represented by 
Le Franco Californien. We used to 
have several pipers published in the 
language of La Belle France. The 
French paper is Democratic in its 
political fattb. All the other foreign 
papers not specially mentioned are 
independent. 

Outside of these there is a multi- 
tude of publications of which it were 
vain to even keep account, a few 
permanent, but most belonging to 
the natural order ephemeridae. The 
doubling in size of tbe lending 
dailies during the past couple of 
years did not have a healthy effect 
on their several exchequers, and they 
are now only beginning to recoup 
themselves for the necessarily in- 
creased outlay which for a long time 
did sot bring any increased remun- 
eration. With the exception of 
about three leading journals and a 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



77 



the commonwealth have given them 
a national reputation. San Fran- 
cisco — California — derives much 
superadded glory from their labors. 
They are ever foremost in defending 
her interests or her character when 
assailed, and they may be found in 
the Legislature and in Congress as 
well as arduously engaged in the ex- 
ercise of their labonous profession. 
The skill of our advocates has 
attracted attention wherever the 
English language is spoken, while 
their character generally as able 

(headers and as good practitioners is 
ar above the average prevailing in 
this country. The roster of men of 
eminence in this profession has been 
more liberally contributed to by San 
Francisco than by any other city of 
its size in the United States. From 
the ranks of the profession men of 
the greatest eminence not only in 
the State, but even in the councils 
of the nation have been drawn. 
They have been distinguished on the 
Supreme Bench. As a body our 
lawyers have ever been noted for 
honor, integrity and patriotism. 
Ever zealous for the glory of the 
city and the commonwealth, they 
have never been wanting when one 
or the other was assailed. As 
years pass by they have been able to 
justly claim more and more dis- 
tinction for learning and renown at 
the hands of their fellow-citizens, 
and form a phalanx of which the 
city may well be proud. 

It must not, of course, be imagined 
that San Francisco always possessed 
such a distinguished body of expo- 
nents of jurisprudence as she has 
now. The beginnings of the profes- 
sion were very crude indeed. In the 
days of Spanish and Mexican 
dominion, the magistrate generally 
dispensed justice without the aid 
of advocates. In the early days of 
the American occupation, ere yet 
American jurisprudence had as- 
sumed full sway, a few wander- 
ing advocates found their way 
hither, whose knowledge of the law 



was limited indeed, and who not 
infrequently served to hopelessly en- 
tangle magistrates as well as them- 
selves and the litigants in the end- 
less mazes resulting from a mixture 
of Mexican and American law. In 
1846 the want of law books seriously 
embarrassed those who tried to prac- 
tice, and many amusing complica- 
tions were the result. In one in- 
stance a smart practitioner borrow- 
ed his opponent's law book for a 
few minutes — it was the only one in 
Yerba Buena — and having got the 
law therefrom, unexpectedly and tri- 
umphantly floored his adversary, 
who, though the possessor of the 
book, seems to have been entirely 
ignorant of its contents. By de- 
grees, however, law books ana law- 
yers, too, began to find their way to 
San Francisco, and some of the most 
eminent of our practitioners found 
honor and reward in the practice of 
their profession in the rising city. 
Amongst those early professors we 
may note Alcalde Hyde, who re- 
cently died ; Col. John W. Geary, 
first Alcalde under American rule ; 
the well-known Hall McAllister, who 
was here in the days of forty-eight ; 
Horace Hawes, Prosecuting Attor- 
ney in 1848-9 ; Myron Norton and 
John J. Lippett of the same epoch ; 
L. W. Hastings, E. P. Jones, Chas. 
E. Pickett, Col. Bussell, Col. J. D. 
Stevenson in 1850, and H. P. Hepburn 
in the same year. Amongst the lead- 
ing attorneys in 1849 were J. B. Hart, 
Michael T. O'Connor, Frank Turk 
and Temple Emmet Peachy, besides 
others already mentioned. Judge 
Leander Quint sat on the bench in 
the early fifties. 

The San Francisco Bar Association 
was organized April 20, 1872, and 
has had a most beneficial effect in 
raising and keeping up the status of 
the profession, and in purifying its 
ranks of the unworthy and ignoble. 
It has two hundred members, the 
peers in intellectuality, honesty, earn- 
estness and patriotism of any body 
of citizens in the country. Its ob- 



?«• 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



jects are to sustain the honor and 
dignity of the profession, and to in- 
crease its usefulness in the promo- 
tion of the due administration of 
justice, and cultivate social inter- 
course amongst its members. Its 
headquarters are at 123 Post street. 
E. R. Taylor is the President, F. T. 
Peering, Secretary ; B. A. Hayne, 
Corresponding Secretary, and John 
M. Burnett, Treasurer. 

The San Francisco Law Library 
Association was organized in 1865. 
The library has 29,831 volumes. It 
is located at the new City Hall. 
The officers are J. P. Hoge, Presi- 
dent ; Ralph C. Harrison, Treasurer; 
J. H. Deering, Secretary and Libra- 
rian. It is supported by a contribu- 
tion of $1 made by each plaintiff 
when commencing suit in our courts. 

The following picture of law and 
lawyers in the early days is from the 
pen of George W. Hyde, lately de- 
eeased: A suit iu reference to some 
matter connected with the affairs of 
the City Hotel was brought before 
Washington A. Bartlett, then Al- 
calde; Jones and Pickett counsel for 
plaintiff, Hyde for defense. Plain- 
tiff's attorneys demanded a jury at 
the last moment. The Alcalde was 
willing, but required a deposit of 
HOP to be made in court by the 



manded ; Hyde consented, provid- 
ing a deposit of $100 was made in 
court by the contestants to secure 
payment of jury fees. They de- 
clined to deposit. After some little 
talk, the Alcalde, Hyde, suggested 
that the matter be referred to the 
Commandant on appeal, and if de- 
cided in their favor, all right. The 
question was referred and the Com- 
mandant decided against them, and 
also submitted that they must also pay 
the fees in the first cause tried be- 
fore Bartlett. Hence the squibs in 
the Star aBsailing Hyde for denying 
an American citizen the right of trial 
by jury, joined with a mendacious 
allegation of the Alcalde smoking in 
court during court hours. Before 
and after these hours the room was 
Hyde' s private home, where he 
lived, having been obliged to take 
the office there when the authorities 
took military possession of the Cus- 
tom House, where the office had been 
located. 

The following are the dates of arri- 
val of some of our older lawyers : 

NAME. DA.TR OF ARRIVAL. 

Broderick, David C. . . .Jan. 13, 1849 

Cole, Cornelius July 20, 1849 

Chadbourae, Jabes. . ..Aug. — , 1849 
Dwindle, Sam'l H. . . .Oct. — , 1849 




SAN FRANCISCO. 



79 



iben in San Francisco, and is there- 
fore especially applicable to the fol- 
lowing pages. It is not of that, 
however, that we would now dis- 
course, but rather of the rise and 
progress of the stage in San Fran- 
cisco. It is worthy of much broader 
treatment as also of a much more 
exhaustive one than can here be 
given to it. In this brief refer- 
ence we touch merely its material 
aspect, and that solely on account of 
the prominent business standing of 
many of .its leading representatives. 
It employs capital of $3,000,000, 
while not less than four to five hun- 
dred people of all degrees and 
shades of excellence in tragedy, 
comedy, music, and the kindred arts 
minister to the enjoyment and culti- 
vated tastes of a fastidious and dis- 
criminating public. 

Generally blessed with abundance 
of means, either as successful miners 
or as rich and well-to-do business 
men, San Francisco was early a 
liberal patron of anything meritor- 
ious bearing any relation to the 
stage. The first style of amusement 
was that afforded by the ever-popu- 
lar circus. Early in 1849 a Mr. 
Bowe started one at the corner of 
Kearny and Clay streets. The per- 
formance was, as usual, given under 
canvas. A Mr. Foley established an- 
other in the course of the same year. 
As the population was rapidly aug- 
menting there was room enough for 
both. The general admission was 
$3, while the private stalls command- 
ed as much as $55 each. Notwith- 
standing this high price both places 
were crowded. The first concert 
was given June 22d of the same year 
by Stephen C. Massett. The price 
of seats was $3 which seemed to have 
at that time been the generally rec- 
ognized tariff. There were only four 
ladies present, a fact which testified 
to the absence of lovely woman from 
the scenes and pursuits of that early 
epoch. The first theater in the State 
was the Eagle Theater at Sacra- 
mento. It was a canvas structure 



with a gambling house in front — wto 
suppose to lend spice and variety to 
the scenes from the tamer life of 
other lands depicted on its boards. 
The Eagle Theater Company gave in 
Washington Hall, in San Francisco, 
January 16, 1850, the first perform- 
ance of the kind ever witnessed in 
our city. The play was ' ' The Wife, ' ' 
with an afterpiece, "The Sentinel; or, 
The Deserted Post." The principal 
actors were Messrs. At water, Wright, 
Daly, McKay and Mrs. Frank Ray. 
The venture was a pronounced suc- 
cess, but at the end of the week the 
treasurer lost the proceeds at monte 
and the company broke up. We 
cannot, however, regard the act of 
the defaulting official as at all typi-' 
cal of the times. After this the 
theater languished for a while, but 
finally people wanted something bet- 
ter than the circus could give them, 
and Mr. Bowe added a stage to this 
establishment. It was very popular 
and he made money and reputation 
both by the venture. 

But the time had come for a legi- 
timate theater, and in April, 1850, a 
little one was established on Mont- 
gomery street. This was followed 
in September of the same year by 
the Jenny Lind Theater on Kearny 
street near Washington. Another 
was built on Clay street, but lacked 
prestige, and never was able to make 
its way into popular regard. The 
Jenny Lind, destroyed by fire, was 
rebuilt by Mr. Thomas Maguire, and 
had a new lease of public favor, but 
was eventually sold to the City and 
County of San Francisco for $200,- 
000 in July, 1852, and is now known 
as the old City Hall. But both as 
theater and municipal palace, it had 
long outlived its usefulness. The 
old Adelphi was erected in 1851 on 
Dupont, near Clay, while the Amer- 
ican Theater became a caterer for 
the public patronage on Sansome 
street near California on October 
20th, of the same year. The San 
Francisco Hall was opened on Christ- 
mad eve of the next year. Miss 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



Laura Keene, the celebrated actress, 
opened the Union in 1853. The 
Olympic, too, came forward aa an 
aspirant for popular favor, while the 
old and long famous Metropolitan 
opened its doors to the public in 
the same year. Its first production 
was that sterling old comedy, "The 
School for Scandal." The. house 
noted served the public well for 
many a day, and it was not till long 
after that San Francisco enjoyed the 
luxury of a new theater. On Janu- 
ary 11, 1864, Mnguire's Opera House 
was opened with "Mazeppa" as 
the attraction. Subsequently, on the 
appearance of Edwin Forrest as 
Virginius, a gentleman paid as high 
as $1,000 for a choice of seats . The 
old California was opened iu 1867 
under the management of John Mc- 
Culloagh and Lawrence Barrett, and 
at once became the theater of San 
Francisco. It filled a place that 
hitherto had been supplied by no 
other. Its stock company was one 
of the best in the world, including 
such actors as Keene, Wilson, 
Edwards, McCullongh, Barrett, and 
Meadomes Saunders, Bateman and 
Judah. Mr. Barrett soon after re- 
tired, and Mr. McCullough became 
the sole lessee, with Mr. Barton Hill 
i acting manager. But the stock 



the street above Montgomery, and is 
now known as the Standard. As such 
it was long a favorite with the lovers 
of minstrelsy, and has witnessed 
some of the triumphs of several 
actors and actresses of note, Emer- 
son amongst them. Of late years it 
has been unsuccessful. 

The Alhambra Theater (now the 
New Bash) on the south Bide of the 
street has long been successful under 
the proprietorship of Mr. M. B. 
Leavitt and the management of J. J. 
Gottlob. 

The Baldwin Theater was built in 
1875 by E. J. Baldwin in oonncctian 
with the hotel of the same name, and 
has quite an eventful history. It is 
one of the handsomest theaters in the 
West. It was opened in 1876 by 
Barry Sullivan in "Richard HL* 
Most of the renowned acton and 
actresses have played their parte on 
its stage. Barry Sullivan, Booth and 
Barrett, Madame Modiesko, Bern- 
hardt, Salvini, Wilson Barrett, Flor- 
ence, Bignold, and a host of lesser 
lights, have delighted the San Fran- 
cisco public during the later years. 
The leading American and European 
combinations* have appeared on its 
boards. It was not a remarkable 
success until Al Haymon took charge* 
Since then it has been a fortune to 




SAN FRANOISOO. 



81 



with velvet. Messrs. George Wall- 
enrod, L. B. Stoekwell and 8. O. 
Willey are the managers. 

The Powell Street Theater, opened 
early this year, has, as yet, been 
financially a failure. . 

The Tivoli Opera House was 
opened in 1879 by the Kreling 
Brothers, and as a place where light 
and comic opera has been given at 
popular prices has achieved success. 
Grand opera has also been produced 
there. There is no other place of 
amusement on the coast where such 
excellent performances are given 
where the price of admission is 
only 25 cents, with 25 cents extra 
for an excellent reserved seat. 

The Orpheum, opposite the Alca- 
zar, on O Farrell street, was opened 
on June, 1887, to give the public 
cheap music after the European 
style, Mr. Gustav Walter being the 
proprietor. 

The Grand Opera House, one of 



the finest theaters in America, 
built in 1873, has been known also 
as Wade's Opera House, and has 
witnessed some notable triumphs of 
the dramatic art, but for a long time 
it remained closed, and for some in- 
explicable reason has not achieved 
the success that it should and ought. 

Besides those already mentioned 
there was the Bijou opened by Mr. 
William Emerson in 1889, subse- 
quently known as the Casino, but 
now closed. 

A new temple of the drama will 
soon be opened on Market and 
Hayes streets, while still another has 
been projected to be built on the 
site of the old St. Ignatius Church.. 

The seating capacity of the various 
theaters is as follows : 

Alcazar, 1,100; Baldwin, 1,602; 
Bush Street, 1,200; California, 1,700; 
Casino, 800 ; Grand Opera House, 
2,400 ; Orpheum, 1,700 ; Powell 
Street, 1,300; Standard, 1,000; Tivoli 
Opera House, 1,600. 




Our Commerce and Manufactures. 



Not far from seventy years have 
elapsed since the first keel outside of 
the boats of the missionaries or 
some stray craft from Mexico fur- 
rowed the waters of the bay, and 
not much over forty years since the 
port was opened to the world of 
shipping, yet the rank to which we 
have attained amongst the commer- 
cial cities of the East is surprising, 
especially when the comparatively 
small population of the coast is taken 
into consideration. The following 
were the imports for the fiscal year 
ending Jnne 80, 1890, for leading 
ports as given by the bureau of 
statistics : 

New York $472,153,507 

Boston 66,731,023 

Philadelphia 48,520,602 

San Francisco 48,425,760 

Baltimore, Md. , New Orleans and 
others are all a long way behind. 
San Francisco is the fourth, but the 
difference between it and Philadel- 
phia is so small that they can almost 
be called a tie. It will soon exceed 
Philadelphia, and will not be long in 
catching up with Boston, so that ere 



When we take the whole foreign 
trade into consideration we find that 
our city takes rank as fourth . The 
figures are as follows: 

New York .., $783,081,658 

New Orleaus i 97,715,214 

Boston 182,599,483 

San Francisco 85,468,860 

Baltimore 65,826,840 

Philadelphia 78,228,037 

And though last, not least, it is 
the only port in the United States 
of any size where the tonnage of 
American and foreign vessels enter- 
ing and departing is anywhere nearly 
equal. 

OUR IMPORTS. 

The foreign import trade of the 
past six years thus compares : 

FREE. 

$22,511,224 

28,546,203 

887 28,161,146 

29,655,469 

34,271,337 

29,463,946 



1885 . 



.$11,533,183 




OUR 



J : «:» 



AND- MAJttJFAOTURES. 



8* 



AXEBIOAN YE8SEL8. 

* • • • • i 

1888. 1889. 

Steam . . . .114,510,069 $13,720,282 
Sail 10,641,962 12,956,865 



Total .. .125,152,031 $26,677,147 

1890 

Steam 111,581,946 

Bail 10,335,188 



Total 

FOREIGN. 

1888. 
Steam ... $13,703,939 
SaU 9,753,230 



21,916,434 



i889. 
$15,810,857 
8,800,30* 



Total... $23,457,169 $24,611,159 

1890. 

Steam ..,$14,838,248 

Sail 8,837,818 



Total $23,676,066 

1888. 

Gars without appraisement. . $2,617 

1890. 

Cars without appraisement. . $1,625 

By sea di- 1888. 1889. 

rect $44,627,474 $47,311,547 

By rail... 3,981,726 3,976,759 

1890. 

By sea direct $42,080,329 

By rail...; 3,513,796 

TOTALS . 

1885 $34,044,407 

1886 39,582,551 

1887 41,606,684 

1888 48,609,200 

1889 51,288,306 

1890 45,594,125 

It will be here noted that the prin- 
cipal falling off has been in the 
3uantity of free goods imported, the 
ecline in dutiable haying been com- 
paratively small. There was, too, 
an increased quantity warehoused 
and a very large falling off in goods 
entered for consumption. There 
was a falling x>ff of about 17 per cent 
in the proportion of goods carried 
in American vessels, and a very 
slight one in goods carried in foreign 
vessel*. Nevertheless, it is stell true 



that tfrere is more merchandise car- 
ried in American bottoms than in 
Any other part of the United States*. 
The decline in imports by rail has 
been slight — most of it being by sea. 
We have, however, shipped over 
forty millions by sea, whue our ex- 
ports by rail have been about one 
hundred million pounds, 25 per cent 
more than in 1889. Of this last, 15 

§er cent increase belongs to San 
'rancisco. We cannot claim that 
our manufacturing business has in- 
creased much during the year, but 
it has held its own. 

THE TRADE OP SAN FRANCISCO 

For 1890 may be summed up as fol- 
lows: 
Imports from foreign 

countries .- . $45,594,125 

Imports by rail 22,000,000 

Imports by steam and 

clipper 16,000,000 

Exports by sea 40,033,421 

Exports by rail 40,000,000 

Manufactures distributed 

on the coast 87,000,000 

Total $250,627,546 

This is a small percentage over 
1889. 

Here we include the value of 
canned goods, etc., shipped from 
other points, but distributed by 
San Francisco capital. 

IMPORTS OP TREASURE BY SEA FOR 1890. 

The following includes all by sea, 
but not by rail : 

GOLD. 

Foreign bullion and bars. $428,359 

American coin 245,027 

Foreign coin 5,132,834 

Total $5,806,220 

SILVER. 

Foreign bullion and bars. $2,656,473 

American coin 1,490 

Foreign coin 1,382,976 

Total $4,040,939 

Giand Total 9,847,159 



BUILDERS OF A GBEAT OITY. 



EXPORTS OF TBEABURE IN 1890. 

Mexican Dollars $6,832,998 00 

Cold coin 4,666,738 00 

Silver bars 302,900 00 

Currency and nickels. 297,524 00 

Silver coin 844,041 00 

Foreign dollars 1,318 00 

Golddust 17,687 00 

Gold bars 10,300 00 

Total, 1890 112,973,406 00 

Total, 1889 22,480,939 88 

Total, 18S7 25,668,001 00 

Total, 1886 27,129,403 00 

CALIFORNIA PRODUCTS. 
The industrial products of the 
State for 1890 may be given as fol- 
lows : 

Wheat $24,000,000 

Cattle and sheep, slaught- 
ered 33,000,000 

Gold and silver. 14,500,000 

Fruit 20,000,000 

Barley 9,000,000 

"Wine and brandy 8,000,000 

Cereals, unspecified 7,500,000 

Lumber 7,000,000 

Wool 6,000,000 

Dairy produce 7,000,000 

Quicksilver s .... 1,200,000 

Base bullion and lead . . . 1,500,000 

Other base metals 1,000,000 

Salmon 250,000 



Base metals 62,000,000 

Silver 34,000,000 

SAN FRANCISCO MANUFACTURES IN 1890. 

There has been a slight increase 
in the value of our manufacturing 
industry during the past year. In 
some directions there has been a 
falling off, in others an advance, 
but on the whole we progressed a 
little: 

Founds. Value. 

Food $60,000,000 

Metal 10,000,000 

Textiles, etc 13,500,000 

Lumber, etc 14,500,000 

Leather, etc 10,500,000 

Miscellaneous 20,000,000 

Total $118,500,000 

The capital invested here is about 
forty-eight millions, the material 
used seventy-four millions of dol- 
lars. 

IMPORTS FOB 1890. 

From — Amount. 

Australasia, British $1,195,047; 

Asiatic Russia 94,652 

Belgium 725,875 

British East Indies 1,399,945 

British Columbia 1,570,052 

Canada 2,970 

Central America 3,012,517 




OUR COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



86 



BAN FRANCISCO EXPORTS BY SEA 1890. 

FOREIGN. 

Apia $47,643 

Asiatic Russia 139,735 

Australia 1,088,605 

Batavfo 2,880 

Belgium 1,073,583 

Bolivia 402 

Bombay 2,813 

British Columbia 903,180 

Calcutta 4,247 

Canada 13,282 

Central America 1,749,046 

Chile 27,935 

China 3,114,757 

Corea. 1,585 

Ecuador 153,321 

England 8,673,924 

Fiji Islands 3,221 

France 2,195,471 

Germany 199,297 

Gilbert Islands 230 

Hawaiian Islands 4,184,086 

India 30 

Ireland 7,968,579 

Jamaica 35 

Java 192 

Japan 717,363 

Kirkee 109 

Kotta Badja t 431 

Labuan (Borneo) ' 75 

Manila 59,667 

Marshall Islands.. 42,407 

Marquesas Islands 41,422 

Mexico 1,470,686 

New Zealand 186,467 

Padang 904 

Penang 7,402 

Peru 257,766 

Pitcairn Islands 500 

Baratonga 4,485 

Rio de Janeiro 493,661 

Samarang 1,890 

Scotland 3,730 

Singapore 13,578 

Sourabaya 5,720 

South Sea Islands 2,517 

Tahiti 826,326 

Tasmania 1,186 

Tegal 32 

Trinidad (W.L) 253 



U. S. States of Colombia 108,663 
Total $35,295,319 

EASTERN. 

Baltimore $2,598 

Boston (Mass.) 180,847 

Bridgeport (Conn.) 209 

Burlington 250 

Charlestown (S. C.) 1,409 

Chicago 32,783 

Cleveland (Ohio) 900 

Columbus (Ohio) 450 

Des Moines (la.) 900 

Fall River (Mass.) 334 

Fort Benton (Mont.) 3,111 

Gloucester (Mass.) 3,119 

Lawrence (Mass.) 12,000 

Lynn (Mass.) , 3,336 

Lewiston (Me.) 785 

Maryland 34 

Maiue 5,500 

Manchester (N. H.) 16 

Massachusetts 87 

Norfolk (Va.) 250 

New York 3,969,618 

New Jersey 1,300 

Pennsylvania 848 

Philadelphia (Pa.) 18,337 

Pittsburg (Pa.) 2,174 

Providence (R. I.) 534 

Rhode Island 189 

St. Paul (Minn.) 5,400 

Virginia 83 

Washington 1,810 

West Concord 8,891 

Total $4,258,102 

Total amount of shipments by sea 
from the port of San Francisco for 
the year ending December 31, 1890 : 

Foreign $35,295,319 

Eastern 4,258,102 

Total $39,553,421 

LEADING IMPORTS 1890 — COFFEE. 

Imports of coffee in 1890, accord- 
ing to Custom House statistics : 

Pounds. Value. 

Costa Rica 3,745,592 $759,830 

Guatemala.... 6,658,578 1,132,844 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY, 



San Salvador 6,829,464 


1,083,348 








161,843 


British East 








466,061 


84,839 


Hawaiian 


Is. 






lands... 




97,518 


19,376 


Dutch East 






Indies . 




677,921 


124,093 






534.S49 


102,749 


Tahiti .... 




88,341 


5,819 


Ecuador . 




107,427 


17,761 






70,000 


14,113 


Australia. 




8,860 


1,108 



Total 20,023,559 {3,457,223 

19 20,272,586 2,923,709 



Imports of rice in 1890 according 

to Custom House statistics : 

Pounds. Value. 
Hawaiian Is- 
lands 10,787,100 543,407 

China 36,749,209 716,669 

Italy 11,576 349 

Japan 463,250 12,627 



Same time id 

1889 317,135,144 15,176,148 

TEA. 

Imports of tea in 1890, according 
to Custom House statistics : 

Pounds. Valoe. 

China 2,001,252 «849,855 

British East, 

IndieB 76,955 16,046 

Japan 4,255,663 572,970 

England 5,000 2,002 

Total 6,338,870 3940,873 

!9 7,489,216 935,718 

RECAPITULATION. . 

Coffee 18,467,348 

Rice 1,278,052 

Sugar 13,529,738 

Tea 940,873 



Total ....48,011,135 ?1,273,052 
ne time in 
.859 46,603,676 1,086,035 



Total $19,200,881 

OUR EXPORT TRADB. 

We early began to export, if not 
of our own, at least of surplus East- 
ern products which here foand an 
emporium for the lands and islands: 
of the Pacific. It may not, there- 
fore, be expected that the growth of 
our export trade by sea will at all be 
proportional to our increase in popu- 




OUR COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



1861 9,888,072 

1862 10,565,294 

1863 12877 399 

1864 18 271,752 

1865 14,554,496 

1866 17,803,818 

1867 22,465,903 

1S68 22,943,340 

1869 20,888,981 

1870 17,848,160 

1871 13,951,149 

1872 23,793,530 

1873 31,160,208 

1874 28,425,248 

1875 33,554,081 

1876 81,814,782 

1877 29,992,893 

1878 34,155,394 

1879 36,564,328 

1880 35,563,286 

1881 53,664,352 

1882 51,752,428 

1883 45,860,068 

1884 37,163,916 

1885 36,075,912 

1886 39,891,558 

1887 35,615,257 

1888 40,8 6,161 

1889 41,274,1(97 

1890 39,553,421 

We start thus from small begin- 
nings. Our exports of 1885 were 
more than doubled by 1861. A 
steady increase till 1868 is noted. 
Here we reached values of almost 
twenty-three millions. Then, owing 
to lessened wheat crops came a de- 
cline, reaching its lowest point in 
1871. A good crop added nearly 
ten millions to our export Tallies 
next year — another nearly eight mil- 
lions more in 1873. With many 
fluctuations we went beyond thirty- 
six and a half millions in 1879, 
and with the help of the giant wheat 
crops of 1880 exported produce and 
merchandise to the value of close on 
fifty-four millions in 1881. This was 
the highest point ever reached in 
the history of the port. Waning 
crops reduced our surplus so that 
our export trade values had fallen to 



less than thirty-six million dollars by 
sea in 1887. A gradual improve- 
ment has since taken plaee and 1889 
is the largest year in values in our- 
liistory save 1881, 1882 and 1888. 
liut were wheat prices now what 
they were then, three million dollars 
and over would be added, so that we 
would after all be exceeded only by 
1881 and 1882. 

FOREIGN TRADE OF SAN FRANCISCO 
IMPORTS. 

Early in the history of San Fran- 
cisco we enjoyedavery large import 
trade, becauso all of our supplies had 
to be drawn from abroad and the 
East and by sea. Most of the mer- 
chandise for a few years was im- 
forted round the Horn or via 
anama, and as it was domestic no 
Custom House records wore kept 
of it. The earlier records, too, were 
destroyed by a fire. We here give 
those from 1857, and continuously 
from 1868, all drawn from Custom 
House records: 

1857 86,397,854 

1868 18,723,738 

1869 19,714,001 

1870 19,733,850 

1871 28,736,646 

1872 39,704,754 

1873 33.159,149 

1874 31,529,708 

1875 35,703,782 

1876 37,559,018 

1877 32,276,653 

1878 35,565,139 

1879 34,124,417 

1880 37,240,514 

1881 38,554,923 

1882 44,348,545 

1883 311,828,817 

1884 35,679,853 

1885 :<l,l)44.4<)7 

1886 .'i:i,582,551 

1887 41,606,684 

1888 48,609,200 

1889 51,288,306 

1890 45,594,125 

Here in the interval between 1857 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



and 1868, about eleven years, onr 
imports were almost trebled. Hence- 
forward they increase more slowly. 
Quite a jump waa made, however, 
from 1870 to 1871, and from that 
year to 1872. The next two years 
showed a decline in value. The 
proximate cause of the increase 
here noted was the importation of 
teas and silks and curios for shipment 
overland. An advance was made 
again, but 1872 figures were not 
reached till 1882, ten years subse- 
quently. The value of San Fran- 
cisco imports was given at an amount 
in excess of forty-four million dol- 
lars. Until 1885 the tendency was 
downward, but from that year it has 
been upward and onward, till the 
climax was capped in 1889, when we 
surged over the fifty-one million 
dollar line. On account of the 
greater cheapness of all articles, 
these figures represent much more 
merchandise than they would have 
done twenty years ago. They in- 
clude raw silk for Eastern manufac- 
turers in transit, but not teas in tran- 
sit; one having been left in and the 
other taken out for some, to us, in- 
scrutable reason. 



ARKIVALB IS 1890— AMERICAN. 



Japan 7 8,071 

Mexico 15 3,342 

Central America 5 1,198 

Marshall Islands 3 458 

Chile 12 8,689 

Philadelphia 6 9,275 

Gilbert Islands 1 393 

Apia 1 260 

Caroline Islands 1 299 

Baltimore 10 16,712 

New York 32 58,434 

Peru 1 295 

Ecuador 2 309 

Total 299 260,577 

FOREIGN. 

, Steaio. , 

No. Tons. 

British Columbia 66 80,735 

China and Japan 20 51,840 

Hawaiian Islands. 6 10,284 

Australia 4 6,852 

Mexico 2 302 

Asiatic Russia 1 295 

Total 99 150,308 

No. Tons. 

British Columbia 8 5,832 

Hawaiian Islands.... 23 13,943 

Australia 60 99,605 

Great Britain.. 74 126,611 

Calcutta „.„ 6 10,040 




01TB COMMERCE AND HANUFAOTUBES. 



89 



TOTAfiff. 

, Steam.- 

No Tons. 

American 208 811,987 

Foreign 99 150,308 

Total 802 462,246 

4 Sail. x 

No. Tons. 

American 299 260,577 

Foreign 225 337,440 

Total 524 598,017 

Whaling ... 45 13,153 

Hunting and fishing.. 12 932 

Total 581 612,102 

Total steam and sail..883 1,074,347 

DEPARTURES IN 1890 — AMERICAN. 

, Steam. ^ 

No. Tons. 

Australia 9 17,451 

British Columbia 98 164,210 

China and Japan 10 27,020 

Hawaiian Islands 10 14,637 

Panama. 36 63,843 

Mexico 22 11,280 

Asiatic Russia 1 221 

Total 186 298,662 

, Sail. N 

No. Tons. 

Australia 5 4,493 

British Columbia. 51 69,190 

Central America 8 1,722 

Hawaiian Islands 95 43,945 

Great Britain 40 78,925 

Tahiti 12 3,908 

Mexico 15 2,777 

New York 12 19,905 

Gilbert Islands 1 299 

Arctic Ocean 1 227 

Peru 3 1,427 

Asiatic Russia 4 1,401 

Marshall Islands 2 165 

Caroline Islands 1 29 

Brazil 7 11,348 

Apia 5 1,751 

Chile... 8 2,539 



Harvey Islands 1 

Belgium 2 

Ecuador 5 

Marquesas Islands... 1 

Pitcairn Islands 1 

Total 275 



98 

8,408 

1,189 

189 

115 

243,599 



FOREIGN. 

t Steam.- 

No. Tons. 

Australia 4 6,852 

British Columbia..... 65 118,802 

China and Japan 21 54,175 

Hawaiian Islands. 6 10,284 

Tahiti 1 18 

Asiatic Russia 1 295 

Total 98 185,426 

, Sail. , 

No. Tons. 

Australia 5 8,321 

British Columbia 8 4,837 

Hawaiian Islands 15 6,956 

Great Britain 164 267,566 

Mexico 1 972 

France 28 46,814 

Peru 1 694 

Belgium 11 21,141 

Asiatic Russia .« 2 162 

Germany 3 2,622 

Chile 1 857 

Central America 4 1,853 

Marshall Islands 2 113 

Total 283 867,908 

Whaling 44 11,844 

Hunting and fishing . 14 766 

Total 291 370,517 

TOTALS. 

r- — Steam. N 

N o. Tons. 

American 186 299,662 

Foreign 98 185,426 

Total 284 485,088 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT OITT. 



, Sail. , 

No. Tons. 

American 333 256,608 

Foreign 233 357,908 

"" Total 566 614,516 

Total steam and sail.850 1,000,600 

OUR BANKS. 

Aggregate statement of the San 
Francisco savings banks on the 1st 
of January, 1891. 

RESOURCES. 

Bank premises $965,230 

Heal estate taken for debt 476,551 
Invested in stocks and 

bonds 15,455,096 

Loans on real estate 67,550,498 

Loans on stocks and 

bonds 8,057,130 

Loans on other securities 141,872 

Money on hand 1,770,832 

Due from banks 1,335,974 

Other assets 315,635 

Total of assets §90,068,818 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital $3,813,333 

Reserve profit and lose.... 3,087,938 

Due depositors 88,538,672 

Other liabilities 628,875 



Due from banks , 6,532,402 

Other assets 4,958,271 

Total reaonrcos $68,591,121 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital paid up $27,683,873 

Reserve profit and loss... 9,640,086 

Due depositora. 24,709,077 

Due banks and bankers... 5,925,526 
Other liabilities 632,559 

Total liabilities...'... $68,591,121 
Aggregate statement of the private 
commercial banks of San Francisco, 
January 1, 1S91: 

RESOURCES. 

It i; ill estate taken for 
debt $950 

Invested in stocks and 

bonds 59,270 

Loans on real estate 44,000 

Loans on stocks and 

bonds 150,026 

Loans on other securi- ' 

ties 125,704 

Loans on personal secu- 
rity 2,003,468 

Money on bund 870,898 

Due from banks 341,238 

Other assets 




OUR COMMERCE AND MANUFACTURES. 



91 



Monej on hand 

Due from banks and 

bankers. 

Other assets 



1,264,449 December 78,090,155 



186,873 
41,782 



Total resources $8,255,496 

LIABILITIES. 

• 

Capita] paid up $2,500,000 

Reserve, profit and loss... 982,549 

Due depositors 4,519,846 

Due to banks and 

bankers 152,669 

Other liabilities 1 100,432 



Total liabilities $8,255,496 

BANK CLEARINGS AT BAN FRANCISCO. 

The operations of the San Fran- 
cisco Clearing House for the past 
two years compare as follows : 

1889. 

January $69,546,821 

February 58,555,638 

March 67,011,264 

April 64,706,134 

May 70,651,204 

June 67,897,824 

July 71,298,952 

August 73,933,017 

September 71,480,773 

October 82,022,519 

November 72,825,124 

December 73,456,882 



Total $843,386,152 

1890. 

January $60,489,458 

February 55,040,618 

March 65,104,472 

April 70,086,274 

May 69,805,112 

June 64,188,408 

July 79,010,576 

August 75,827,964 

September 78,315,618 

October. 84,285,079 

November..., 70,822,438 



Total $851,066,172 

MINT COINAGE. 

The following shows the monthly 
coinage in 1890 : 

Januarv $2,380,000 

FebrnaVy 1,940,000 

March 2,220,000 

April 1,720,000 

May 1,650,000 

June 1,825,000 

July 800,000 

August 3,000,000 

September 2,120,000 

October 2,180,000 

November 2,202,277 

December 2,390,404 



Total $24,427,681 

The total for 1889 was $20,495,267, 
against $26,281,500 in 1888, $25,- 
606,445 in 1887 and $25,370,652 in 
1886. 

The coinage for the past two years 
compares as follows : 

1889. 

Double eagles $15,444,000 

Eagles 4,425,000 

Standard dollars 700,000 

Dimes 97,267 



Total $20,495,267 

1890. 

Double eagles $16,055,000 

Standard dollars 8,230,373 

Dimes 142,308 



Total $24,427,681 

Showing an increase of $3,932,414 
for 1890. " 

REAL ESTATE. 

The number of buildings put up 
in San Francisco since 1880 and the 

value thereof has been as follows : 

1880 397 $1,751,435 

1881 532 3,790,732 



BWIiDEES OF A GEEAT OTTY. 



785 

803 

1,127 

.885 1,544 

1,286 

.887 1,181 

«8 1,041 

189 1,803 

180 1,587 

The engagements i 
reported : 
January.... 
February .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 158 

September 128 

October 148 

November. 127 

December. 56 



96 
99 
168 
177 
156 
127 
202 



3,896,212 
5,261,680 
6,302,807 
7,858,110 
6,493,633 
6,594,290 
6,954,427 
7,655,913 
10,629,066 
1890 are thus 

{602,861 

774,659 

1,131,877 

1,267,902 

778,090 

1,021,218 

1,625,522 

888,185 

654,980 

818,270 

734,148 

331,904 



Total 1,687 $10,629,066 

Sales of real estate for the past 
four years have been as follows : 

January $3,212,597 

February 2,079,689 

March 2,776,562 

pril 3,939,530 



Dakota 4,000,000 

Montana 5,500,000 

Idaho 3,500,000 

Arizona 1,000,000 

NewMexico 500,000 

Alaska 1,000,000 

Oregon 1,000,000 

Washington 300,000 

Total $37,477,000 

Silver. 

Caliiornia $2,000,000 

Nevada 7,000,000 

Colorado 20,000,000 

Utah 8,692.000 

Montana 18,500,000 

Idaho 9,000,000 

Arizona 3,500,000 

New Mexico 2,500,000 

Oregon' 60,000 

Washington 1,000,000 

Totals $71,442,000 

TOT1U. 

California $14,000,000 

Nevada 10,500,000 

Colorado 24,000,000 

Utah 9,269,000 

Dakota 4,000,000 

Montana 24,000,000 

Idaho 12,500,000 

Arizona 4,500,000 




OUB OOJOCBBOB AND KABOTACTBKES. 98 

1867 64,000,000 1878 42,945,000 

1858 69,000,000 1879 41,080,000 

1859 59,000,000 1880 43,770,000 

1860 53,000,000 1881 48,100,000 

1861 50,000,000 1882 49,950,000 

1862 52,000,000 1888 47,450,000 

1863 57,000,000 1884 46,809,000 

1864 55,967,605 1885 48,250,000 

1865 57,496,800 1886 52,850,000 

1866 62,000,000 1887 56,800,000 

1867 ,59,000,000 1888 58,250,000 

1868 51,000,000 1889 67,380,755 

1869 47,000,000 1890 71,242,000 

1870 48,000,000 

1871 42,357,000 _ totals. 

1872 42,688,100 ""• 

1873 41,500,000 1848 $5,000,000 

1874 49,150,000 1849 23,000,000 

1675 50,750,000 I860 59,000,000 

1876 58,100,000 1851 . . : 60,000,000 

1877 60,700,000 1852 59,000,000 

1878 46,370,000 1853 68,000,000 

1879 36,530,000 1854 64,000,000 

1880 35,655,000 1855 58.000,000 

1881 31,660,000 1856 63,000,000 

1882 30,9r>n,l»ltl 1857 64,000,000 

1883 29,375,000 1868 59,000,000 

1884 28,236,600 1859 59,000,000 

1885 28,740,000 I860 52,090,897 

1886 32,815,000 1861 52,275,256 

1887 37,765,000 1862 58,247,014 

1888 44,500,000 1863 69,486,238 

1889 41,254,000 1864 72,765,190 

1890 37,477,000 1865 •. 73,681,677 

„ _., 1866 78,000,000 

""■ Sihrer. 1867 75,000,000 

I860 190,897 1868 67,000,000 

1861 2,275,256 1869 63,000.000 

1862 6,247,014 1870 66,000,000 

1863 1 12,486,238 1871 66,603,000 

1864 16,797,685 1872 70,263,914 

1865 16,184,877 1873 80,000,000 

1866 16,000,000 1874 89,400,000 

1867 16,000,000 1875 97,250,000 

1868 16,000,000 1876 101,100,000 

1869 16,000,000 1877 98,000,000 

1870 18,000,000 1878 89,315,000 

1871 24,246,000 1879 77,600,000 

1872 27,548,811 1880 70 ii", 000 

1873 38,500,000 1881 . 79,760,000 

1874 40,250,000 1882 80,900,000 

1876 46,500,000 1883 76,825,000 

1876 48,000,000 1884 . . . 75,045,000 

1877 47,300,000 1885 76,990,000 



91 



BUILDERS OF A GBEAT OITT. 



1886 85,665,000 

1887 94,565,000 

18S8 102,750,000 

1889 108,634,755 

1*90 155,519,090 

THE VALDE OF THE MINING INDUSTRY 

Of the coast in 1890 may be given 
as follows : 

Gold.. $37,477,000 

Silver 71,242,000 

Lead and base bullion.. 12,000,000 

Copper 21,000,000 

Coal 12,000,000 

Quicksilver 1,200,000 

Miscellaneous 600,000 

Total 1155,519,090 



The totals for the following years 
have been as follows : 

1890 $155,519,000 

1889 150,288,755 

1888 135,350,000 

1887 122,365,000 

1886 108,806,947 

1885 99,390,000 

1884 93,545,000 

1883 95,553,000 

1882 98,150,000 

1881 94,360,000 

1880 91,075,008 

Here is an increase in one year of 
about three per cent. The total out- 
put of the coast ha* nearly doubled 
since 1879. 




Old Californians and Others. 



Name. Date op Arrival. Business. 

Alsop & Co 1849 Merchant 

Andrews, A. Col * . . 1850 Jewelry 

Alvarado, Juan B Feb. 14, 1849 Rancher 

Baird, John H July 5, 1849 Cor. Pacific and Montgomery 

Baker, L. L Aug. 18, 1849 Merchant 

Blythe, Thomas H Aug. 4, 1849 Miner 

Bryant, George W July 6, 1849 

Benchley, L. JB May, 1850 Grocery and Hardware 

Beebe & Co Banker 

Bandmann & Nielsen 1850 Merchants 

Bartlett, Washington Nov. 13, 1849 Pub. S. F. Journal of Commerce 

Beals, Channing H . Commission Merchant 

Bowen, W. H Merchant 

Buffington, John M Jan. 13, 1849 Carpenter 

Brannan, Samuel July 31, 1846 Publisher and Merchant 

Bovce, Wm. H Sept. 14, 1849 Heal Estate 

Bonestell, Louis H Aug. 18, 1849 Carpenter, cor. Mason & Jackson 

Bid well, John Nov. 1841 Clerk in store at Sutter's Fort 

Belcher, Fred. P Sept. 8, 1849 Drayman 

Bauer, John A Oct. 12, 1849 Drugs 

Badlam, Alexander, June 30, 1849 Printer 

Center, John Oct. 31, 1849 Gardener, Folsom-street Road 

Cook & Le Count Booksellers and Stationers 

Crocker, Charles 1850 Merchant 

Cook, Baker & Co Merchants 

Chesley, Geo. W June 13, 1849 Auctioneer 

Casserly, Eugene July, 1850 Publisher 

Coleman W. T. & Co Aug. 4, 1849 Merchants 

Coghill & Arington Merchants 

Collins, C. J 1850 Hatter 

Cross, H& Co 1850 Merchant 

Crosett, Joseph L Oct. 31 , 1849 

Cornwall, Pierre B Aug. 1848 Coal Merchant 

Cogswell, Henry D July 20, 1849 Dentist 

Clayton, Charles April 2, 1849 Merchant 

Casanova, Henry Nov. 25, 1849 Merchant 

Dean, Peter June 10, 1849 Merchant 

Doble, Abner Blacksmith 

De Fremery, James & Co. . .Dec. 1, 1849 Importers 

Dunbar & Gibbs Merchants 

Dickson & De Wolf Merchants 

Duisenberg, Charles Sept. 18, 1849 Merchant 

Donahue, James M April 24, 1849 Moulder and Blacksmith 

Donahue, Peter June, 1849 Engineer 

Dodge, Henry L May 1, 1849 Clerk City Hall 

Degroot, Henrv Feb. 28, 1849 Expert Miner 

Davis, Isaac E. /. Aug. 18, 1849 Lime Merchant 



96 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



Ebbeta, A. M Aug. 5, 1849 Commission Merchant 

Ewer, Ferdinand C Sept, 15, 1849 Minister 

Ewer, Warren B Oct. 9, 1849 Printer and Publisher 

Eastland, Joseph Ot Dec. 1, 1848 

Fay, Caleb T Sept. 9, 1849 Merchant 

Flood, J. C Oct. 1849 Cor. Pacific and Mason 

Flint, Peabody & Co 1850 Merchants 

Fitch, Geo. K Sept. 11, 1849 Printer on Journal of Commerce 

Franklin, Stephen Clerk with Burgoyne & Co 

Fry, John D Aug. 29, 1849 

Freeman, Benjamin H 1850 Stairbuilder 

Forbes, Alexander Deo. 1849 Merchant 

Folger, Francis B Aug. 1849 

Felton, Charles N Sept. 1849 

Fargo, Calvin F Oct. 3, 1849 Merchant 

Fair, James G Sept. 3, 1849 Miner 

Grant, Adam Dry Goods 

Gray, Nathaniel New York Coflin Warehouse 

Geary, John W 1850 City Mayor 

Goodell, N. D Aug. 13, 1849 Contractor 

Gore, Benjamin B Sept. 14, 1819 Broker 

Gibbs, George W April 25, 1849 Iron and Steel 

GhirardelH, Domingo Feb. 11, 1849 Coffee and Spiee 

Gerke, Henry Aug. 1, 1847 Wines 

Gates, Justin Jr Sept. 26, 1849 Drugs 

Gashwiler, John W Aug. 12, 1848 Mining 

Huerlin & Belcher General Merchandise 

Hammond, Richard P April 1, 1849 Civil Engineer 

Hamilton, Robert Dec. 1, 1849 Merchant 

Hooper, A.J Harrison, Bailey & Hooper 

Heatley E D & Co Commission Merchants 

Hellmann A Co Merchants 

Hopkins, Mark Aug, 24, 1849 Merchant 

Hawlt-v. Sti-rliim \ Co ]K-tl> Commission jMerchar 




OLD OALIFOBNIANS AND OTHERS. 



97 



Keeler, Julias M Dec. 20, 1849 Merchant 

Lux, Charles Stock Dealer 

Light, W. W Aug. 30, 1849 Dentist 

Locke & Morrison 1850 Commission Merchants 

Lent, W. M April 1, 1840 Miner 

Low, Fred F June 4, 1849 

Lynde, Wm. July 6, 1849 

Livermore, O Nov. 1849 Clerk with W. T. Coleman & Co 

Leon, Fred. F June 4, 1848 

Lohse, John F Sept. 12, 1849 Miner 

Lick, James Dec. 1847 Piano Maker 

Levingston, Harry B Jan. 4, 1849 Merchant 

Moore, J. B Nov. 2, 1849 Postmaster 

Macondray, Fred. W Aug. 18, 1849 Tea Merchant 

Macondray, Wm. A Aug. 18, 1849 Tea Importer 

Maguire, xhomas & Co 1849 Parker House and Theater 

Mnrphv, Daniel S 

Mills, DO June 4, 1849 Banker 

MiddJeton & Hood Auctioneers 

Mills, Edgar July 18, 1849 Banker 

Middleton, John Sept. 26, 1849 

Meiggs, Harry July 7, 1849 Lumber 

Mines, Rev. F 1850 Rector Trinity Church 

Morrow, Geo Sept. 21, 1849 Merchant 

Meusdorffer, John C Sept. 19, 1849 Hatter 

McDonald, Richard H July 18, 1849 Drugs 

McCreery, Andrew B Aug. 24, 1849 Wholesale Grocery 

Naylor, P 1850 Hardware and Tinplate 

Norcross, Daniel July 6, 1849 Printer 

Nugent, John Dec. 1849 Publisher 

Nutting, Calvin July 16, 1849 Mechanic 

O'Brien, William S July 6, 1849 Cor. Pacific and Mas >n 

Phelan, James G Aug. 1849 Commission Merchant 

Page, Bacon & Co 1850 Bankers 

Powell, Abraham Aug, 5, 1849 Contractor 

Pope, John F Aug. 23, 1849 Lumber 

Plum, Charles M Aug. 6, 1849 Merchant 

Pickering, Loriug Aug. 1, 1849 Printer and Publisher 

Phelps, Guy T Dec. 14, 1849 

Phelps, Augustus E Oct. 15, 1849 Bookbinder 

Peck, John S July 7, 1849 

Parrott, John June, 1845 Merchant 

Painter, Jerome B Sept. 12, 1849 Type Dealer, etc 

Palache, James Sept. 12, 1849 Merchant 

Pacheco, Romualdo Nov. 1831 Merchant 

Quinn, D. H Jane, 1854 Hatter 

Ryer, Washington M March, 1849 Physician 

Rulofson, Wm. H June 13, 1849 Photographer 

Reis, Christian Sept. 1, 1849 

Reis, Gustave Sept. 1, 1849 

Redington, John H Sept. 1849 Drugs 

Stanford, Josiah Oct. 31, 1849 Oils, etc 

Sutton, O. P April 1, 1849 Merchant 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



Sabatio & Russell 

SelbyAPost 1849 

Story, Charles K Sept. 17, 1849 

Sherwood, Robert 

Sargent, Aaron A Dec. 3, 1849 

Sutter, John A July 1. 1839 

Sterett, Benjamin F Dec. 28, 1849 

Strentzel , John Oct. 19, 1849 

Stevenson, Jonathan D. . . .March 5, 1H49 

Staples, David J Sept. 27, 1849 

Soule, Prank May 29. 1849 

Slosa, Louis July 18, 1849 

Shnrtleff. Benj July 6, 1849 

Sherman, Gen. Wm. T Jan. 23, 1847 

Sherman, William Aug. 18, 1849 

Shannon. Thomas B Oct. 6, 1849 

Sharon, William A ug. 15, 1849 

Shew, Jacob July 15, 1849 

Smith, Myron Nov. 1, 1849 

Selby, Thomas H Aug. 27, 1849 

Tay, Geo. H Oct. 1, 1849 

Tavlor, C. L 

Tane, Murphy & Mi:Cahi11 1850 

Tustin, William I Oct. 1, 1845 

Tillmann, Frederick Sept 12, 1849 

Tevis, Lloyd Oct. 1849 

Tennent, ThomaB Aug. 14, 1849 

Teller, J. M 

Van Winkle, Isaac S July 13, 1849 

"Von Schmidt, Alexis W . . . .May 24, 1849 

Valentine, T B 

Wnrren, Col. J. L. L. F 1849 

White Bros - 1849 



Merchant 

Metal Dealers 

Drugs 

Watchmaker 

Attorn ey -at-La w 

Storekeeper at Sacramento 

Printer on Journal of Commeixt 

Farmer 

Soldier 

Merchant 

Nevada City Merchant 

Doctor 

Banker 

Merchant 

Broker 

Photographer 

Merchant 

Merchant 

Leonard & Tay 

Lumber and Commission Mcht 

Cor. Sacramento and Mont'gy 

Millwright 

With Beandry A Co 

Banker 

Instrument Maker 

Commission Merchant 

Iron 

Engineer 

Merchant and Publisher 

Importer 




Biographical Sketches 




Colonel H. Andrews. 



Colonel A. Andrews. 



^4>HERE are few San Franciscans to 
jflj , whom the erect soldierly form and 
^l military bearing of Col. Andrews, 
the well-known jeweler and dealer in 
diamonds, is not familiar, He has 
been identified with San Francisco and 
its business interests for over forty 
years, and has, therefore, a record of 
service to which but comparatively 
few of us can aspire. Like many 
other eminent citizens, he had his 
birthplace in a foreign land, but few 
native sons of the Union have rend- 
ered the republic better service or 
been more strictly identified with her 
as a citizen who has done his duty 
well. Colonel A. Andrews is a native 
of Albion, having first drew breath in 
the ancient and imperial city of Lon- 
don, in 1826. He came to America 
with his parents in 1838, they settling 
in New Orleans. He has been, there- 
fore, from his earliest youth, an 
adopted son of the republic and a citi- 
zen ever since manhood. He was ap- 
prenticed to the trade of jeweler in 
1840, and learned his business in New 
Orleans. There were, however, stir- 
ring times ahead. War against Mex- 
ico was declared, and young Andrews, 
as a loyal son of the republic, at once 
volunteered for the front. His mind 
was filled with visions of glory to be 
obtained in a second conquest of the 
empire of the Montezumas. He en- 
tered as lieutenant of the Second 
Ohio, and came out as captain of the 
same. He took part in all the battles 
of the war, and his valor and soldierly 
conduct won the praise of his super- 
iors in rank. When the war was 
over his adventurous disposition would 
not allow him to go back to lead a 
plodding life, unmarked by incident 
and undistinguished by notable deeds. 



He was attracted by the charms of the 
land that had formed, though she 
knew it not, one of the fairest gems 
in the crown of Mexico, the Golden 
State of California. He was an early 

Eioneer, arriving here in 1849. He 
ad many strange and curious ad- 
ventures in the new land. His first 
occupation was, like the thousands that 
had sought the State in that day, that 
of gold digger. This he followed with 
varying fortune, but he soon gave up 
this occupation and founded the jewelry 
business of Hiller & Andrews in Sac- 
ramento. In 1852 the firm was burned 
out in the great fire and lost all. He 
came to San Francisco and bought 
$30,000 worth of jewelry on credit 
and went back. He started in busi- 
ness in what is known as Haggin & 
Tevis's Block, then renting at $600 
per month. 

He built one of the finest structures 
in Sacramento, on Third and J streets, 
known as the Hiller & Andrews' Block, 
which rented at $1804 per monfh. He 
and his partner very soon made a for- 
tune and Colonel Andrews proceeded 
to enjoy his share by traveling exten- 
sively in Europe and the East. He 
traveled all over the world. He vis- 
ited all the points of interest known to 
the tourist, and many that are to the 
tourist entirely unknown. While ab- 
sent on this trip he sought out all the 
places where all the celebrated dia- 
monds, or collections of diamonds, are 
to be found, from the waters of the 
Bay of Bengal to those of the Atlantic , 
the shores of Ormuz and of India, and 
noted the treasures of the semi-bar- 
baric princes of the East and those of 
the sultans by the waters of the Bos- 
phorous. 

Coming back to California, he went 



102 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



into mining speculation and sunk 
large fortunes in the Esmeralda. At 
the outbreak of the civil war he was 
made major of the Second California 
Cavalry, under the command of D. 
D. Cofton, who was to be colonel. 
As this, however, was not the case, he 
resigned, lie now became a caterer 
in the line of public amusements, 
starting in Ban Francisco, where he 
produced in succession, opera, drama, 
magic and burlesque. From this city 
he betook himself to Guayaquil, 
Ecuador, Lima, Peru, and Santiago, 
Chile, achieving great success in his 
new profession. Leaving the glare 
and glitter of the footlights to tempt 
others, he became a merchant in 
Spauish-Anierican countries, and did 
business in Callao, Guayaquil, Panama, 
Havana, and amongst the West India 
Islands. We next find him engaged 
in the occupation of diamond broker 
in London. He went to Mexico in 
the time of Maximilian. On the fall of 
the ill-fated Emperor hu returned to 
New Orleans, entering into the dia- 
mond business'. He became a stock 
broker in Chicago and New York. 
On the fatal Friday he lost all that 
he possessed, $80,000, and was flat 
broke. He subsequently recovered 



moidal show windows, so constructed 
of mirrors that the gems are reflected 
on all sides. It is, in itself, one of 
the sights of San Francisco. The 
Colonel has taken a not undistinguished 
part in politics. He was commander 
of the McClellan Legion, a thousand 
strong. When General Grant hon- 
ored the coast by his presence, Colonel 
Andrews gave the most successful bal 
masque ever seen here, as a token of 
respect to the distinguished visitor. 
The Colonel was appointed by Presi- 
dent Arthur Commissioner to the 
New Orleans World's Fair in 1885. 
Ho was appointed by the British gov- 
ernment Commissioner to the London 
Exhibition in 1886. From New Or- 
leans he returned $3000 to the treas- 
ury of the State out of the appropria- 
tion voted. He is the oldest com- 
missioned colonel in California, being 
appointed under General Suter in 1852. 
He is President of the Veterans of the 
Mexican War. He is President of 
the Manhattan Club, is Great Sachem 
of the Improved Order of Red Men in 
this State , and Great Minnewah of the 
United States. In fine, we may say 
that he belongs to no less than twenty- 
nine different orders. He speaks with 
ease and precision the leading mod- 





Milton Andros. 



M ILTON ANDROS. 



«HIS gentleman has been closely 
identified with San Francisco 
* since December, 1865, when 
he arrived here from his old home in 
Massachusetts, coming by way of 
the Isthmus of Panama, and reaching 
this city on the steamer " Colorado, 
Commodore Watkins. The trip had 
been made in search of health, and 
California was selected because the 
merits of its glorious climate were 
even tben familiar to advanced minds 
in the East. 

Sir Edmund Andros was Governor 
of Connecticut in early Colonial 
days, and there is no doubt of the 
fact that the subject of this sketch is 
closely connected with the descend- 
ants of Gov. Andros. The name is 
thoroughly English, but the father of 
Milton Andros was American through 
and through. He was a boy when 
the Revolutionary army was organ- 
ized, but he joined the patriots at 
Cambridge, Mass., and shared every 
hardship encountered by the Revo- 
lutionary heroes until the surrender 
of Cornwallis assured the independ- 
ence of the States. Later his father 
became a minister of the Gospel, and 
had one charge under his ministerial 
care for more than 50 years. 

Milton Andros was born in Massa- 
chusetts. The foundation of his 
learning was laid by his careful 
father, who doubtless hoped, after 
the manner of men of his calling, 
that his son might follow him as a 
minister of the Gospel. When young 
Andros expressed an inclination for 
the profession of law, his father 
raised no objection, but assisted him 
as far as he was able to become thor- 
oughly conversant with the great 
general principles of the law. He 
was placed in the law office of Judge 



Oliver Prescott, of New Bedford, and 
was admitted to practice in Septem- 
ber, 1847. As an evidence of the 
thoroughness with which he had 
prosecuted his studies, and the stand- 
ing he occupied with members of the 
bar, it may oe mentioned that he was 
admitted to practice before the Su- 
preme Court of the United States at 
the December term of tbat court in 
1855. Under the administration of 
President Buchanan he was appointed 
Assistant United States District At- 
torney for Massachusetts. In that 
important position, which it is need- 
less to say he filled with signal 
ability, it became necessary to be 
thoroughly posted in maritime law, 
with which he had become more 
familiar than the majority of lawyers 
while pursuing his studies with Judge 
Prescott. New Bedford was the 
shipping point of a large whaling 
fleet, and the sailors were as much 
attached to litigation then as they are 
to-day. A practicing attorney at 
that seaport had much experience 
with the typical "sea lawyer," and 
the knowledge he there gained aided 
no little in helping him to make the 
splendid record with which he was 
credited while handling the numerous 
maritime cases which came under bis 
care in the United States District 
Attorney's office. 

The above facts account for the 
adoption of maritime practice after 
Mr. Andros settled on this coast. He 
had a thorough knowledge of all the 
principles of that branch of legal 
practice, and gained by a course of 
experience which crystallized all its 
difficult intricacies in his retentive 
memory. But it must not be as- 
sumed that Mr. Andros has neglected 
other branches of the legal profes- 



104 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Bion. He is thoroughly conversant 
with commercial law and practice, 
and being pre-eminently a student 
has folly equipped himself for at- 
tending to and doing fall justice to 
any case entrusted to his care. That 
fact is recognized by litigants, and 
Mr. Andros is now attorney for cor- 
porations as well as counsel for the 
leading insurance companies for their 
maritime business. 

Mr. Andros has been often com- 
plimented for the careful and thor- 
ough manner in which he prepares 
the cases of clients before submitting 
them to the court. Having become 
conversant with every detail, he is 
capable of presenting in a clear and 
forcible manner, easily comprehended 
by court and other listeners, and is 
thus able to dispatch business with- 
out wearing out the patience of 
court or jury. To this painstaking 
thoroughness may be credited much 
of his eminent success. Usually in 
addressing court or jury Mr. Andros 
presents his case in the clearest lan- 
guage, and his argument is direct, to 
the point, plain and convincing. 
When it pleases him, or the case and 
the circumstances require, he can 
clothe his ideas in the language of 
the accomplished orator. 



As before said, Mr. Andros hat 
been a life-long student. He devotes 
the same untiring patience to the 
preparation of a case for presenta- 
tion to the court that he did to mas- 
tering the intricacies of the law be- 
fore admission to the bar. He is 
pardoned for having little time for 
the social pleasures of clubs or se- 
cret societies. He belongs only to 
the Masonic Order, being a member 
of Qolden Gate Commandery, Knights 
Templar. He married since coming 
to California, and has one child, a 
daughter. Being devoted to the 
law, he has no ambition to be ac- 
counted a leader in promoting en- 
terprises unconnected with his 
profession. Having a pleasant and 
agreeable home, he baa not time 
nor inclination for the requirements 
which would be demanded of him 
were he an active member of a great 
number of social orders. His rec- 
ord is that of a tireless worker, and 
his influence upon the material in- 
terests of this city has been of the 
best, and of a character to endure 
for years. In all that goes to make 
up u patriotic and influential citizen 
he is the recognized peer of the 
worthiest of Son Francisco's 
builders. 





William H. Armitage. 



William H. Armitage. 



riUUHAT youth, combined with en- 

533 er ^ anc * p erseveran ° e ma y a °- 

♦ j complish in San Francisco, can 
be no better exemplified than by the 
successful career or one of the city's 
leading architects — Mr. William H. 
Armitage. 

Mr. Armitage was born in England, 
January 18, 1861. At an early age 
he evinced a natural aptitude for the 
study of fine arts and commenced a 
technical course in the Sheffield School 
of Design, gaining amongst other 
prizes a Third Grade Prize at South 
Kensington, London, at the age of 
fifteen and passed the local examina- 
tion of the University of Cambridge 
in the same year. 

His father being one of the largest 
terra cotta manufacturers in the north of 
England, encouraged and assisted him 
in his earlier studies, and brought up 
amongst surroundings conducive to 
the natural advancement of an inate 
taste for the art of building, and 
armed with the recommendations of 
success in his preliminary work, he 
was articled to the well-known Eng- 
lish architects, Messrs. Stockton & 
Gibbs of Sheffield , the senior member of 
which firm was a pupil of Sir Gilbert 
G. Scott. 

With this firm Mr. Armitage re- 
ceived a practical education in archi- 
tecture, with facilities unsurpassed, 
and which has proved of intrinsic 
value to him. 

The churches, schools, libraries, 
banks, hospitals, public baths, brewer- 
ies, and other massive stone and brick 
structures, both public and private, 
erected by this firm during the period 
of Mr. Armitage's apprenticeship, 
served to familiarize him with the de- 



tails and workings of his chosen pro- 
fession. 

In the meantime, possessed of a 
studious bent of mind, he continued 
his work at the School of Design, 
traveled the country, and sketched the 
best specimens of architecture, read 
and studied the best works on build- 
ing construction. 

Learning of the large field of oper- 
ations in this country, and being am- 
bitious, finally decided to take the 
steamer for the new world, arriving in 
New York February 22, 1881. 

Here he readily found employment 
in one of its leading offices on Broad- 
way. Later, he visited the leading 
cities in the East, and spent some 
time in Chicago and Denver, where he 
aided in the design and construction 
of some of their heavy buildings. 

California having been originally his 
objective point, he simply remained in 
those cities for the purpose of ac- 
quainting himself with the nature of 
their building improvements. Leav- 
ing Denver, he arrived in San Fran- 
cisco on the 6th of April, 1883. 

Mr. Armitage having now visited 
the most interesting parts of this 
country, and previously having trav- 
eled in Brazil and other countries, he 
concluded to make this city his per- 
manent home, and at once secured a 
suitable position. Shortly afterwards 
he married a San Francisco lady, and 
becoming acquainted with the city and 
its progressive people, he soon acquired 
strong friends. 

Now, after years of study and prac- 
tical experience, he established an 
office and commence in business for 
himself. Success was assured him 
from the start. He was not long in 
building up a lucrative practice, and 



106 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



now his business has assumed such 
proportions that it absorbs his entire 
time and attention. The busy appear- 
ance of his office with a number of 
draughtsmen employed, and the var- 
ied edifices of his erection, are admired 
for their stability and elegance, and 
the care bestowed on all branches of 
the work reflect credit upon his busi- 
ness management. 

The proofs of his skill are manifest 
in the buildings he has designed and 
erected in San Francisco and its 
neighboring cities. The Dodge Bros. 
Building, the Meese Building, the 
Aronson Building and other business 
blocks and residences of importance 
were constructed by him. His work, 
however, is not confined entirely to 
this city. In San Diego, Fiesno, and 
other cities he has erected buildings of 
various descriptions; one of his la- 
test productions being the Farmers' 
Bank at Fresno, which is a substantial 



and imposing granite, sandstone, and 
pressed brick structure. He also 
erected the Electioneer Stable in the 
same town, a commodious brick 
structure, complete in all its appoint- 
ments, and now he is working upon 
the plans of a number of large busi- 
ness structures and residences to be 
erected in this city. 

Having had an extensive experience 
in the construction cf heavy buildings 
which called for the best architectural 
ingenuity, and being eminently fa- 
miliar with every detail of his pro- 
fession, Mr. Armitage has practically 
demonstrated his fitness for adorning 
tho profession he holds in the front 
rank of the San Francisco architectural 
fraternity. 

He is a liberal contributor to all im - 
provements which tend to advance tho 
city and State, and is, in the fullest 
sense, one of San Francisco's 
ful and progressive citizens. 





Alexander Badlhm. 



Alexander Badlam. 



s4»HE subject of this sketch, Mr. 
JaJL Alexander Badlam, was born 
^T in Cleveland, 0. His ancestors 
came to America early, before the 
Colonial days, and settled in New 
England. 

His mother was a native of Maine, 
and his father was born in Massachu- 
setts. His father was one of the 
pioneer settlers of Ohio and Cali- 
fornia, having reached this State by 
the overland route, June 3, 1849. 

In 1850 his father having returned 
from California for his family, they 
joined an emigrant train, and, like 
thousands of others in those perilous 
days, started for California. They 
crossed the plains and were among 
the party in which the cholera broke 
out in that memorable year. It is 
pleasant for Mr. Badlam to tell of 
nis experiences in driving a team 
from tne Missouri River to Sacra- 
mento, when but fifteen years of age. 

In Sacramento, in 1857, he asso- 
ciated himself with Charles L. Far- 
rington, Frank Webster, John Ben- 
son and Nat Ford, and organized 
what was then well known as the 
Alta Express Company. Consider- 
ing that the party had but little 
capital to begin with, and that they 
sold out their business at the end of 
a year for thirty thousand dollars, 
we must conclude that the tact and 
sagacity of young Badlam manifest- 
ed itself on more than one occasion. 

In 1863 he was nominated for the 
Legislature on the Republican ticket, 
and ran against Ex-tfovemor John 
Bigler, beating his opponent almost 
two to one at the election. It was 
while serving the people in the capa- 
city of a legislator he first attracted 
public notice. There were no thiev- 
ing schemes or corrupt legislation 



foisted upon the people by designing 
politicians that Mr. Badlam did not 
expose. The prominence achieved 
in that gathering soon secured for 
him more than an ordinary degree of 
recognition. 

In 1869 he was elected a member 
of the Board of Supervisors by an 
almost unanimous vote. In that 
body he persistently and judiciously 
fought every ring and corrupt meas- 
ure proposed. This gained for him 
the approbation of the people, and 
in 1875 the Supervisors elected Mr. 
Badlam Assessor. It was in that 
capacity that ho gave the best evi- 
dence in the world of his ability to 
have everything reduced to a perfect 
sytematic order. 

The assessments that he made 
that year gave him a great repu- 
tation, having been instrumental 
in compelling the rich men to pay 
the taxes due to the people. 

In the fall of 1875 he was re-elected 
by the people, receiving a majority of 
six thousand votes over his adver- 
sary. At that election the Demo- 
cratic candidate for Governor, Mr. 
Irwin, was elected by the same ma- 
jority, and almost the entire State 
and County Democratic ticket went 
into office at the time. Mr. Badlam 
was noted for his thorough knowl- 
edge of his business. 

He is a married man and the father 
of three children, the oldest being a 
young man of 28 years, now engaged 
in insurance business, and a younger 
son who has achieved a world-wide 
reputation as a mechanical engineer 
and inventor. His daughter, Miss 
Maude, is an exceedingly accom- 
plished young lady of society, with 
a phenomenal range as a vocalist, 
ana fine pianist. Mr. Badlam mar- 



108 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Tied, in 1861, Miss Mary Burgess, 
of Sacramento. She is a lady of 
medium height and graceful, auburn 
hair, fair complexion, blue eyes, 
and was regarded as the handsomest 
young lady in Sacramento. They 
live happily together with their chil- 
dren in a beautiful and neatly fur- 
nished residence at 1024 Franklin 
Street. Mr.. Badlam . himself is a 
hale, hearty gentleman, with a full 



round face. He weighs 200 pounds 
avoirdupois, find stands about five 
feet eleven and one-half inches in 
height. He is kind and generous to 
his employes, and accommodating to 
those he has been serving. For the 
past six years Mr. Badlam has been 
President of one of the most suc- 
cessful insurance companies in Cali- 
fornia, and is interested in railroad 
building, and many other enterprises. 





L. B. Benghley. 



Leonidas B. Benchley. 



#F those who may be termed pio- 
neers, few have been more suc- 
cessful in the development of 
California industries than Leonidas 
B . Benchley. For nearly forty years 
this gentleman has occupied a prom- 
inent position in the eyes of his fel- 
low-citizens, either as a merchant, 
municipal legislator or manufacturer, 
and during a great portion of that 
time he has been identified with the 
successful prosecution of one of the 
most important industries of the city 
and coast. Like many other leading 
Calif ornians he is a native of the Em- 
pire State, but his manhood has 
been spent in the service of Califor- 
nia, and so effectually, that his name 
will always be linked with that of 
those perpetuated in the history of 
her industrial development. He was 
born in Newport, Herkimer County, 
N. Y., in 1822, and was educated at 
the Fairfield Academy in the same 
county. 

Arriving at man's estate he became 
interested in a general merchandise 
business in his native town. He 
followed this successfully for sev- 
eral yeais, and doubtless would 
have been contented to have spent 
all his life in mercantile pursuits 
had not the call from California 
reached willing ears all over the 
Atlantic States, and especially iu 
one of the greatest and most en- 
terprising of them all — New York. 
The desire for riches and adventure 
stirred all the youncf blood of the 
land, and Mr. Benchley, then in his 
manhood's early prime, was not 
behind the rest in enthusiasm. 
Biding adieu to the quiet life of a 
country town, and to the slow pro- 

Sess by which wealth was accumu- 
:ed under such circumstances in 



his early days, we soon find him 
forming one of the grand army 
bound for the shores of California. 
Being, however, conservative by 
nature as well as enterprising, he 
did not, like many others, start for 
the golden shores on receipt of the 
first news of the wonderful discov- 
ery that had been made within their 
borders. It was only when exper- 
ience had assured him that gold 
mining became a permanent, flour- 
ishing industry by the far Pacific 
that he determined to cast in his lot 
with the founders of the new land. 
Neither like many others was his 
sole capital youth, hot blood and 
enthusiasm. He had sufficient funds 
when reaching the State to establish 
a business of his own. He arrived 
in May, 1850, by the Panama route, 
and on this side was a passenger on 
the steamer "Oregon." He depart- 
ed immediately for Sacramento, 
where there was centered the active 
business and industrial life of the 
State. They were good times for 
trade and here Mr. Benchley, em- 
barked in the wholesale grocery 
business. In this he was very suc- 
cessful. All this time, however, 
San Francisco, which had been com- 
paratively unimportant was fast 
giving promise of what its future 
would be, and with that keen busi- 
ness insight which has ever char- 
acterized him, Mr. Benchley soon 
saw that it was advisable for him to 
cast in his lot with that of the crow- 
ing metropolis of the coast. So in 
May, 1852, he started in the hard- 
ware business, forming a co-partner- 
ship with John Bensley ana S. M. 
Alford, under the title of Benchley 
& Co. The establishment soon be- 
came one of the leading ones in the 



110 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



city, and brought together in fami- 
liar business and social association 
a number of tbe brainiest and most 
enterprising men in the city. 
Amongst those besides Mr. Bench- 
ley himself may be reckoned : 
William Alvord, D. O. Mills, of the 
Bank of California ; John Bensley, 
already mentioned ; Louis McLean 
and Alvinza Hay ward. The fact 
that San Francisco was headquarters 
for the distribution of an immense 

auantity of iron and steel needed in 
le mines and the various industries 
of the coast, suggested at an early 
day to the active mind of Mr. 
Benchley the desirability of estab- 
lishing the manufacture of iron and 
steel on the Pacific Coast. He had 
frequently conversed with the gentle- 
men noted, and of the possibilities 
of success, his office being the place 
where animated discussions on the 
subject were carried ou and wheie 
the project since so successful had 
at length its inception in May, 1866. 
These gentlemen finally made up 
their minds to establish a rolling 
mill and they started the Pacific 
Boiling Mill Company, with a capital 
of $1,000,000. Mr. Benchley practi- 
cally adventured his whole fortune 
in it, for from 1869 he gave up his 
business to become its General 



oughly complete steel plant was not 

?ut in till seven to eight years ago. 
his, however, is not the only manu- 
facturing enterprise with which Mr. 
Benchley has been associated. There 
have been others. But the only one 
that we shall now mention is the 
Pacific Oil and Lead Works, estab- 
lished in 1863, for the manufacture 
of linseed oil. Besides Mr. Benchley 
there were also with him in this en- 
terprise John Bensley and D. O, 
Mills. Mr. Benchley retired from 
the business in 1875. He has in 
early days been one of our muni- 
cipal legislators, as he was a mem- 
ber of the Board of Supervisors in 
1856, when chaos reigned, and it 
needed some judgment and firmness 
to bring order from confusion and 
restore the administration of muni- 
cipal affairs of San Francisco to a 
sound and healthy basis. He has 
since, like many other prominent 
men, been frequently asked to allow 
himself to be placed in nomination 
for public office, but his all-absorb- 
ing business interests have invariably 
obliged him to decline. He was one 
of the founders of the Young Men's 
Christian Association of this city, 
and is still a member of the Board 
of Directors. He has been a mem- 
ber of the First Congregational 




BUILDERS OF A GKEAT CITY. 



Ill 



isaical display. In business matters 
he has been most successful, due to 
his sound judgment and conserva- 
tive method. In fine he has been 
the chief agent in building up to a 
gratifying success one of our greatest 
and most promising industries, and 



for this is entitled to the highest es- 
steem and gratitude of the citizens of 
San Francisco and the Pacific Coast ; 
his means and influence always 
freely given for the furtherance of 
every object involving the prosper- 
ity and good of his fellow-men. 




\ 



i$£ 



Col Hermann Bendel. 



Colonel '•Hermann Bendel. 



JwfOL. Hermann Bendel, one of our 
^ii leading grocery merchants, and 

♦ a veteran of the late war, was 
born in Oldenburg, Germany, in 1837, 
and is, therefore, still in the flush of 
vigorous manhood. He received a 
military education in his native coun- 
try, which stood him in good stead in 
the land of his adoption. 

In 1858, when he had just attained 
his majority, he came to the United 
States. For three years, from 1858 to 
1861, he was engaged in business in 
St Louis, Mo. 

Here his military tastes soon led 
him to attach himself to the local mi- 
litia, and in 1861, when the war broke 
out, we find him a captain of mounted 
rifles. When President Lincoln called 
the people to arms, Captain Bendel 
was one of the first to respond, and as 
the State militia cast its lot with se- 
cession, he immediately resigned his 
command. On April 23, 1861, he joined 
Company C, Second Missouri, then 
forming, of which he was elected Cap- 
tain. He was one of the first to respond 
in St Louis to the call for the Union 
cause. He volunteered for the three 
months' service, but remained with 
the army till 1863. His command 
formed part of the army of the south- 
west, under Lyons and Sherman. His 
first engagement was at Camp Jack- 
son, where the Missouri militia sur- 
rendered. Here he took his old land- 
lord prisoner. The meeting between 
them was not at all cordial Few can 
realize the intensity of the hatreds 
that divided friends, even brothers, 
during the course of this contest A 
Confederate from Texas felt much 
more amicably disposed towards a 
Union man from -Massachusetts, than 



he did to one from his own neighbor- 
hood. From this cause the life of Cap- 
tain Bendel was more than once in 
danger, and thus was added peril to 
the ordinary danger. At Boonesvillc, 
Duck Springs, Pea Ridge and Wil- 
son's Creek, as well as in many minor 
engagements, he exposed his life for 
the cause so dear to his heart, and 
during two years shared all the dan- 
gers and perils of a soldier's life. 

Wilsons Creek was the hardest 
fought of the engagements noted. 
Here one-third of the Union forces 
were either killed or wounded. In 
Arkansas Captain Bendel was wound- 
ed in the right lung in an engagement 
with the Texas Rangers. 

He left the army with the rank of 
major. One of the incidents of his 
early military career was the preven- 
tion of the escape of convicts from the 
State Prison at Jefferson City, the 
capital of Missouri, in July/ 1861. 
While drilling his men, a report was 
brought to him that the prisoners 
were about to escape. On investiga- 
tion it was found that one-half of 
them were on the wall while the other 
half were digging through it. There 
were 565 in all. He repaired imme- 
diately to the prison ; the guns of his 
men were brought to bear, and order 
was speedily restored. 

He came to this coast for the bene- 
fit of his health. His brother-in-law, 
H. Thyarks, was then a member of 
the firm of Tillmann & Co., which 
had been founded way back in 1 853. 
Here he was first engaged in business 
on the coast In 1867 he became a 
partner in the firm of Taylor & Ben- 
del In 1869 this firm had conducted 
a Uquor^businees, sold it^to.Nic. Van 



114 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Bergen & Co., and purchased the busi- 
ness of Tillmann & Co. In 1874 
Mr. Taylor died. Soon after Mr. 
Bendel was traveling in Germany on 
his bridal tour, where he met Mr. Till- 
mann, and after comparing notes, the 
latter gentleman concluded to come 
back to San Francisco again and was 
re-admitted as a partner in the old 
firm which then became that of Till- 
mann & Bendel. 

Mr. Bendel has prospered in busi- 
ness exceedingly, and now his firm con- 
ducts one of the most extensive grocery 
business in the United States. He is 
interested in several other enterprises, 
as the San Jose Fruit Packing Com- 
pany, the Natoma Vineyard and Water 
Co.. of both of which he is President. 



He was one of the founders and a di- 
rector in the American Sugar Refinery. 
In leaving the army be did not alto- 
gether retire from military matters. 
On February8,1887,he was appointed 
by Governor Bartlctt on his staff as 
Inspector General of Rifle Practice, a 
position which his training in an 
especial manner fitted him for. Here 
ho ranks as Colonel. On November 
12, 1888, he was re -appointed by Gov- 
ernor Waterman to the same position. 
He has ever taken a keen interest in 
military affairs, and has always a cor- 
dial welcome for his old comrades in 
arms. He is a member of the Loyal 
Legion, and of George H. Thomas 
Post, No. 2, G. A. R., a leading mer- 
chant and good citizen. 





Irh Bishop. 



Ira Bishop. 



jrRA Bishop, manager of the San 
jl Francisco Tool Company, which 
7* is so widely and favorably known 
in this city and throughout the Pacific 
Coast, is a nativo of Bishop's Mills, 
in what is now known as the province 
of Ontario, Dominion of Canada, 
and vas born April 13, 1846. He at- 
tended school in his native town until 
he arrived at the age of fourteen, 
when he was employed by his father 
as a salesman and bookkeeper in the 
lumbering and sawmill business, in 
which the elder Mr. Bishop was ex- 
tensively engaged. He remained 
here until, a youth of seventeen, ho 
decided to seek fame and fortune in 
the neighboring Bepublic. After 
considerable wanderings in the West- 
ern States, he finally secured em- 
ployment at Cheboygan, Michigan; 
He here devoted himself to the in- 
terests of his employer, who was en- 
gaged in the teaming business, with 
such assiduity and industry that when 
"pay day" came he was allowed $5 
more per month than the other em- 
ployees. The success thus achieved, 
together with the approbation be- 
stowed by his parents, acted strong- 
ly as an incentive to young Bishop, 
who very correctly concluded that 
the first step taken by young men de- 
siring to succeed in life was to be 
faithful and industrious. After re- 
porting progress to his family at his 
boyhood's home, he returned to 
Michigan, and for three months was 
once more engaged at lumbering. 
He now concluded to seek his for- 
tunes in California, and arrived at 
Truckee in the early part of June, 
1871. The young man here employed 
himself at lumbering and teaming for 
some three years, and in November, 
1874, paid a visit to his friends ana 



relatives in the East. Returning to 
C lifornia he was engaged in various 
enterprises in Boca and vicinity, 
among others in the construction of 
a bridge across the Truckee Biver, 
with an old friend, Mr. C. C. Corn- 
stock. Acquitting himself in this 
with credit to himself and satisfaction 
to his employer and friend, Mr. 
Corns tock, the latter gentleman of- 
fered him favorable terms to con- 
tinue with him. Mr. Comstock was 
employed as Superintendent of Con- 
struction of Bridges by the Central 
Pacific Bailroad Company, and his 
proposition was accepted by Mr. 
Bishop. Following the principles 
already referred to, within a few 
months he was advauced to the rank 
of foreman, and continued as such 
until the Spring of 1880 . Acquitting 
himself creditably in this capacity, 
he established a reputation, as is ev- 
idenced by the fact that his services 
were sought by the prominent firm of 
Balfour, Guthrie & Co., of San Fran- 
cisco, who projected the erection 
of a wharf at their grain warehouses 
and depot at Benicia. Mr. Bishop 
had but recently married, and with 
the increased responsibilities en- 
tailed by his entrance into the mat- 
rimonial state, he was glad to secure 
a position where an increased in- 
come was assured. In the course of 
events this proved to be the step- 
ping-stone to the position which Mr. 
Bishop now fills so creditably. Hav- 
ing completed his contract, and after 
a period spent in his old position on 
the C. P. It. B., ho superintended 
the erection of the Benicia Agricul- 
tural Works, for Messrs. Baker & 
Hamilton, of San Francisco and Sac- 
ramento. This undertaking was ac- 
complished in April, 1881, and in 



116 



BUILDEKS OF A GREAT CITY. 



the meantime he also built an hotel 
in close proximity to the workshops 
referred to. His services were next 
culled into requisition by the Grang- 
ers' Business Association, and for 
them he constructed an extensive 
wharf and grain warehouse, which 
work was completed in October, 
1881. He was then engaged in the 
construction of a ferry slip for 
Messrs. Mizuer & Shirley, connecting 

B. nicin with Martinez. A cannery 
and wharf for the Carqainez Packing 
Company was next built, and the 
buildings of the Benicia Packing 
Company raised and new foundations 
placed in position. 

Mr. Bishop was at the head of 
many undertakings of greater or less 
importance, a detailed description of 
which lack of space will not here 
permit. Among the many were the 
building of the Nevada Docks, at or 
near Port Costa, for the late James 

C. Flood; a grain warehouse at Han- 
ford for S. Blum & Co, and one for 
Messrs. Kitchner & Co. at Traver, 
which latter was finished in August, 
1884. While thus busily engaged, 
Mr. Bishop devoted his surplus en- 
ergy to the improvement of the sack 
elevator ordinarily in use, and his in- 
ventive faculty produced a machine 
of such Lnurit that *ixty were sold 



this gentleman secured an interest in 
the business, and shortly afterwards 
was elected by the Directors as 
manager of the works, which re- 
sponsib'e and important position he 
still holds . 

In 1886, Mr. Bishop was ap- 

?ointed Superintendent of the Pacific 
'ower Company, and in that capac- 
ity still acts. In addition tj the reg- 
ular routine business of the S. 3F. 
Tool Company, a complete system 
of water works has been built for the 
Benicia Water Company, and a num- 
ber of very high-class compound 
condensing Corliss engines have 
been put in, including one for the 
Pacific Power Company, for the pur- 
pose of running four 40-horse power 
electric dynamos. This engine fur- 
niab.es power to four circuits, with 
electric motors, which provide the 
necessary power for neighboring 
factories, and which are now in suc- 
cessful operation. The most im- 
portant enterprise now in charge of 
Mr. Bishop, representing the San 
Francisco Tool Company, is the 
building of the cable road for the 
Piedmont Cable Company, of Oak- 
land, which will involvean outlay of 
about $650,000, and which will be 
completed in the Spring of 1890. 
This gentleman ia a skilled me- 





Henry M. Blagk. 



Henry m. Black, 



tHOSE who have borne the burden 
and heat of the day in the ardu- 
♦ ous work of founding our indus- 
trial system will ever be held in grateful 
remembrance by the citizens of San 
Francisco. Some of those who have 
thus distinguished themselves have 
been laid away in the pioneer's last 
resting place, while others, yet as full 
of energy and activity as ever, are 
still overcoming the obstacles that yet 
remain in the path of the Pacific Coast 
manufacturer. Not the least distin- 
guished amongst the latter is Henry 
M. Black, a native of Ireland, where 
he was born on the 18th of Sep- 
tember, 1834. He may thus be still 
termed a man in the prime of active 
life. He came to the United States 
with his parents when four or five 
years old; they settled in Portland, 
Maine, where young Black first at- 
tended school. They next settled in 
Cambridge, where he learned the art 
and mystery of carriage making. He 
went to work when sixteen years of 
age, and after spending five years 
with Slado & Whitten in Boston, 
whose establishment was at the corner 
of Franklin and Hawley streets, he 
found himself launched on the stormy 
sea of life, to struggle for the prizes 
that the world has to bestow on the 
# successful aspirant for her favors. 
After spending six years in the hub of 
the wheel round which revolves New 
England, and her sons devoutly be- 
lieve the world, Mr. Black made up 
his mind to avail himself of the op- 
portunities that the Pacific Coast, then 
a veritable new world, offered to the 
ambitious and enterprising. Accord- 
ingly, in 1860, he left on the steamer 
" Champion" for Aspinwall, reaching 
San Francisco on the "Golden Gate.** 



He at once went to work in the es- 
tablishment of H. Casebolt & Co. , on 
Second street, opposite Market. Hero 
he remained a year. He was not, 
however, satisfied to work for others, 
and after obtaining sufficient knowl- 
edge of our local needs in the direction 
of this industry, and having an intui- 
tive perception of how to supply them, 
he, in company with D. 1). Miller, 
started in business for himself. The 
firm was known as Black & Miller, 
and had their establishment on Third 
and Market streets. Here they were 
at that early day outside of the city, 
as we now know it, but Mr. Black 
was aware that it would grow, and 
that an investment there would ulti- 
mately prove a paying one. The new 
firm was a successful one, and the 
partners did business together till 1869 , 
when Mr. Miller retired. Edward 
Saul took his place and remained five 
or six years. Since that time Mr. 
Black has borne all the burdens of the 
business alone. The original estab- 
lishment was removed higher up Mar- 
ket street to the place where Sanborn 
& Vail's establishment now is, in 1875. 
Here it remained till Mr. Black moved 
to Mission near Second, six or seven 
years ago. He still owns the property 
which he built himself. He was on 
Market street in all twenty-three 
years. When he began to manu- 
facture, most of the carriages used on 
the coast were imported, and the task 
of building up the local industry was 
not an easy one. But Mr. Black was 
a thorough master of his business and 
success followed him almost from the 
start. He has seen San Francisco 
grow from a city of forty thousand in- 
habitants to one of nearly nine times 
the number, and the industry in which 



118 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT OiTY. 



lie has labored to such good effect, too, 
expand proportionately. He received id 
1869 a gold medal for the first hack 
and top carriages and buggies ever 
manufactured in California or on the 
coast, and has many a time, and oft 
since then, carried off premiums from 
his competitors. 

Nor has he been unmindful of civic 
responsibilities, nor have the people 
been unmindful of his services to the 
interests of the city. He was elected 
School Director in 1875 and served 
four years in that capacity with credit 
to himself and benefit to the cause of 
education. Previous to that, he served 
four years on the Industrial School 
Board when the institution was sus- 
tained by private citizens and con- 
ducted solely on a charitable basis. 
There was then no such thing as polit- 
ical patronage in connection with it, 
and we need hardly say that it gave 
more satisfaction than it has done 



many times in later years. The girls 
sentenced there were subsequeutly 
turned over to the charge of the 
sisters, and many of them have not 
only reformed, but made excellent 
wives and mothers. Mr. Black served 
San Francisco as a member of the 
last Legislature. He was Chairman 
of the San Francisco Delegation, and 
besides did good service on the Judi- 
ciary Committee, and those on Public 
Lands and Education. 

He was married in Boston when 
only twenty-two 'years old, and again 
in 1877, to a highly cultured and ac- 
complished lady, but he has only one 
child living. He is a gentleman of 
fine physique, good ' presence , affable 
manners, and is what would anywhere 
be called a handsome man. His serv- 
ices to the cause of California industry 
and to the public weal entitle him to 
a niche in the temple of San Fran- 
cisco's worthies. 





E. M, Block. 



Elias Monroe Block. 



£f S a pioneer and merchant, E. M. 
7ck Block is by no means one of the 
&\* least noted. He was born in 
Bohemia in 1823, but left the land of 
his birth at an early age, and is in 
all respects distinctively American. 
His father came to St Louis, Mo., 
when the subject of our sketch was 
only 13 years of age, and settled in 
Pike county, but his son, while still 
young, went to the State's metropolis, 
where he clerked in an establishment 
for some years, commencing on a sal- 
ary of $5 per month. Attracted by 
the golden glories of California he 
early sought our shores, reaching this 
city July 5, 1849, coming by the Isth- 
mus route, in the well-remembered 
" Niantic." Like some others who saw 
as much gold in San Francisco as in 
the placers of the Sacramento Valley, 
he concluded to adopt a mercantile 
career, and clerked for a large im- 
porting house — that of A. H. Sibley 
— till it was burned out, afterwards 
officiating in the same capacity for 
James Blair of the navy, and owner 
of steamships sent out from Philadel- 
phia. He finally ventured into busi- 
ness for himself on the corner of 
Commercial and Leidesdorff streets, 
and was burned out in the disastrous 
conflagration of 1851. He was, in 
1850, part owner jointly with James 

Blair and J. C. Beidelman of the 
steamer "Sacramento/' which made 



weekly trips to Marysville. The 
fare was $40 and the freight $40 
per ton. For lumber $200 per thou- 
sand was charged. He was a stock- 
holder in the California Steam Navi- 
gation Company, organized in 1853, 
Major Sam Hensley being the Presi- 
dent of the company. 

He bought very largely at the 
first city sale, in 1849 and 1850, real 
estate consisting of 50 and 100- vara 
lots, in various portions of the city. 
These, which are now worth millions, 
he sold at a sacrifice and left for New 
York. Not expecting to return, he 
went into business in the Empire City, 
but again concluded to revisit Califor- 
nia. After remaining here awhile, he 
sought New York once more in 1859, 
being located at 20 Exchange place ancj 
19 Broad street, where for some years 
he was known as one of the leading 
bankers and brokers of Wall street. 
He visited the coast in 1870, but again 
the Empire City called him back. 

After a five years' absence he re- 
turned to California, and he has re- 
sided here ever since. For awhile he 
devoted himself to seeking for invest- 
ments, and finally in 1877 purchased 
Carmen Island Salt Works, of which 
he has been sole proprietor of the 
business until lately, when his son 
William was taken into partnership. 
He married in 1859, and has a family 
of three children. 






w 



John L. Boone. 



John lee Boone. 




OONE is an historical name of 
our country, and familiar to 
every schoolboy in the United 
States. John Lee Boone, of San 
Francisco, is a member of the family 
made famous by the great Ken- 
tucky pioneer, Daniel Boone, his 
great-grandfather George Boone and 
Daniel having been brothers. It 
would seem that a spirit of adventure 
and enterprise was one of the charac- 
teristics of the family, for we find the 
father of John Lee Boone one of the 
first white settlers in the State of 
Oregon at the site of Salem, now the 
Capital, then a wilderness. This was 
in 1844, when John was but a child a 
year old, having been born in Lee 
county, Iowa, on the 5th of August, 
1843. His father, John D. Boone, 
was a representative man of Oregon, 
and for eleven years in succession was 
its State Treasurer. On both sides 
Mr. Boone has reason to be proud of 
his lineage, which is purely American, 
dating back for several generations. 
His grandmother on his father's side 
belonged to the family of Virginia 
Randolphs, while the same relation- 
ship on his mother's side was with the 
Crafts of Virginia. 

Mr. Boone, after a course at the 
Willamette University at Salem, was 
sent, when 16 years of age, to the 
Ohio Wesleyan University, at Dela- 
ware, Ohio, to complete his education. 
He remained at that institution until 
the breaking out of the war in 1861, 
when he enlisted as a private soldier 
in Captain C. H. McElroy|s Co. D, 
Twentieth Ohio Vol. Inft He served 
in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shi- 
loh, Iuka, Hatchee River, McKnight's, 
Lane's, and was under General Grant 
until shortly before the siege of Vicks- 
burg in 1863. He received a dis- 
cbarge from the Secretary of War in 



order that he might be promoted, and 
was tendered a commission by Gov- 
ernor Dennison, of Ohio, on General 
Cox's staff, but declined the offer, that 
he might make a visit to his parents 
in Oregon, who were anxious to see 
him. Before returning, however, he was 
married (in July, 1863) to Miss Annie 
M. Lawson, daughter of Major Joseph 
Lawson, of the Eleventh Kentucky 
Cavalry, when the young couple re- 
turned to Oregon, where they received 
an enthusiastic reception. On the 
21st anniversary of his birthday (Au- 
gust 5th, 1864), Mr. Boone was elected 
to his first public position, that of jus- 
tice of the peace and at the same time 
was made an alderman of the city 
of Salem, remaining in office until 
October of the same year, when he 
was appointed Adjutant First Oregon 
Infantry. He continued in military 
service until November of 1865, act- 
ing as A. A. A. General of the Depart- 
ment of the Columbia, when he retired 
and began the study of law, being in 
the meantime twice elected clerk of 
the Oregon Legislature. 

In 1867 he came to San Francisco, 
and was for many years connected with 
the house of Dewey & Co. as manager 
of the Scientific Press Patent Agency, 
retaining the position until 1878, when 
ho opened an office on his own ac- 
count. Mr. Boone's legal knowledge 
and ability, especially as regards all 
business connected with patents, has 
been many times exemplified in the 
conduct of the most important cases. 
We may mention here the case of 
John Reynolds vs. H. L. Dodge, et al, 
tried in the U. S. Circuit Court. 
Dodge was superintendent of the San 
Francisco Mint, and consequently the 
United States was the real party de- 
fendant. In this case Mr. Boone ob- 
tained a judgment amounting to $60,- 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



000, which he collected from the gov- 
ernment. In the suit of Fisher et al. 
vs. Hoskin, involving the right to 
manufacture and sell tho Little Giant 
Hydraulic Mining Machine, so familiar 
to hydraulic miners, Mr. Boone suc- 
ceeded in overturning the result of 
eight years of prior litigation, in which 
other attorneys had contested the mat- 
ter ; in fact Mr.Boone's record in the U. 
S. Circuit Court as a successful patent 
lawyer is unequaled. Mr. Boone is 
untiring and persistent in his efforts 
for any client whose cause he espouses, 
as the following anecdote wilt illus- 
trate : In a case pending in the Su- 
perior Court a short while ago he was 
opposed by two of our most prominent 
attorneys. Judge A and Judge B, who 
had both held judicial positions, and 
whoso offices were in different parts 
of town. Judge A appeared to be the 
principal attorney, but when Mr. 
Boone would send his clerk to hiin to 
get any information or to get a stipu- 
lation signed, Judge A would send him 
to Judge B, and Judge B would send 
him back to Judge A.until the thing be- 
came almost unbearable. At last Mr. 
Boone sent Judge A a polite note sug- 
gesting that he (Judge A) was not 
acting in good faith. After reading 
the note Judge A How into a violent 



individual had at last been located- 
The humor of this reply was so ap- 
parent that Judge A upon reading it 
burst into a hearty laugh, and has 
never failed to remark when ho meets 
Mr. Boone that the joke was too good 
to keep. Judge A has ever since held 
Mr. Boone in the highest esteem. 

Mr. Boone is a member of the G. 
A. R. In 1884 Mr. Boone was elected 
to represent the Thirteenth Senatorial 
District in this State in tho State 
Senate, which position he filled with 
credit to himself and to the entire sat- 
isfaction of his constituents. In 1888 
he was for a time the recognized Rc- 

fublican candidate for Congress in the 
ifth Congressional District, and could 
have been the candidate of the party 
if he bad desired the nomination, but 
while in the full tide of his canvas 
when there was no candidate to op- 
pose him, he withdrew his name and 
refused to accept the nomination, much 
to tho disappointment of his friends. 
Mr. Boone is at present a member of 
the Executive Committee of the Re- 
publican State Committee, and we 
doubt not that there ore future honors 
awaiting him. 

For a number of years past Mr. 
Boone has been engaged in the practice 
of law exclusively, but lie lias recently 




*•*&' 




Fred. L. Sastlb. 



Fred l. Castle. 



qtt*ONE amongst our merchants has 
d\| a more honored name than that 
£*f of Fred L. Castle. He was born 
in the world's great Babylon, Xon- 
don, in 1828. His father was a stock 
broker in high standing in this great 
metropolis. He had three sons — 
Fred L., Goodman, and Michael; 
all brought up to mercantile career, 
and receiving the benefits of a lib- 
eral education in their native land. 
When very young Fred L. came to 
the United States. He also sought 
business opportunities in Canada- 
He arrived in San Francisco in 1850, 
and since then, nigh on to forty years, 
he has been a conspicuous figure in 
mercantile circles, though early in 
the fifties having sold out his interest 
to his brother he returned to Eng- 
land where he resided three years. 
Coming back lie resumed his place 
in the firm. Goodman died in 1860. 
Michael sold his interest to Fred L. 
a few years subsequently. Mr. Cas- 
tle's life work has been devoted to 
the establishment of the present 
house, and the advancement of the 
interests of the grocery trade in San 
Francisco. In this he has been 
ably seconded of late years by his 
son, Walter M., whom he took into 
partnership with him in 1877, and 
who is one <f San Francisco's ris- 
ing young merchants. Mr. Castle's 
other son, Eugene, a kindly, geni al 



young man, of more than ordinary 
promise, died in 1882, universally 
regretted by all who had the pleas- 
ure of his acquaintance. 'Fred L. 
Castle was one of the pioneers of 
our tea trade with the Orient, and 
has worked hard in its development 
for nearly forty years. Mr. Castle 
was married in 1855 to an accom- 
plished lady, and has an interesting 
family. Ho is President of a new 
hospital that is just being estab- 
lished and belongs to many organi- 
zations, principally of a benevolent 
character. A member of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce almost since its 
organization, ho has always been 
foremost in the adoption of practical 
measures calculated to foster our 
trade, and to extend the field where 
it could be profitably established. 
He is unostentatiously charitable, is 
a uniformly courteous and obliging 
gentleman, and as a merchant takes 
position in the front ranks of those 
who have shed a luster on our com- 
mercial history by their character and 
standing. Although over forty years 
in business he is still to be found at 
his post as active and br.sy as when 
he first entered the honorable path- 
way that leads to mercantile success. 
It is by men, such as he, that the 
true foundation of the prosperity of 
states and cities is enduringly laid 
and unremittingly conserved. 




Sharles M. Shase. 



Charles Metaphor Chase. 



CONNECTED, as he has been, 
MIL with the press and with several 
♦^ important public matters, and 
having experienced his share of the 
vicissitudes of fortune, the life of 
Charles M. Chase has, for a quiet 
citizen, been abundantly full of in- 
cident. 

He is a native of Maryland, the 
New England of Catholicism, having 
been born at Baltimore. His pater- 
nal ancestry was English, and bad 
been established in the Colonies for 
a couple of centuries, four brothers 
of the name, of whom Aquilla was 
one, having come to New England in 
the Seventeenth century. 

During its long residence in Ame- 
rica a strain of French blood mingled 
with that of the family. 

His mother's family came from 
Pennsylvania, being originally of 
Holland-Dutch ancestry. 

He is thus in his own person fairly 
representative of three of the great 
races whose brain and brawn helped 
to create an empire in the wilderness 
on this side of the Atlantic. 

From Aquilla Chase, previously 
mentioned, no is a lineal descendant. 
His father was a prosperous mer- 
chant of Baltimore, and had long 
been engaged in the Bio trade. 

He received his education at St. 
Mary's College, Baltimore, one of 
the oldest educational institutions in 
the country, conducted by the Jesuit 
Fathers. Here he acquired the ele- 
ments of instruction necessary to fit 
him for a mercantile life. 

He left college in 1848 and imme- 
diately entered the counting-house 
of a prosperous mercantile firm, 
heavily engaged in the West India 
trade. Deeming, however, that Cali- 
fornia afforded a better opportunity 



for ambitious young men, he left 
New York May 25, 1852, for the 
shores of the Golden State. The 
"United States" carried him to 
Panama, and the "Winfield Scott" 
from Panama to this city, where he 
arrived June 25, 1852. He is thus 
an old-time Californian, and may 
well be termed a pioneer. 

He has seen both city and State 
grow from infancy to adolescence. 
The former from a small town to the 
metropolis, with over 330,000 people ; 
the latter from a mining camp, to a 
prosperous agricultural and manu- 
facturing commonwealth. 

Among the companions of his voy- 
age were George S. Mann, an old- 
time underwriter; S. G. Beed, the 
noted banker and steamship man of 
Portland, Or., and John Conness, 
afterwards United States Senator 
from California. 

On arrival he proceeded imme- 
diately to Calaveras County and en- 
gaged for a time in mining, but with 
indifferent success. He soon re- 
turned to San Francisco, whence he 
proceeded to San Jose ; but it was 
not long before he found himself 
again in this city. 

Like many other Calif ornians, he 
was at this time anything but a fav- 
orite of Fortune. That fickle jade 
has, however, since abundantly re- 
warded him, as far, at least, as 
material wealth is concerned. 

After many vicissitudes and anxi- 
eties, he at last found employment 
in the office of the County Surveyor, 
W. P. Humphreys, still his intimate 
and warm personal friend. 

On leaving this he became inter- 
ested in the Commercial Advertiser, 
the successor of the Daily Whig. 
The Advertiser was purchased in the 



1126 



BUTLDERB OF A GREAT CITY. 



interest of David C. Broderick, to 
help to elect him as United States 
Senator. Mr. Chase was business 
manager of the Advertiser until such 
time as it successfully accomplished 
its object, when its publication 
ceased. He worked hard and enthu- 
siastically in the cause of Broderick, 
and he looks back upon the circum- 
stances connected therewith as form- 
ing one of the proudest episodes of 
his career. 

On leaving the Advertiser he pur- 
chased a job printing office, in Octo- 
ber, 1854. It was located on the 
corner of Clay and Kearny streets, 
in the old California Exchange 
Building. Here, notwithstanding 
be was of age, he acquired a thorough 
knowledge of the printing business 
in all its branches, becoming a prac- 
tical printer in the true sense of the 
term. 

In April, 1855, in conjunction 
with M. D . Boruok, he established 
the Fireman's Journal. Ip 1859, 
tbe partners purchased the Spirit of, 
tlie Times, into which the other was . 
merged. In 1870, Mr- Chase turned; 
over his interest in the paper to Mr. 
Boruck. The Spirit of tfte Times is 
still in existence, successful, and 
under the management of Mr. 



He was for eleven years a member 
of the old Volunteer Fire Depart- 
ment, and was Secretary for a num- 
ber of years of Monumental No. 6. 
He was for years a member of the 
Board of Delegates, S. F. F. D. 

In 1874, in conjunction with H. R. 
Covey, J. R. Dickey and J. N. 
Killip, a company was formed, the 
Bay District Fair Grounds leased, 
the building erected and tbe track 
constructed . This enterprise cost in 
the neighborhood of $150,000, of 
which the gentlemen named contri- 
buted a fraction over $81,000. 

The enterprise was quite success- 
ful, and has contributed much to tbe 
improvement of the breed of horses 
in California. 

Mr. Chase has been a member of 
the State Board of Agriculture for 
eleven years, and has contributed 
not a little to the success of the State 
Fair and to the promotion of ugri- 
oulture, live . stock raising, and the 
manufacturing interests of Califor- 
nia in general. 

He was a member of the National 
Guard in Vigilance Committee 
times. 

He. was one of the original mem- 
bers of the State 'Board of Forestry, 
and uid ■ active service for several 





John M. Surtis. 



John M. Curtis. 




ANY and varied are the grades 
of workers concerned in the 
r i^J building up of a common- 
wealth, or a city of metropolitan fame, 
such as is San Francisco. Some work 
with the hand, some with the brain, 
many with both together, but the labors 
of even the humblest could not be dis- 
pensed with, while a mart of commerce 
like San Francisco calls especially for 
the services of merchants, bankers, 
manufacturers, and skilled artisans. 
It needs no less these invaluable ones 
rendered by the professional man , the 
divine, the physician, the jurist, and 
though last, not least, the architect. 
In fact, the measure of the advance in 
civilization of every community is 
found in the comfort and artistic 
beauty of its homes, its streets, and 
public buildings. The architect is 
par excellence a city " builder ," and 
the noble profession of which he is a 
member is called upon, not only to 
supply the elements of solidity, but 
those of strength and beauty to the 
edifice in which we dwell, or which we 
need for purpose of trade, manufact- 
ures, worship, jurisprudence, or the 
other many and varied callings needed 
in our modern civilization. Besides 
the indispensable elements of style and 
beauty in the construction of edifices , 
he is also called upon to take measures 
for the conservation of the health and 
comfort of the citizen in the matters 
of ventilation, heating, and drainage. 
According as he is proficient in his 
chosen profession are these things 
well or illy done. The profession is 
well represented in San Francisco. 
Like the city itself, it is catholic and 
cosmopolitan, as its followers come 
from every school and hail from every 
land. The result is seen in a pleasing 



variety of styles which yet combine to 
form a harmonious whole. During 
the past few years a new era has 
arisen in metropolitan architecture, 
Many elegant and costly buildings 
have already been constructed, and 
during the next few years it is hardly 
too much to assume that the ugly gaps 
between will be occupied with struct- 
ures fittingly representing our wealth 
and business enterprise. To no one 
of the many estimable gentlemen who 
fill the ranks of the profession of arch- 
itecture can a higher place be assigned 
than that which must be given to 
John M. Curtis. Coming from an 
old Southern family that settled gen- 
erations ago in Virginia, from thence 
to Kentucky, he was born in War- 
saw, 111., in 1852. While still 
very young his parents removed to 
Lexington, Mo., irom thence to St. 
Louis, Mo. Here he received his 
education in the public schools and 
polytechnic institute. Leaving school 
while still a mere lad, he learned the 
trade of carpentering with Bent & 
Garrity of that city. But his natural 
tastes and inclinations soared above 
the mere mechanical details of his 
trade, and entering the office of 
Mitchel & Brady, well-known archi- 
tects, he mastered the profession in 
which he has since obtained distinc- 
tion. Coming to San Francisco in 
1874, he was employed by various 
local firms of architecture in the four 
following years, but during the past 
twelve years he has been in business 
for himself and has been very success- 
ful, his name and work being well and 
favorably known, not only in San 
Francisco, but in many interior coun- 
ties as well. He has given much at, 
tention to the construction of public 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CTTT. 



buildings , having been the successful 
competitor for the designing of the 
Court Houses at Eureka, Humboldt 
County, and Santa Rosa, Sonoma 
County, the County Jail and offices at 
Santa Cruz, and the Hall of Records 
and County Jail at Santa Rosa, now 
in the course of erection. The Ma- 
sonic Halls at FasoRobles and Suisun, 
Redding and Colusa, the Odd Fellows' 
Hall at Santa Rosa, the Mutual Re- 
lief Building, Petaluma, and the Red 
Men's Hall in tliis city were built by 
hira. The County Jails and buildings 
designed by him are of incombustible 
materials. The jails being of iron and 
steel throughout, enclosed with brick 
and granite, are the very best in 
the State. Mr. Curtis was paid the 
highest premium for the competitive 
design for the Academy of Science 
Building, now being erected on Market 
street. He was the assistant architect 
of the Baldwin Hotel and Theater. 
Private residences innumerable have 
been his work, among which may be 
mentioned Dr. James Simpson's on 
Sutter street near Van Ness; A. ■ W. 
Wilson's, corner Scott and Fulton; W. 
T. Coleman's, corner Taylor and Wash- 
ington; the Coleman villa, San Ra- 
fael . and the Younts residence at Napa. 
Tho immense KuhliT & FroliI' 



street, the largest stable the company 
has in tho West, now approaching 
completion, was also designed by him. 
He designed the Omnibus Cable Com- 

Sjiy's Building, corner Tenth and 
oward streets, costing ?200 ,000. 
The above are a portion of the 
many works which have made his life 
a useful and busy one. He is a mem- 
ber of the San Francisco Chapter of 
American Institute of Architects, 
Treasurer of Pacific Coast Association 
of Architects. Although he is one of 
the most active and busy men in the 
city, his genial nature and benevolent 
heart has drawn him to our leading 
fraternal societies. He is a member 
of Mission Lodge No. 269, F. and A. 
M. ; California Chapter No. 5, Cali- 
fornia Council, No. 2, California 
Cominandery No l,ond Islam Tem- 
ple, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. In 
the I. 0. O. F. , he holds member- 
ships: Fidelity No. 222, Oriental En- 
campment No. 57, Uniform Degree 
No. 5, and Templar Rebecca Degree. 
As fitting adjuncts, he holds member- 
ship in San Francisco Group Good 
Samaritans, No, 1;. Ivy Chapter, Or- 
der Eastern Star. 

Mr. Curtis was married in 1887 to 
Miss Isabel H, Muir, a native of 
Georgetown. VA I>iir;nlo Ccunty, Cali- 





Peter Dean. 



PETER DEAN, 



ajpHERE are few '49ers better or 
mjli more widely known, or who have 
^T done more to advance the best 
interests of the State and people, than 
Peter Dean. California is as justly 
proud of her pioneers as are the 
pioneers of the State, whose resources 
they have assisted in developing, and 
whose fame, as a land unequaled in 
climate and products, has gone abroad 
throughout the world, and is bring- 
ing thousands of visitors and resi- 
dents from all nations to recuperate 
and enjoy for a season the advantages 
it offers, or to dwell in and cultivate 
its valleys. 

By birth Mr. Dean is an English- 
man, having been born in Clith- 
eroe, Lancashire County, Eng., on 
Christmas Day, 1828. His father, 
Benjamin Dean, however, emigrated 
to America in 1829, settling in New 
England while Peter was but a baby, 
so that he may rightly claim to be 
an American. 

He received a sound education in 
the schools of New England, and had 
decided (in 1848) to follow in the 
footsteps of his elder brother, Ben- 
jamin, and adopt the law as a profes- 
sion. Being naturally both adven- 
turous and ambitious, the reports 
which were beginning to circulate con- 
cerning the wondrous wealth to be 
obtained in the gold fields of Cali- 
fornia took hold upon his imagina- 
tion, and he determined to renounce 
the law and test his powers for suc- 
cess in the new El Dorado. He left 
Providence on the 9th of March, 
1849, and sailed from New York in 
the brig "General Hitchcock," on 
the 12tn of the same month, for 
Chagres. The difficulties of cross- 
ing the Isthmus in those days were 
very great, and Mr. Dean had to 



undergo his full share of hardships, 
After a delay of forty-two days Tie 
sailed on the "Oregon for San Fran- 
cisco, where he landed on the 13th of 
June, 1849. 

From that time up to the present 
Mr. Dean has identified himself with 
many of the prominent public and 
private enterprises of the State, to 
give a detailed account of which 
would occupy a volume of them- 
selves. His first venture was in the 
mines where, considering the neces- 
sity for a means of crossing the Tu- 
olumne River, he started a ferry at 
the mouth of Wood's Creek, the 
first means of conveyance being a 
dug-out constructed by himself and 
companions. This gave way to a row- 
boat, which in its turn was succeed- 
ed by a scow and cable. The ferry 
was a success financially, and gave 
rise to a law suit in whicn the Dean 
ferry had the public sympathy. In 
1851, Dean and O'Donnell, who were 
partners, disposed of the ferry busi- 
ness and Mr. Dean came to San 
Francisco, where, in company with 
Samuel Jackson of pioneer lumber 
fame, a speculative trip to Oregon 
was arranged, and in October, 1851, 
they started in a schooner for the 
Columbia River, which they reached 
after a rough and tedious trip. At 
Portland the vessel's hold was partly 
filled with lumber, the deck loaded 
with such staples as wheat, potatoes, 
pigs, etc., and the return voyage to 
San Francisco began. It proved 
disastrous from the start. They were 
delayed for twelve days on a sand- 
bar, and after getting to sea met with 
such heavy weather that the schoon- 
er was completely dismantled and 
they were obliged to drift at the will 
of the waves which took them to 



130 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



the north of Vancouver Island where 
they managed to enter one of the nu- 
merous estuaries of that section. A 
somewhat singular coincidence is 
the fact that the water- way was 
known as Dean Inlet. By this time 
the provisions had been carried away 
or consumed, and for forty days, 
while they were repairing the schoon- 
er, they subsisted chiefly on mussels. 
They had been relying somewhat on 
the friendly relations they had es- 
tablished with the Indians for aid 
in their efforts to get away. This 
hope was rudely dispelled one night, 
when they were robbed by their 
supposed friends of their clothing 
and other necessaries. With a fav- 
orable change of the wind to the 
northwest, soon after this event, 
they managed to put to sea carrying, 
as food, a large supply of mussels, 
and after an adventurous voyage 
managed to reach Puget Sound. 
Arriving at Fort Steilacoom, they left 
the schooner, and proceeded in 
canoes to Olympia, thence by horae 
to French Camp on Cowlitz River, 
when they again canoed it to the 
Columbia River, where they obtain- 
ed passage on the steamer " Colum- 
bia' for San Francisco, which they 
finally reached after an absence of 
six months. 



derfully varied experience, crowded 
to the full with adventure by land 
and sea, he returned on a visit to his 
early home in the East. While there 
he managed to satisfy his love of the 
exciting and hazardous by making a 
baloon voyage in company with 
Messrs. Helm and Hill, which, after 
seven hours in the atmosphere, 
landed them in the top of a tree 

Sowing on an island in a New 
ampsnire lake. 

Rehiring to California in 1861, 
he was married during the same 
year to Miss Isabella Armstrong of 
Visalia. 

In 1864 he engaged again in the 
cattle business with B. F. Channel 
as a partner. Their adventures 
while driving a herd of cattle from 
Eureka, Humboldt Bay, to Boise 
Valley, Idaho, would form the basis 
for a sensational novel. Mr. Channel 
had a close call for his scalp from 
a party of Indians and two of their 
men were killed by the redskins. 
They lost their water supply by the 
breakage of the wagon carrying it. 
Their cattle got scattered, and alto- 
gether they had a hard time to get 
through. 

On nifl arrival in Idaho, Mr. Dean 
decided to remain there which he 
did until 1889. during which time 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



131 



recognition from Lis contemporaries 
and associates as a man of more 
than ordinary ability and force of 
character. As a life member of the 
Society of Pioneers, he has acted in 
the capacity of Director, Vice-Presi- 
dent and President, and it was dur- 
ing his incumbency as President that 
the final deed from James Lick for 
the Fourth-street property, where the 
Pioneer Building now stands, was 
obtained. 

In 1877 he was elected to a seat 
in the Senatorial branch of the gen- 
eral assembly, and was earnest in his 
devotion to educational matters. He 
also urged the question of govern- 
mental control of at least one trans- 
continental railroad. He was active 
and outspoken in his efforts to rid 



white labor of the hftfcrajbus of the 
Chinese, and his arguments carried 
great weight with the legislators of 
the country. 

His capability as a financier caused 
him to be appointed as a Director in 
winding up the affairs of the National 
Bank and Trust Company. When 
the Masonic Bank was forced to sus- 
pend, he accepted the Presidency, 
so managing the affairs of the insti- 
tution, as to give general satisfaction, 
and the same may be said of the 
Merchants' Exchange Bank. 

At present Mr. Dean is President 
of the Sierra Lumber Company, one 
of the most extensive concerns of the 
country, employing a great number 
of hands and serving to develop the 
best interests of the State. 




Col. E. fl. Denicke. 



Ernst A. Denicke. 



cjr MONG no class of our foreign 
7JV population is to be found so 
^j v large a percentage of thrifty, 
prosperous and reliable citizens as in 
the ranks of the German-Americans. 
While almost invariably cherishing a 
reverential love for the Fatherland, 
the strongest allegiance of their 
naturally patriotic natures is given 
unconditionally to the free Kepublic, 
the land of their adoption. A splen- 
did example of this admirable citi- 
zenship is found in the well-known 
gentleman whose name appears at 
the head of this sketch. Ernst A. 
Denicke was born in Hanover, Ger- 
many, on the 13th day of July, 1840, 
and came with his parents to Ameri- 
ca in 1849. He was educated in 
New York city, but on April 21, 
1861, when not yet twenty-one years 
of age, he responded to the first call 
for troops and enlisted in the Tenth 
New York Begiment Infantry Volun- 
teers. In August of the same year 
for gallant conduct on the battlefield 
of Big Bethel, Mr. Denicke was 
commissioned Second Lieutenant of 
Company E, Sixty-eighth New York 
Infantry, and afterward promoted suc- 
cessively to the rank of First Lieuten- 
ant and Captain of Company E. In 
March, 1863, he accepted a first lieu- 
tenancy in the Signal Corps, U. S. A. 
Through all the four dreary years 
of the rebellion, he faithfully served 
the cause of the Union, and on Dec- 
ember 21, 1865, resigned with the 
rank of Brevet-Major of the Signal 
Corps, TJ. S. A. 

In the year 1866, Major Denicke 
came to California via of Panama, 
and immediately entered active busi- 
ness life; first m the wholesale gro- 
cery line, and subsequently as a 
manufacturer of cigars. We may 



mention in passing that in all his 
business ventures Major Denicke 
has adhered strictly to the principle 
of exclusive employment of white 
labor, and in the year 1876 was the 
only cigar manufacturer who refused 
to employ Chinese workmen. 

In 18o0 Major Denicke became 
identified with the famous Freder- 
icksburg Brewery at San Jose, hav- 
ing formed a partnership with the 
late Ernst Schnabel, one of the most 
practical and successful business 
men in the State. Upon the death 
of Mr, Schnabel, which occurred in 
January, 1889, Major Denicke as- 
sumed entire control of the immense 
business, and has since retained it, 
no new partners having been admit- 
ted. Under his able supervision the 
business has grown and prospered, 
until to-day it is the most extensive 
industry of its kind on this coast. 
The plant at San Jose covers five 
acres of land, and the buildings are 
of the most modern and elaborate 
structure. The capacity of the 
brewery is one hundred and fifty 
thousand barrels per year. About 
sixty-five thousand barrels are sold 
yearly; of which two carloads are 
bottled daily in San Francisco mostly 
for family use, and the balance in 
San Jose. Mr. Denicke 1 s shipments 
extend all over the Pacific Coast, 
and from Alaska to Ecuador, and 
Melbourne to Hongkong . 

Despite the copstant drafts on his 
time and energies made by his vast 
business interests, Major " Denicke 
finds time to keep up the traditions 
of the G. A. B. He is a member of 
the Loyal Legion, and of George H. 
Thomas Post No. 2, and at present 
commands the Signal Corps, Second 
Brigade, N. G. 0. of this coast. In 



134 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



carriage and bearing he is every ter of F. S. Pott, Esq., Speaker of 

iucii a soldier, and at the same the Independent German Gongrega- 

time one of the most approachable tion of San Francisco, a nmon 

of men. In 1871 Mr. Denicke was which has been blessed with three 

married to Misa Ida, youngest datigh- children. 





Henry C. Dibble. 



Henry C. Dibble. 



^| 1 NE of the most popular and sue- 
*\&-9 cessful members of the San 

^r Francisco Bar is Henry C. 
Dibble. Although but a few years 
have elapsed since his location here, 
he has already secured a large and 
lucrative practice, and has assumed a 
prominent position in political and 
public affairs. 

Judge Dibble comes of good stock. 
The Dibbles are one of the oldest 
families of Connecticut, having ar- 
rived from England in 1634. He is 
also a descendant of General Daniel 
Gookin, whose services in educating 
and Christianizing the Indian tribes 
of New England in Colonial days won 
for him no less renown than his suc- 
cessful efforts in shielding Goff and 
Whalley, the fugitive regicides. The 
father and grandparents of Judge 
Dibble emigrated to Indiana in 1826 
where ^ they laid out the town of 
Delphi. His grandmother, who had 
married a Dr. Dewey for her second 
husband, was a woman of unusual 
force of character. Soon after set- 
tling in the wilderness the Doctor 
was killed, leaving his widow with 
seven children, all under age. She 
had studied medicine with her hus- 
band, and was well versed in the 
mysteries of the curative art, so she 
decided to succeed to his practice. 
She was very successful in her new 
calling, riding on horseback many 
miles at all hours of the day and 
night, and carrying with her comfort 
and aid to many a suffering patient. 
The maiden name of Judge Dibble's 
mother was Euland, and her father 
built the first paper mill west of the 
Alleghanies, at Lebanon, O. The 
Bulands were from Long Island and 
were of French Huguenot descent. 

The subject of our sketch was 



born in Delphi, Ind., in 1844. He 
received a common school education, 
and was at school in 1861 when the 
war broke out. The patriotic blood 
of his ancestors coursed quicker 
through his veins as the echo of the 
guns hred in Charleston harbor died 
away, and though but 17 years of age 
young Dibble enlisted in the Union 
ranks. He joined the New York 
Marine Artillery, a regiment which 
formed part of the Burnsid (expedi- 
tion to the shores of North Carolina. 
The organization was mustered out in 
1863, but soon afterward he enlisted 
in the Fourteenth New York Volun- 
teer Cavalry, which was sent to Louis- 
iana. He was wounded in the attack 
on Port Hudson, and as a result suf- 
fered the amputation of a leg. This 
Eut a stop to nis active service in the 
eld, and he decided to settle in New 
Orleans, where he had an aunt resid- 
ing. He studied law, and in June, 
1865, several months before he came 
of age, was admitted to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the State. A year 
later he entered the law school of 
the University of Louisiana, and 
took the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 
In 1867 he became interested in 

}>olitics, and was soon engaged in that 
ively warfare which attended the Re- 
constructionper i od in Louisiana. He 
was chosen President of the first Re- 

Eublican Municipal Convention ever 
eld in New Orleans, in the Spring 
of 1868, and was soon at the head 
of city politics, being elected Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee. At 
the first election, under the new code 
of things, he was the Republican can- 
didate for District Attorney, but 
was defeated. That year Warmouth, 
the Republican candidate for Gov- 
ernor, was elected, and Dibble for a 



136 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



short time retired from politics and 
devoted himself to the practice of 
his profession, and was employed by 
the State Government in a large 
number of cases arising out of the 
Reconstruction laws. In 1868 and 
1869 he appeared in the Supreme 
Court and argued a number of ques- 
tions arising out of the animosities 
engendered by the operation of tbe 
new constitution. At about this time 
the Legislature created an additional 
court, similar in its scope and pow- 
ers to our Superior Court, to 
which was given exclusive jurisdic- 
tion over all writs of injunction, 
mandamus and kindred proceedings. 
Of this court Dibble was appointed 
Judge. He was then but twenty-five 
years of age. He served on the 
bench for three years and was then 
nominated by Us party to succeed 
himself, but was defeated. He re- 
sumed practice and in the Summer 
of 1873 went to Europe where he 
remained some months. Soon after 
his return to New Orleans he went 
to Washington, aud argued the 
Louisiana contested election cases 
before the Senate Committee on 
Privileges and Elections. In 1874 
the Legislature, created the office of 
Assistant Attorney-General, to which 



them in a mining litigation in which 
they were interested in Arizona. 
After he had successfully settled the 
business of his clients he decided to 
locate in Tombstone. He entered 
into partnership with J. F. Lewis, 
an ex-Chief Justice of Nevada, and 
practiced there till 1883, when he 
left for this city. In March, 1885, 
he was appointed Assistant United 
States Attorney, and remained in 
that position until he resigned in 
1887, sometime after General Carey, 
the Democratic appointee, took office 
as District Attorney. 

In 1888 Judge Dibble was elected 
to the Assembly from the Forty-first 
District, and served on the follow- 
ing important committees: Ways 
and Means, Judiciary, Penal Laws, 
Yosemito Valley Corporations and 
Election Laws. It was remarked 
before the Legislature convened 
that Dibble would be the leader 
of the House, although that 
body had a Democratic majority. 
If his position was disputed in the 
early days of tbe session the palm of 
leadership was unanimously awarded 
him before its final adjournment. 
Judge Dibble has always taken an 
active interest in educational mat- 
ters, and while in New Orleans 





Col. John H. Dickinson. 



Col. John H. Dickinson. 



GjjUHE lawyer who faithfully abides 
JIlL by the precepts and traditions of 

^j his profession is one of the most 
valued members of society ; he is a 
support of the commonwealth, one of 
the bulwarks of the State. Among 
the members of the legal fraternity 
whose names have adorned the series 
of papers in the ' ' Builders of a Great 
City, ' there is none more worthy of a 
place than the subject of this sketch. 
John H. Dickinson was born in 
Parkersburg, Virginia, now West 
Virginia, April 8, 1849. He comes 
of good stock. On his father's side 
he is connected with the Dickinsons 
of New York, the most prominent 
of the family being Daniel S. Dick- 
inson, a United States Senator and 
Attorney-General of the Empire 
State. His mother was a Jackson, 
and of the celebrated Virginia 
family. Her father was a graduate 
of W est Point, and a prominent law- 
yer for many years. One of his 
maternal uncles is Judge J. J. Jack- 
son of the United States Circuit 
Court, and another is Ex-Governor 
J. B. Jackson of "West Virginia. 
His mother died when John was a 
year old, and soon after his father 
came to this coast, the son following 
in 1854. The two then went to 
Oregon, where the elder Dickinson 
engaged in farming. In 1865, then 
but 16 years of age, he made up his 
mind to enter the Union Army as a 
private soldier. Before this toilsome 
journey, by the way of the Isthmus, 
was concluded, however, Lee had 
surrendered, and the war was practi- 
cally at an end. Disappointed in 
his dream of distinguishing himself 
upon the field of battle, our young 
enthusiast, who appears to have in- 
herited a strong taste for martial 



Eursuits, entered a military college at 
incinnati, Ohio, where he remained 
nearly a year. On account of family 
affairs he was then obliged to return 
to Oregon, where he remained till 
1868. In that year an opportunity 
was offered him* to enter St. Augus- 
tine's College atBeniciain this State, 
as Military Instructor. Of this open- 
ing he was not slow to avail himself. 
While at Benicia it was arranged 
that he was to receive the benefits of 
instruction in the ordinary branches 
of learning from the professors, 
while he inculcated the students in 
the mysteries of the military art. It 
was certainly a generous quid pro quo 
on his part. He studied very hard 
at this time, as before that his school 
advantages had been very limited. 
Although there was no law depart- 
ment at the institute, he founcf op- 
portunity outside of his other duties 
to ground himself in the rudiments 
of the profession he had decided 
to adopt, and in April, 1873, he was 
admitted to tho Bar. Three months 
later he opened an office in this city, 
and since that timo his success has 
been marked. Ho has always been 
averse to criminal practice and has 
refused many tempting offers to en- 
gago in it. In the case of Barring- 
ton, tried for killing McDonald, ono 
of the few in which ho has taken part, 
in which ho appeared as counsel for 
the defeuse, ho succeeded in clearing 
his client on the ground of insanity. 
During the time the bankruptcy law 
was in operation he had a large and 
lucrative practice in that branch of 
his profession. Ho was one of the 
attorneys in the case of Rockwell, 
Coye & Co., formerly a large hard- 
ware firm here, and also for John G. 
Hodge, the stationer, when they 



138 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



availed themselves of the bene- 
fits of the act. One of the most 
signal legal triumphs achieved by 
Col. Dickinson was in the famous 
Scott Warehouse steal cases, in 
which he appeared as attorney for 
Bode & Setirlo, the warehouse peo- 
ple. Scott was a trusted employe in 
one of the largest warehouses in the 
city, and while in that position sold 
and disposed of large quantities of 
merchandise in store, to private par- 
ties and firms, pocketing the pro- 
ceeds. When his peculations were 
discovered his employers brought 
suit against the purchasers of the 
property for its value. In the pres- 
entation of the case by Col. Dickin- 
son "constructive fraud" was charg- 
ed. This was violently combatted by 
opposing counsel, one of them, a 
leading member of the bar, remark- 
ing to him that " he was crazy" to 
set up such a plea. The Court and 
jury, however, found there was wis- 
dom in such insanity, for his clients 
recovered in all the eases. 

Col. Dickinson's practice now is 
mostly in the line of mercantile 
law, in which branch of jurisprud- 
ence he is remarkably well versed. 
Ho reckons among his clients some 
of the heaviest concerns in the city, 
belli" regularly rotating! by such firms 



with his business, and he decided 
to drop politics and devote himself 
to his practice. 

Col. Dickinson is also well known 
to the general public as a military 
man. He has always been a warm 
friend of the National Guard, and 
the work done by him to further the 
interests of the citizen-soldiery will 
long be remembered. He first en- 
tered the National Guard as a mem- 
ber of Company B, City Guard, 
First Regiment, of which he was 



elected Captain in 1877. He was 
re-elected in 1879, and in June, 
1880, although the junior Captain, 
he was elected Colonel, jumping over 
the heads of both the field officers. 
By reason of his services, Col. Dick- 
inson is now the ranking Colonel of 
the brigade, and in the absence of 
the Brigadier commands it. 

Of late Col. Dickinson has been 
brought prominently before the 
public because of his connection 
with the Jessup case, having been 
first employed as attorney for the 
executors under the will, and subse- 
quently by the legatees. The recent 
decision by the Supreme Court in 



his favor sustaining the validity 

of the will, and later in refusing 

a rehearing, is a great triumph 
for Col. Dickinson. He hi 




4 



^> « 




W. H. DlMOND. 



Gen wm. h. dimond. 



4 OB a long time General Dimond 
has been one of the promi- 
nent figures of San Francis- 
co's mercantile, social and political 
life, and has for many years been the 
active partner and actual head of 
the well-known house of Williams, 
Dimond & Co. He has done much 
to promote the commercial prosper- 
ity and growth of the city of his 
adoption. He was born in Honolulu 
nearly fifty years ago, bis father be- 
ing an American missionary, one of 
the devoted band of men who first 
endeavored to bring civilization and 
enlightenment to the people of the 
Hawaiian kingdom. 

General Dimond received a high 
school education in his native city, 
and began a mercantile career when 
he was only 18 years old. 

There he remained until the 
civil war. His American blood fired 
with zeal when it became a question 
of the life or death of the land of his 
fathers. He offered his services to 
the President of the United States, 
and was appointed by him as Cap- 
tain and Assistant Adjutant-General 
of T7. S. Volunteers, Department of 
South, and served on the staff of 
Major-General Saxton until the close 
of the war when he resigned his com- 
mission. He made the tour of Eu- 
rope, returned to Honolulu and set- 
tled down again as a business man. 

After having once lived in the 
United States it was not easy for 
such an active spirit to refrain from 
participation in its busy scenes of 
industrial and commercial life, so he 
returned to California in 1867, and 
entered the employ of the Russell & 
Erwin Manufacturing Co., remain- 
ing until the close of their agency 
in this city. In 1873 he became 



connected with the well-known firm 
of Williams, Blanchard & Co. In 
1880 he became a member of the 
firm, taking the place of Mr. Blanch- 
ard, who had retired, the firm being 
known as that of Williams, Dimond 
& Co. This firm for many years has 
enjoyed one of the largest ship- 
ping, banking and general merchw- 
dise businesses on the Pacific Coast, 
and its more recent growth is a con- 
vincing testimony to the superior 
abilities of its senior partner. Be- 
sides being a member of this firm, 
he has been engaged in several other 
important enterprises. He is a Di- 
rector of the Anglo-Nevada Assur- 
ance Corporation, and has been a 
Director of the Chamber of Com- 
merce and Merchants' Exchange. 

Being a military man, he takes 
a great interest in California's Na- 
tional Guard. On January 26, 1880, 
ho was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel 
and Aide-de-Camp on the staff of 
Governor Perkins. On December 
14, 1881, he was appointed Brigadier- 
General of tho Second Brigade, and 
was re-appointed on January 30, 
1883, by Governor Perkins, and in 
February, 1887, by Governor Bart- 
lett, showing that liis military talents 
were appreciated irrespective of pol- 
itics. Governor Waterman appointed 
him Major-General of the T)ivision 
on September 28, 1887. He is a 
member of the G. A. R., and was 
Chairman of its Finance Committee 
during the National Encampment 
held in this city four years ago. He 
is also an ex-Commander of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion. 
The General has for years been 
prominent in politics, and in 1886 
was a leading candidate before the 
Republican State Convention for the 



140 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



gubernatorial nomination. Had he 
received it, his party might have 
succeeded to power much sooner 
than they have done, as his personal 
influence is great and he has always 
been held in general esteem. He 
was a delegate to the last Bepubli- 
oan Convention at Chicago, and as 
Chairman of the Republican State 
Central Committee did yeoman's 
work in the contest which resulted 
in the election of President Harri- 
son. In recognition of his eminent 
services to the party and his stand- 
ing in our community, the President 
appointed him Superintendent of the 
United States Mint in this city, a 
position for which his previous train- 
ing has admirably fitted him. For 
three years he was a Golden Gate 
Park Commissioner, but resigned 
when appointed to the Mint. During 
his term of office he found that the 
appropriation of $30,000 a year was 
inadequate to keep the Park as it 



should be, and to make the necessary 
improvements. Through the in- 
fluence of the Board of Park Com- 
missioners, of which he was an un- 
tiring worker, bills have been passed 
by the Legislature permitting larger 
appropriations for public improve- 
ments, and have resulted in great 
and lasting benefit to the city. 

He is very popular in social cir- 
cles, amongst business men, with the 
G. A. B. and National Guard. His 
commercial standing is made evident 
by his election as First Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce 
at their last annual meeting. His 
cordial manner, his ability and his 
upright character have made him 
one of the most deservedly esteemed 
members of the community. It is 
to be hoped that he has yet a long 
and useful career before him, and 
that his future services to San Fran- 
cisco will be no lees eminent than 
those of the past. 





CflPT. C. H, DlNGLEY. 



Charles L. Dingley. 



A, APT. CHAKLESTj. DINGLEY, 
il, a prominent lumber manufact- 

^7 urer of California, arrived in 
San Francisco from his native State, 
Maine, in 1851, his only fortune being 
his two hands and his will to work. 
He shipped on a bay schooner, and 
within a year was the owner of a small 
one. Soon he was known to skippers 
as a man who kept his word, and 
would carry articles which others 
would refuse on account of difficulty 
of stowage. He took the first loco- 
motive from San Francisco to Sacra- 
mento, and also carried the long and 
heavy timbers (some of them longer 
than his vessel) for the first bridge 
across the Sacramento River . In 1859, 
he purchased the bark "Adelaide 
Cooper" in New York, and brought her 
to San Francisco, with two boilers on 
deck each 15 feet high, 12 feet long 
and weighing 74 tons. Shipmasters 
generally, who saw the vessel and 
the proposed freight, predicted that 
Captain Dingley would never reach 
the Golden Gate ; but he explained 
to the underwriters his plan of stow- 
age ; they took the risk, and he de- 
livered the boilers for the steamer 
" Brother Jonathan." In such tasks 
he never failed ; and when he accom- 
plished enterprises which others 
would not undertake he obtained pay 
proportionate to the difficulty. After 
some years he was enabled to leave 
the sea and intrust his ships (for he 
purchased several) to others, which 
were the "Ericsson" of 1646 tons, 



(this was built by the famous en- 
gineer of the same name to try the 
not air engine as a motive power 

in ocean navigation), the "Valley 
Forge" of 1280 tons, the "Colum- 
bia" of 1000 tons, the "Commo- 
dore" and "Gem of the Ocean." 

In 1867 he entered the lumber 
business, acting as agent for the Port 
Ludlow Mill which he continued un- 
til 1879, when he became the resi- 
dent agent of the Port Discovery mill, 
which agency he retained until 1882. 

In 1882 he became a large stock- 
holder in a hardware corporation; 
in 1883 he entered the flouring mill 
business, at the same time retaining 
his interests in lumber and shipping. 

At the time of his death he was 
senior member of the firm of C. L. 
Dingley & Co., lumber and shipping 
merchants, which firm he established 
in 1866, and was also President of 
the First National Bank of Seattle, 
President of the Central Milling Com- 

Sanv, Vice-President of the Gualala 
[ill Company, and Trustee of the 
San Francisco Chamber of Commerce, 
and a Director of the Sun Insurance 
Company. 

The cause of his death was cancer, 
he having been troubled for two years 
with it, first on the lip and later 
attacking his throat. After trying 
medical science on this coast he 
went to Cincinnati (in September, 
accompanied by his wife and son 
Fred.) for medical treatment, where 
he died on the 5th of November, 
1889, aged 60 years. 

The firm of C. L. Dingley & Co., 
together with the other enterprises 
in which the deceased was interested, 
is being continued by his sons. 




Abne^ Doble. 



Abner Doble. 



GjjUHE name of Abner Doble has 
JJ I . been a familiar one in San Fran- 

^T cisco for many years, and dur- 
ing that time has gained an enviable 
reputation for square dealing and in- 
tegrity of purpose. He was born 
June 15, 1829, in Shelby County, 
Indiana, where he passed his early 
boyhood. At the age of fifteen he 
went to Dayton, Ohio, where he 
served an apprenticeship of two 
years to learn the blacksmith's trade; 
thence he returned to his native 
place in Indiana, and, though only 
seventeen years of age, opened a 
shop on his own account, continu- 
ing there until 1849, when the report 
from California as an El Dorado of 
wealth for the courageous and enter- 
prising caused his tnoughts to turn 
in this direction. In November of 
that year he sailed from New York in 
the good ship "Rowena," Capt. Isaac 
Swain, via Cape Horn, and after a 
voyage of seven months landed in 
San Francisco on June 25, 1850. 
Contrary to the general custom of 
new-comers, he did not go to the 
mines, but for a short time worked 
at his trade as a blacksmith in San 
Francisco. He afterwards went to 
Humboldt Bay, where, for a period, 
he was engaged as lumberman. While 
there he cut wood and made charcoal, 
and, having obtained a few tools, did 
the first iron work that was ever seen 
at Eureka, Humboldt Bay. Return- 
ing to San Francisco he obtained em- 
ployment in the blacksmith shop of 
Thomas Nelson, with whom he be- 
came partner in 1852. This partner-* 
ship continued up to April, 1877. 
They vere the earliest workers in 
steel and manufacturers of fine cast 
steel tools for engravers and jewelers 
in the city. They also made machin- 



ists', blacksmiths' and miners' tools. 
Mr. Doble is the only one now living 
carrying on this business that was so 
employed at that early day. The firm 
had the exclusive agency of Messrs. 
Thos. Firth & Sons' celebrated Eng- 
lish steel from 1869. This agency 
Mr. Doble still retains. A great 
tribute was paid to his character as 
a man of integrity in 1886, when 
Messrs. Park Bros. & Co., L'd, of 
Pittsburg, Penn., proprietors of the 
great Black Diamond Steel Works 
and Lake Superior Copper Mills, ten- 
dered him the management of their 
business on this coast, consenting 
that he should retain the agency of 
Messrs. Firth & Sons and act for 
both, which he has continued to do 
ever since. 

Mr. D. has taken a lively interest 
in street railroads, was many years a 
Director in the Sutter Street Rail- 
road and took an active interest in 
the construction of the Sutter Street 
Cable Boad, the second of the kind 
constructed in this city. He was a 
Director and a large owner in the 
Oakland street lines from an early 
day, and until that system of street 
railroads, about two years ago, was 
sold out to Senator Fair. He was 
one of the promoters of the Blue 
Lakes Water Company, formed to 
bring the waters of the Blue Lakes 
in Alpine County to the great mother 
gold-bearing lode of California. It 
now supplies power to all the quartz 
mills from Plymouth to the Mokel- 
umne Kiver, a distance of fifteen 
miles. The company is supplying 
water through canals and iron pipe a 
distance of over eighty miles. They 
also supply pure mountain water for 
all domestic purposes, and for irriga- 
tion, to the towns of Plymouth! Ama- 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



dor City, Sutter Creek, Jackson and 
lone City in Amador County, 

Realizing the uncertainties of life, 
and with a view of perpetuating his 
extensive business and giving his two 
sons an interest in the same, early in 
the present year he incorporated it 
under the name of the " Abner 
Doble Company." 

In 1856 he was married to Margaret 
B. McFarland, of West Virginia. 
They have over since lived in this 
city and raised a family of two sons 
and two daughters. 



He is in politics a Republican, and 
a conservative worker in all matters 
pertaining to the interests of the city 
of his adoption. 

He has been a member of the In- 
dependent Order of Odd Fellows and 
has belonged to the Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons for a third of a cen- 
tury. 

Of strict integrity and steady hon- 
esty, and withal the architect of his 
fortune, he gives a worthy example 
to (ho young men of our day and 
generation. 





Henry L. Dodge. 



Henry Lee Dodge. 



<£ S a lawyer, a merchant, a law- 
jk giver and the holder of many re- 
f\ w sponsible positions of public 
trust, Henry L. Dodge has acquitted 
himself in such a manner as to obtain 
the esteem and confidence of the en- 
tire community and to securo for him- 
self a prominent place in the history of 
the State and city with whose 
interest his life, from early man- 
hood, has been so closely identified. 
He is eminently entitled to a . lace 
in "The Builders of a Great City," 
and the short record of the princi- 
pal events in his life which is here 
given, while embracing only salient 
points without any surrounding of 
flattery, is sufficient to give the 
reader who shall come after us a 
distinct idea of the character of the 
man and the estimation in which lie 
was held by his contemporaries, while 
the many of to-day, both in his 
Eastern home and on the Pacific 
Coast who know him either person- 
ally or by virtue of his position, will 
be pleased to see this recognition of 
his services. 

The family to which Mr. Dodge 
belongs is of English origin and has 
been known in the records of Now 
England settlers since 1629, when 
William Dodge emigrated to America 
from Chishire, England, and settled in 
Massachusetts. His father, Nathan 
Dodge, was of American birth and 
one of the early settlers in Mont- 
pelier, Vt., where Henry L. Dodge 
was born on January 31, 1825. 
He received a first-class educa- 
tion, entering the University of 
Vermont in 1842. In order to com- 
plete his collegiate course at that 
institution he taught school for 
several winters, but his health fail- 
ing he abandoned study and devoted 



himself to more active pursuits. 
Notwithstanding the fact that he 
did not complete his course at the 
university, his ability and attain- 
ments were recognized and an 
honorary degree conferred upon 
him. In 1847, having decided upon 
the law as a profession, he entered 
the office of Piatt & Peck in Burling- 
ton, Vt., remaining there until the 
tales of '49 concerning the wonderful 
wealth of the gold fields in California 
excited his interest and imagination 
to such an extent, that ho determined 
to test for himself the truth of the 
seductive reports. A company con- 
sisting of twelve friends was formed 
to make the trip. At that time it 
was no easy matter to reach California 
and on discussing tho subject of how 
they should get to the land of promise 
it was decided to sail to Vera Cruz, 
and from thence cross tho Continent 
through Mexican territory. This 
formed an entirely new departure 
in tho methods of reaching this State, 
but proved altogether successful, 
The party going from Vera Cruz via 
tho city of Mexico to San Bias and 
thence by sail to San Francisco 
which they reached June 1, 1849, 
in three months and a half from tho 
time of leaving home without partic- 
ular danger or misfortune. 

Naturally tho mines were first 
visited, after which each one followed 
tho bent of his inclinations. Mr. 
Dodge concluding that San Francisco 
offered opportunities better suited to 
him than mining, returned to that 
city after a short experience at the 
mines. 

Abilitv of the kind possessed by 
Mr. Dodge was at that time an espe- 
cially valuable acquisition, and in 
August, 1849, when John W. Geary 



146 



BUILDEKS OF A GREAT CITY. 



became Alcalde of San Francisco, 
Mr. Dodge was appointed clerk of 
his court. Shortly afterwards he 
was elected to the office of Secretary 
of the Town Council (Ayuntamiento). 
During his term of office, which 
lasted up to the admission of Cali- 
fornia as a State in the Union, the 
proceeds from the sale of water and 
town lots, amounting to nearly a 
million dollars, passed through Mr. 
Dodge's hands and were paid by him 
into the treasury. He also made and 
delivered the deeds for the property. 

Colonel Geary showed his appre- 
ciation of Mr. Dodge's services, in 
1850, wh:;n ho was elected Mayor, 
by appointing him as his clerk. 
This positionbe resigned a year later 
to enter upon the practice of law, 
having been admitted to the State 
and Federal Courts. He remained 
in tho practice of his profession until 
1856, meeting with gratifying success. 

San Francisco offered at that time 
a very promising field for a man of 
enterprising business talent, and Mr. 
Dodgo in partnership with his brother, 
L. C. Dodge, established a wholesale 
provision house which from its found- 
ing up to the present time has taken 
rank a3 one of the first mercantile 
huuaes of tho State. For many years 



business with which Mr. Dodge 
was connected had been very pros- 
perous, and in 1871 he determined 
■to retire from active business life 
and return with his wife to their old 
home in Vermont. He had made 
a visit there in 1851, where he had 
married Miss Omira Bush, daughter 
of Hon. Boswell Bottom, of Orwell, 
Vt. He now settled in Burlington, 
Vt., where he remained for four years, 
during which time he was twice 
elected as Superintendent of Public 
Schools; but notwithstanding the 
esteem in which he was held, Mr. 
Dodge preferred the State of his 
adoption to that of his birth as a 
place in which to live, and in 1875 
once more returned to San Francisco, 
where he still continues to reside and 
retain his connection with the mer- 
cantile house of Dodge, Sweeney & 
Co., of which he is the senior 
member. 

He was honored in 1877 by the 
President of the United States, who 
appointed him a member of the 
Treasury Commission with Hon. F. 
F. Low and the late Hon. H. R. 
Lindermon to inspect the affairs of 
the Son Francisco Mint and Custom 
House. In December of the same 
year ho received the appointment of 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



147 



of Superintendent, having disbursed 
nearly two hundred millions of 
dollars, he turned oyer to his 
successor over thirty millions of 
dollars, and his accounts were found 
correct at the Treasury Department 
and promptly approved and set- 
In January, 1885, he was elected 
President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of San Francisco and re-elected 
in 1886. 

In January, 1886, he was appointed 
by the President a member of the 
United States Mint Assay Commis- 
sion which met in Philadelphia that 
year. In March, 1887, he was elected 
Resident of the Sather Banking Com- 
pany. 
In politics he is a staunch Repub- 



lican and has rendered signal service 
to his party on the coast. 

In all respects Henry L. Dodge 
must be considered as a representa- 
tive man of San Francisco. As a 
Pioneer he has been identified with 
the growth of the city from its 
earliest beginnings to the present. 

He is a life member of several 
associations, such as the California 
Pioneers, of which he was President 
in 1880, the Art Association, the 
Mercantile Library, etc. He is 
one of the Trustees of the Leland 
Stanford Jr. University. 

In matters of religion he is an 
attendant and Trustee, though not a 
member, of the Congregational 
Church in this city, and has done 
much in aid and support of that body. 




James Dunn. 



James Dunn. 



(N California, at least, Scotia's sons divining instinctively that the new 
have not been left behind in the world and this portion of it was the 
race for fame or fortune. That proper field for his efforts, he came 
hardy, rugged land beyond the ^ er © in 1867, when only twenty-six 
Tweed — years of age. Previously to this, 
"Land of Brown Heath and shaggy wood, however, he had been in the States 
Land of tho mountain and the flood," and Canada and back again, and was 
Has given her full share to the army therefore do stranger to their ways, 
of workers who have so gloriously either commercial or political. He 
builded up tho American Common-* reached San Francisco via the West 
wealth during the past century. On Indies from Liverpool to Panama, 
every hand we find their names writ- From Panama to San Francisco he 
ten in characters more enduring than voyaged i n the ' 'Montana, ' ' command- 
brass or marble, engraven in the in- ed^ by Captain Cavarly, no stranger on 
dustrial records of their adopted this coast. He was soon at work 
country. Wo might point to many again after his short period of en- 
such in the history of San Francisco, forced seclusion from active business 
James Dunn, the Superintendent of life, entering into partnership with 
the American Biscuit Company, was Deeth, Starr & Campbell, well known 
born in Greenock, Scotland, in 1841, as pioneers in the cracker baking 
but was raised and educated in the fa- business. They were bought out by 
inous city of Glasgow, and within the Boston Cracker Company in 1869. 
sound of Saint Mungo's bells. He This company afterward became 
graduated from the High School and known as the California Cracker 
then went forth to fight the battle of Company. With them he remained 
life at tho early age of fourteen. He as Superintendent and Vice-Pred- 
served his apprenticeship to the bis- dent, out internal differences led to 
cuit and cracker baking business for his retirement from the company in 
four years. After that he was put 1886. He immediately started a new 
through a thorough course of train- factory on Sansome and Broadway, 
ing in all the departments of business This be run for a time, till the Cali- 
and when old enough went on the fornia Cracker Company again in- 
road as traveling salesman. While vited him to become the arbiter of 
thus engaged he not only traveled all its destinies. Then a consolidation 
over Great Britain and Ireland, but of the two factories took place, and 
also France. During these trips he the name was changed to the Ameri- 
accumulated a fund of vast and varied can Biscuit Company, Mr. Dunn as- 
information and formed an intimate suming his old place as Superintend- 
acquaintance with the business world ent. While these events were in 
— its ways and methods. His ap- progress he had taken a brief trip to 
prenticeship and his traveling experi- the East in the interests of the trade, 
ences cover a period of ten years, The business has grown wonderfully 
during which all the secrets of the since Mr. Dunn took the helm 20 
trade had been thoroughly mastered years ago. Then the capacity was 
by him. ' At that time California was only fifty barrels a day, now it is 
in the hey-day of her renown, and seven hundred barrels a day. Of 



150 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



coarse some of this phenomenal in- 
crease is due to the much larger de- 
mand brought by the progress of 
years, but on the whole it must be 
credited to the great business abili- 
ties, special skill and intimate knowl- 
edge of the trade possessed by Mr. 
Dunn. This is one more instance of 
how much personality has to do with 
success, especially in the field of 
California industry. Mr. Donn was 
married in 1872, and has an inter- 
esting family of two girls and two 
boys. The eldest, Ritchie, a lad of 
sixteen, accompanied his father on his 
trip to Europe in 1889, and was left 
at Geneva to complete his edncation. 
His youngest son, James 0., Jr., is 
just five years old. Mr. Dunn pos- 



sesses indomitable perseverance and 
is a thorough business man. Early 
instructed in everything pertain- 
ing to the industry in which he 
bas always been engaged, his life 
Has not been marked by the struggles 
incident to the career of many, tint 
has been one unbroken success. In 
person he is slender, of healthy 
though not of robust physique, fair of 
complexion, comely of feature, affable 
of manner, quick and decided and 
sanguine of temperament, though 
possessing abundantly that Scottish 
caution which has passed into a 
proverb. We may consider him as 
yet but in the opening of a career 
which, judged by its past, is of great 
future promise. 





E. H. Dyet 



E. H. Dyer. 



g^LHE production of sugar for the 
air, needs of a country is next in 
^r importance to its supply of 
bread and meat In the United 
States the area suitable is con- 
fined to the States bordering on 
the Golf of Mexico. It being 
impossible to produce sufficient 
cane sugai; to meet our require- 
ments, from such a limited area, we 
must look to some other source of 
supply. The soil and climate of a 
large portion of the United States 
being identical with that of Europe, 
enterprising men were induced to 
attempt the manufacture of beet 
sugar in the United States, many 
years ago. And though 15 or 16 
factories have been built in the 
United States and Canada during the 
last 30 years, until recently but one 
of this number has paid dividends to 
its stockholders; this exception has 
been that at Alvarado, Alameda 
County, erected in 1879, of which 
Mr. E. H. Dyer has always been the 
business manager and principal 
owner. Notwithstanding the refinery 
met with many mishaps, having had 
two boiler explosions, the last one 
leaying the factory a complete wreck, 
they have earned fair dividends. 
Even while the "sugar war' 9 was rag- 
ing they continued to manufacture 
without loss, although prices reached 
five cents a pound for white refined. 

To the perseverance and pluck of 
Mr. Dyer, and the efficient assistance 



rendered by his son, Edward F. 
Dyer, who by his scientific and 
practical knowledge has made valu- 
able improvements in the method of 
treating the juice of the beet, the 
industry in this country owes its ex- 
istence to-day. Its success induced 
Mr. Claus Spreckels to build a factory 
at Watsonville and to organize a com- 
pany to build others. 

With a wise fiscal policy over 
$100,000,000 now annually sent to 
foreign countries would be kept at 
home. 

Mr. Dyer's part in bringing about 
this possible result is ably set forth 
in "Wood's History of Alameda 
County," published in 1883, from 
which we condense : 

"E. H. Dyer deserves a high place 
in the history of Alameda County. 
No man has labored in her behalf 
with greater zeal and more untiring 
energy. Early in the history of the 
county he was quick to see her pos- 
sibilities, and with his characteris- 
tic push, energy and determination, 
he has labored despite almost in- 
surmountable difficulties, and suc- 
ceeded in establishing an industry 
in our midst the possibilities of 
which no human foresight can set 
the bounds. The 'Standard Sugar 
Refinery' is a monument to Mr. 
Dyer's success in the manufacture 
of pure sugar from an abundant pro- 
duct of our fertile valley. Millions 



152 



HUILDEKS OP A GREAT CITY. 



of dollars are annually sent abroad 
for sugar, and the consumption is in- 
creasing at a rapid ratio. This sac- 
cess shows that posh and energy are 
what are needed to keep for oar own 
people the millions sent abroad for 
sugar. The 'Standard,' ander Mr. 
Dyer's management, yearly throws 
on the market one and a half million 
pounds of pure white sugar well re- 
fined and equil to the best of cane. 
This grand result has been accom- 
plished under the most discouraging 
conditions for man to encounter and 
succeed. Failure has followed fail- 
ure all over tbe United States, bnt 
Mr. Dyer, since he first became con- 
nected with the business, in 1869, 
has 'stayed' with it, at times ventur- 
ing his all upon its success, taking 
tliO stand that, wilh a proper man- 
agement and understanding of the 
business itself, it might be made an 
abundant success. He claimed that 
our conditions of climate, our peo- 
ple and our mode of doing business 
were not properly understood by for- 
eign sugar makers that have here- 



" With an education afforded by 
the public schools of his youth, he 
was early thrown upon his own re- 
sources, which, with the stern teach- 
ings of New England life, soon devel- 
oped his active mind and formed a 
symmetrical, energetic and pushing 
character. In his native town he em- 
barked as a merchant in business, 
which be soon enlarged, so as to em- 
brace the lumber trade and the ope- 
ration of the Sullivan quarries, which 
he conducted on a scale commensu- 
rate with his energy, furnishing large 
quantities of granite for Government 
works in different parts of the United 
States. Seeking a wider field be 
came to California via the Isthmus in 

1857, returning in the Full of the same 
year for his wife and two children. 
He returned to this State in April, 

1858, settling at Alvarodo, where he 
has since resided. His first wife 
dying, he married his second wife 
in September, 1864. 

" He first engaged in stock raising. 
In 1859 he was elected County Sur- 
veyor of Alameda County, and re- 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



158 



ment, the enterprise ceroid be made a 
success. So strong was his faith that 
-when the first company left in 1871 
for Soquel he bought the factory 
buildings and lands adjacent, with 
an express determination to succeed. 
Repeated failures in this country 
made capitalists timid, and it was not 
until 1879 that he succeeded in pro- 
curing the sinews of war. 

"In 1876 he was chosen by the 
Second Congressional District of 
California as a delegate to the Na- 
tional Republican Convention at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, which he attended; af- 
terward with his family visiting places 
of note in the East, including Wash- 
ington and the Centennial Exhibition. 

"In 1879 the Standard Sugar 
Manufacturing Company was organ- 
ized to manufacture sugar from beets. 
Mr. Dyer was appointed, and still re- 
mains, General Superintendent and 
Business Manager. Their earnings 
for the year 1882 were thirty-three 
per cent, on the investment. So 
much has capability, perseverance 
and pluck accomplished where failuro 
had been predicted time and again. 1 ' 

Since the above was published Mr. 
Dyer has visited many of the largest 
factories in France and Germany, 
accompanied by his son, Edward F. 
Dyer, who is a chemist and mechani- 
cal draughtsman, and had been Su- 
perintendent of the Standard Sugar 
Refinery for three years; he received 
a prize of $1,200, awarded by the 
Department of Agriculture of the 
United States for the best essay on 
the manufacture of beet root sugar. 
In 1885 Mr. Dyer's son (Edward) and 
his nephew (Harold P. Dyer), who is 
a mechanical engineer and draughts- 
man, spent many months in one of 



the largest beet sugar factories and 
works for the manufacture of beet 
sugar machinery in Germany, making 
plans and working drawings of the 
latest improvements in sugar ma- 
chinery. 

In 1888, the "Pacific Coast Su- 
gar Company," of which Mr. Dyer 
is Manager, built a factory and 
refinery capable of working two 
hundred tons of beets a day at 
Alvarado. All the machinery for 
the new factory was make in this 
country from plans and drawings of 
the young men alluded to, who su- 
perintended the construction. They 
are now engaged in making drawings 
of machinery for a large factory to be 
built at Salt Lake City, Utah, for the 
manufacture of sugar both from beets 
and sorghum. 

Another change was made this year 
in the company. Several practical 
men connected with refining sugar in 
San Francisco and interested in cane 
sugar plantations on the Hawaiian 
Islands, convinced by the results ob- 
tained at the Alvarado factory that 
sugar could be manufactured from 
beets in California in successful com- 
petition with cane sugar imported 
from foreign countries, bought a con. 
trolling interest in the works, and are 
making extensive additions, with a 
view of enlarging the capacity. 

The company has been reorganized 
under the name of the "Alameda Su- 
gar Company. ' ' They have an exten- 
sive area planted to beets, with pros- 
pects of a very large yield. Mr. Dyer 
is still the largest stockholder. 

Mr. Dyer has been twico married 
and has a family of three girls and 
three boys. The three boys and one 
girl are natives of this State. 




Wendell Ehston. 



Wendell Easton. 



yAUR modern business life has 
AJ J given rise to an endless number 

^T of professions, all called into 
an active exercise by its needs and 
those of an advanced civilization. 
The settlement of the western por- 
tion of the United States, and es- 
pecially of the Pacific Coast, has 
been conducted with such rapidity 
that the demand for land for home- 
steads and business purposes has 
come to be the greatest that the 
world ever saw. This has gendered 
the business of buying and selling 
real estate of unusual importance, 
in fact, created for it a great and 
separate department. For the mod- 
ern business world it may be said 
to owe its existence almost entirely 
to the necessities of the Nineteenth 
century. Hence it comes to pass 
that to attain prominence in it de- 
mands the possession of qualities 
equal to those called for to sustain 
the character and standing of a first- 
class merchant or a great financier. 
In San Francisco we have in the 
business a number of leading opera- 
tors who would do honor to any posi- 
tion in the community. Amongst 
those and amongst the men who have 
pushed themselves forward to a posi- 
tion of prominence not only in the 
purchase and sale of realty, but also 
in the community at large may be 
fairly reckoned Wendell Easton. 
Mr. Easton was born pn the island 
of Nantucket, in 1848. He is thus 
a native of the Old Bay State, which 
has exercised such a potent and con- 
trolling influence in the American 
world of politics, business and let- 
ters. His ancestry came originally 
from Scotland, but had long since 
been domiciled in the western world. 
Though a native of Massachusetts, 



Mr. Easton is essentially a Califor- 
nian, and a typical one at that, for 
when only six years old, in 1854, his 
parents brought him to San Fran- 
cisco, which has ever since been his 
home. He is therefore a trpe Cali- 
fornia boy, as those to the manor 
born. He received a good solid edu- 
cation in our public schools, passing 
through all the grades, including 
those of the High School. All were 
finished in 1863, when only sixteen 
years of age. This of itself be- 
speaks a wonderful development of 
talent in one so young, and a devel- 
opment infrequently found outside of 
California. His inclinations led him 
to the real estate business, and he 
sought a position in a real estate 
office, that of Hoogs & Madison, 
now Madison & Burke, and on re- 
turning home at night surprised his 
family by the announcement, "Oh, 
I've been working in the biggest real 
estate office in the city." And here 
he remained, advancing from year to 
year, from office boy to chief clerk, 
working his way through all the in- 
termediate graduations. He learned 
everything thoroughly, and his pre- 
cise and orderly business methods 
added to his tact, foresight, and 
shrewdness soon made him an ac- 
knowledged power in that office. 
Such business powers could not re- 
main unnoticed. Mr. Easton was 
the subject of many brilliant offers, 
one of which he accepted was the 

Sosition of Secretary to the Crown 
'oint Mining Company. Hera he 
handled annually millions of money, 
and was in receipt of a large salary. 
More than that, he had the entire 
confidence of his employers. Not- 
withstanding all this he found the 
position uncongenial. Not on ac- 



16fi 



BUILDEK8 OF A GHEAT CTTT. 



count of the absence of pleasant 
surroundings, nor of appreciative 
friends, but his heart was in 
the real estate business and he 
felt it a necessity to return to it. 
This he did on his own account, 
starting at No. 32 Montgomery 
street, in 1875. His success was one 
rarely achieved. His old friends 
stood by him, and in sis months 
his reputation was that of being 
one of the most brilliant opera- 
tors in San Francisco. In 1881, he 
formed a co-partnership with the 
late Mr,. J. O. Eldridge. This co- 
partnership lasted five years until, 
in 1886, death dissolved it. Since 
that time, though conducting the 
business under the old style and 
title, it has under his sole manage- 
ment so flourished that it reached 
colossal proportions, necessitating its 
removal to 618 Market Street, oppo- 
site the Palace Hotel. Here the 
S remises extended through from 
[arket to Post, and made one of 
the largest devoted to realty in the 
world. Owing to the reconstruction 
of the premises the business has been 
removed to 638 Market. Mr. Eoston, 
after learning all that was possible of 
the old style of doing business in 
real estate, devised several new feat- 



try meant the advance of the city, he 
has devoted a great deal of attention 
to the sale of country lands, with 
the happiest possible results as the 
energy thus expended has, amongst 
other things, been promotive of con- 
siderable accessions to the popula- 
tion and wealth of the State. His 
career in connection with realty in 
San Francisco is well known, and 
therefore need not be dwelt upon at 
any particular length. One of the 
bnght ideas originated by him was 
the formation of a title insurance 
company, which insures quiet pos- 
session to the owners of good titles 
and defends them when assailed. 
Mr. Easton is a firm believer in the 
efficacy of - printers' ink, and his 
house has spent all the way from 
$50,000 to $160,000 per year in ad- 
vertising, from all of whioh he says 
they have received an adequate re- 
turn.- Intelligence and activity ore 
the leading features of his character. 
He has a pleasing address and is an 
agreeable conversationalist, full of 
wit and ready at repartee. He takes 
in public affairs the interest that 
every good citizen should feel, and 
possesses a well-deserved influence 
with both parties that divide up the 
commonwealth. He has twice de- 





Joseph F. Forderer 



Joseph f\ Forderer. 



GjjUHEY who founded the indus- 
#11, tries of the Golden State are 
^T entitled to everlasting honor. 
That this is not outstepping the 
bounds of modesty is evident when 
we consider how hard it is to make 
any new business take root amongst 
us, and how many and disastrous 
have been the failures of a host 
who have unavailingly endeavored 
to plant some new industry on 
a lasting foundation in California. 
The trials and struggles of these men 
may not now be properly told, but 
the State should never forget the 
inestimable services they have ren- 
dered. Amongst those who have 
done yeoman's work in this regard 
may be mentioned the name of 
Joseph F. Forderer, conspicuous for 
his successful labors in the industrial 
domain. 

He was educated in Cincinnati, 
the Ohioan metropolis. His educa- 
tion was of a thorough business char- 
acter, and such as to fit him to 
wrestle with the ordinary problems 
of life as a mechanic or a manufact- 
urer. When he was only nine years 
old, as his parents were very poor 
and he was the oldest of three 
children, he was obliged to go to 
work. It was his lot to labor in a 
cotton factory making cotton thread. 
He worked at that business eighteen 
months, receiving as wages what now 
appears the light remuneration of 
twenty-five cents per day, but as 
men were onlv paid a dollar a day, 
this, considering his tender years, 
was good for the time. The result 
shows what indomitable perseverance 
and industry can accomplish. From 
the cotton factory he went to work 
in a wire factory weaving wire cloth. 
Here he remained twelve months, 



earning two dollars per week. But 
his progress was steaailv onward and 
upward, and we next find him in a 
cigar factory, where he was enabled 
to earn from seven to nine dollars 

Ser week. The business, however, 
id not agree with his health, so he 
sought some occupation whare he 
could occasionally enjoy the fresh 
air. His father returning from the 
army, where he had gone to fight for 
the Union, times were easier at home, 
and wages were not an object of such 
importance. He theu entered into 
an agreement with Mr. Henry Beck- 
man, to learn the galvanized iron 
cornice and roofing business. At 
this his remuneration was $1.50 and 
board per week for the first year, 
two dollars for the second, and 
three dollars for the third year — 
three years being the period of his 
apprenticeship. While thus engaged 
he lost no time in acquiring such an 
education as was necessary to carry 
on an ordinary business. He had a 
good opportunity to learn, as he 
roomed and slept with the grand- 
father of his employer, an old retired 
school teacher at that time eighty 
years of age. The old veteran took 
pride in helping the young student to 
acquire all the instruction needed. 
Mr. Forderer subsequently studied 
the science of geometry, a knowledge 
of which was very essential in the 
manufacture of galvanized iron cor- 
nices. He entered with zeal into the 
study of his business and with such 

food results that at the end of a year 
e was enabled to make galvanized 
cornices from any scale drawing. 
The industry was then in its infancy 
and capable workmen hard to find, 
so his employers gave the young 
apprentice an opportunity to make 



158 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



everything be could, and before tbe 
three years of bis apprenticeship bad 
expired he bad charge of the shop. 
He remained with Mr. Beck man 
three years more. At the age of 
nineteen tbe young mechanic started 
in business with W. G. Bierman. He 
and Mr. Bierman carried on the bus- 
iness very successfully for about five 
years. In 1874 they learned that tbe 
Board of Directors of the Napi Insane 
Asylum of California desired some 
galvanized iron cornices for tbe 
building. This ended in Messrs. 
James Hunter & Son and Messrs. 
Bierman & Forderer agreeing to esti- 
mate on the work. They proved to 
be the successful bidders. This re- 
sulted in Mr. Forderer and James 
Hunter, Jr. , coming to California to 
execute tbe work, with the intention 
of going back when it was finished, 
but being enamored of country and 
climate they concluded to remain. 

So, Mr. Forderer dissolved part- 
nership with Mr. Bierman, and ex- 
changed his interest in Cincinnati 
for one in California with James 
Hunter, Jr., as a partner. This 
gentleman was then only 19 years 
of age, but bright and intelligent. 
Messrs. Forderer and Hunter carried 
on the business in San Francisco 
under the firm name of Forderer & 



now remember, they are in this 
neighborhood about forty in num- 
ber. Among those we may mention 
the Hoi brook Block, Huntington 
Hopkins & Co's Block, the Lacbman 
Block, the Eagle Block, the Union 
Block, and many others which are a 
credit to the city, and which make 
Market street one of oar finest thor- 
oughfares. Last, though not least, 
the tower of the Chronicle Building, 
boasts some conspicuously fine ex- 
amples of his art. Portland, elso 
bears testimony to the success of 
Mr. Forderer' s efforts. The Sacra- 
mento Cathedral, the Union Club of 
this city, the Academy of Sciences, 
the Polytechnic School and tho Lick 
Observatory, all are fine examples 
of its finish and perfection. There is 
hardly a city of importance on this 
coast where some of the finest work 
in his line cannot be found. As no 
one here understood the business he 
may with truth be said to be a pio- 
neer and for a while had no easy 
task in overcoming tbe prejudice* 
which disposed people to adhere to 
the old and well known styles. 
Merit at but triumphed, and for a 
long series of years, he hat had tbe 
satisfaction of witnessing triumph 
after triumph in his own peculiar 
domain. Mr. Forderer is also an 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



159 



three boys and five girls — the oldest 
of the latter being in her sixteenth 
year. 

Mr. Forderer is a native of Baden, 
Germany, where he was born in 
1850, but came to America at a 
very early age, and is therefore to 
all intents and purposes an Ameri- 
can. 

His mother died after the family 
came to this city, but his father 
passed away in Cincinnati. His 
mother lived to see her son acquire 
wealth and honors. Mr. Forderer, 
besides his industrial pursuits, has 
found time to be interested in 
several matters of public importance. 
He is a Director of the Alameda 
Encinal Building and Loan So- 
ciety. He is also a Director of the 
California Savings and Loan Society. 



He is a Trustee of the First Metho- 
dist Church of Alameda. He has 
heretofore taken no active part in 
politics, being wholly engrossed in 
his business affairs. But as he has 
not yet reached his fortieth year, he 
has abundant leisure to bear a hand 
dispose. He is an honest, industri- 
in public affairs should the future so 
ous citizen, and may be classed em- 
phatically as a self-made man ; that 
is, one who does not owe his present 

}>osition to the adventitious aids of 
ortune, but who has acquired it by 
hard labor and the exercise of a by 
no means common intelligence and 
inventive skill. 

Mr. Forderer is now one of the 
City Fathers of Alameda, having 
been elected Trustee April 13th of 
the present year by a good majority 




iShas. N. Fox.. 



Charles N. Fox. 



CjUHE right of this gentleman to 
aj| . rank among " The Builders of 

^jr a Great City" is founded upon 
his works, rather than upon his ac- 
cumulations. A lawyer who has at- 
tained an enviable position in his pro- 
fession, he is in the broadest sense of 
the term a self-made man. Born in 
poverty, with but a limited common 
school education, he commenced life 
for himself before he was 16 years of 
age, and all his life he has been a dili- 
gent worker, not only educating and 
caring for himself, but devoting him- 
self and his earnings largely to the 
care and advancement of others. He 
has been a providence to all who were 
associated with him, and most em- 
phatically a builder of men. Not only 
in this city, but all up and down this 
coast, numbers of active, useful busi 
ness men may be found who acknowl- 
edge their gratitude and obligation to 
him for their start in the pursuit of 
fortune and of fame. His income has 
never been large compared to his work, 
but such as it was, beyond the neces- 
sities of himself and his family, it has 
been freely used for the upbuilding of 
others and the promotion of good 
works among men. Deserving poor 
have never appealed to him in vain ; 
the undeserving have often imposed 
upon his liberality, while public insti- 
tutions and public charities have 
always found in him a ready helper, 
according to his means, but more fre- 
quently than otherwise without the use 
of his name. 

As a lawyer, he was the first of his 
profession to open the way into the 
city of San Francisco for the railroads 
that have contributed so much to its 
upbuilding, acting as attorney, and 
securing the right of way for the San 



Francisco and San Jose Road ; next 
acting in a like capacity for and also as 
President of the Western Pacific Rail- 
road Company. And finally organiz- 
ing the Southern Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany. As these roads, one after an- 
other, passed into the hands of the 
Central Pacific syndicate, Mr. Fox's 
connection with them ceased, and he 
has never since had any connection 
with the railroad systems of the State. 
It will readily be conceded that 
without an artificial supply of water 
there never could have been a great 
city where San Francisco now stands. 
Mr. Fox was early called to the coun- 
sels of the Spring Valley Water 
Works, a corporation organized in 
1858 for the supply of the munici- 
pality and its inhabitants with water, 
having at its inception a capital of 
$60,000, but which now supplies all 
the water used for municipal purposes 
and nearly all used by the inhabitants 
for domestic and all other uses, having 
an authorized capital of $16,000,000, 
and works that are estimated to be 
worth fully $20,000,000. All the 
waters and sources of water supply of 
this company, except the little that is 
drawn from Lobos Creek, and nearly 
all the rights of way and real property 
of the company have been secured, 
and its works constructed, under the 
legal supervision of this long tried and 
trusted counselor and in the procure- 
ment of these rights and this vast prop- 
erty, there has been less of friction, 
and less of litigation, in proportion to 
amounts involved, than in any similar 
enterprise in the State. His work in 
this behalf alone has been sufficient 
to entitle him to rank as one of the 
builders of the great city. During the 
last fifteen years the company has been 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



involved in some serious litigation, 
bat it was not with reference to tho set- 
tlement of property rights, but rather 
grew out of the question of the rights 
of the city in the waters of the com- 
pany, under new and changed condi- 
tions of the law. All this has been 
honorably conducted on the part of 
tho attorney of the company, and 
finally brought to a peaceful solution, 
honorable, and we believe satisfactory, 
to all the parties concerned. 

While Mr. Fox has often refused, 
and never sought public office, he has 
served the public with honor and dis- 
tinction ; first as District Attorney of 
the County of San Mateo, next as 
President of the Board of Education 
of Oakland, then again as a Member, 
and Chairman of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee of the Assembly of 1880, the 
first session under the New Constitu- 
tion, where all the laws of the State 
came under revision , and where, in 
one hundred and five days he accom- 
plished an amount of work, as shown 
by tho journals, never before or- since 
equalled, and. displayed a degree, of 
ability seldom shown by any legislator 
in the State. . ; 

The full measure of his ability- as a 



lawyer was never generally known un- 
til in July, 1889, when he was ap- 
pointed by Governor Waterman to 
nil a vacancy on the Supreme Bench, 
to hold until the next general election. 
Entering upon the duties of that posi- 
tion without previous judicial ex- 
perience, he -displayed from the start 
an adaptability to the work astonish- 
ing alike to his associates and the bar, 
and during the seventeen and a half 
months he remained there was second 
to none in the amount of work ac- 
complished , and the, opinions of very 
fen of the : Judges of this State have 
ever given such universal satisfaction 
to the bar andihe people. The sound- 
ness of his law, as applied to the facts 
as stated by Kim, was seldom, if ever, 
.questioned ; if it was sought to revise 
his opinion it was upon the ground 
that, he had misconceived the facts, as 
understood by counsel, and on this 
ground it was very seldom that a dif- 
ferent conclusion, was reached. 

Ripe now in years and. experience, 
and strong in body and mind, he re- 
turns again to the. practice of his pro- 
fession, and will, no doubt, for some 
years yet : bo recognised as among the 
the leaders of" the; bar. 





Philip G. Ghlpin 



Philip g. Galpin. 



c%*T is one of the peculiarities of the 
ill legal profession that a member 
T may be familiar with and held in 
the highest esteem by his brother law- 

Jers, be in fact a Bar leader, and yet 
e comparatively unknown to the 
general public. Devoted to his call- 
ing, earnest in his labors in behalf 
of his clients, ingenious in argument, 
and persuasive in manner when he 
appears before a Court, his time is 
too much occupied to permit of his 
mixing in political affairs or taking 
part in the ordinary popular move- 
ments of the day. Such men, although 
from preference they may not seek 
distinction outside of their profes- 
sion, are oftentimes among the most 
valued members of the common- 
wealth, and, when occasion demands, 
are foremost in upholding the rights 
of their fellows. 

Philip G. Galpin, born in Buffalo, 
N. Y., is of old New England stock, 
being a direct descendant of Thos. 
Fitch, the last Colonial Governor of 
Connecticut. At the age of five, the 
subject of this sketch was adopted by 
his uncle, after whom he had been 
named, Philip S. Galpin, a prominent 
resident of rfew Haven, Conn., who 
was for many years Mayor of the 
Elm City, fie received the rudi- 
ments of his education in the New 
Haven public schools, afterward at- 
tending Bussell's Military Academy, 
and in 1845 entered Yale College, 
graduating four years later. During 
senior year he was President of the 
Brothers in Unity, a principal liter- 
ary and debating society of the col- 
lege. He began the study of the 
law in the office of Hon. Henry B. 
Harrison, afterward Governor of the 
State. He also attended the Yale 
Law School, graduated from that 



institution, and was immediately 
afterward admitted to the Bar. 
Bemoving to Ohio, he settled at 
Findley, Hancock County, where he 
formed a law partnership with Hon. 
James M. Comnberry, his brother- 
in-law. In those early days North- 
ern Ohio was rather sparsely settled, 
and the young lawyer traveled about 
the neighboring counties on horse- 
back, carrying his law-books in the 
saddle-bags. He tried his first case 
at a little settlement called Ottokee, 
situated near the Michigan line. The 
court was held in a log-house and 
among the lawyers present was Mor- 
rison R Waite, late Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United 
States, then a practicing attorney at 
Toledo. The judge, lawyers, and 
officers of the court all slept in the 
loft of the only tavern in the place. 
Mr. Galpin removed to Toledo, 
where he remained a year, practicing 
his profession, and occasionally con- 
tributing to the columns of the Jiladc, 
"Petroleum V. Nasby's" j>aper. 
While on a visit to New York city he 
was offered a partnership by Bobert 
G. Pike. Their legal business soon 
began to prosper, and in 1857 he 
was engaged by a client to come to 
California. The lady's husband had 
left a large property here, and it was 
to recover possession of it that he 
made the long journev, coming by 
way of the Isthmus, fie won sixteen 
suits for her. He returned East, 
and resumed practice, and soon after- 
ward was engaged in arguing before 
the U. S. Supreme Court the cases 
of Gray vs. Brignadello, Gray vs. 
Larrime, and Galpin vs. Page, which 
became a leading one on jurisdic- 
tion. In 1860 Mr. Galpin again 
came to this State for the purpose of 



164 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



trying several cases in ejectment for 
an Eastern client. He remained here 
at that time eighteen months. In 
1865 he visited California for the third 
timo, having been employed by the 
heirs of J. Ladscn Hall of Philadel- 
phia to endeavor to recover the estate 
of their father located in this city and 
valued at 8150,000. The case was 
tried in the U. 8. Circuit Court, and 
resulted in the defeat of Mr. Galpin'a 
clients. He appealed to the Supreme 
Court of the United States, however, 
and that tribunal reversed the ruling 
of the court below. At this latter 
trial the late Roscoo Conkling argued 
the case for the other side. The 
case was again argued, the second 
time by order of the Court, on the 
point whether tho deed of a lunatic 
was absolutely void or voidable. 
Blackstono in his Commentaries had 
said it was voidable, but the Court 
said it was absolutely void. 

Soon after this, Mr. Galpin went 
to Europe. Over a year was spent 
in traveling about the Continent. He 
returned to New York in 1869. and 
resumed practice until 1875. During 
his business visits to California he 
had become interested in real estate, 
and naturally was attracted by the 
advantages offered for professional 
dvaiieeiiient in- a city like San 



John T. Doyle, Henry D. Scripture 
and William Barber. 

These three associates have since 
withdrawn from the partnership, and 
Wilbur G. Zeigler having been ad- 
mitted, the firm is now known as 
Galpin & Zeigler. 

The only criminal case in which 
Mr. Galpin has been engaged since 
coming to this State was the trial of 
Isaac M. Kalloch for the shooting 
of Charles de Young, in which he 
was associated with Henry E. 
Highton. Tho trial resulted in the 
acquittal of Kalloch, after a long and 
I'Nciting legal struggle. 

He has argued several cases of a 
public character, among which were 
the opening of Oregon Street, the 
right of Kelly to a seat hi the Board 
of Fire Commissioners, the rights of 
the Democrats to equal representa- 
tion in the Election Boards at the 
last Presidential election, also the 
question of the ownership by the 
State or city of lands below the line 
of high tide along the pity front, also 
the validity of the Montgomery aven- 
ue taxes. • ,, 

In bis political affiliations Mr. Gal- 
pin is a Democrat. He has never 
sought any public 'office.' The only- 
relaxation from his labors as a hard- 
working praelji-iu:..' In v. '■ cv lie finds at 





William T. Garratt. 



William T. Garratt. 



COHERE is no question that 
JIT. among the early Pioneers of 
^T California there were to be 
found more men of unusual en- 
ergy and enterprise than among 
any other like number of peo- 
ple. The story of the rich gold fields 
reached every part of the world, and 
while it roused the feeling of cupid- 
ity in some, in others it awakened a 
spirit of ambitious enterprise which 
has led to grand results. 

There are no better examples for 
the young men of to-day to follow 
than many of those exemplified in 
the lives of the prominent men who 
came here in the early days and have 
helped to build up this great State 
and city. 

" To the West, to the West, to the un- 
trodden West, 

From his home in the East came the 
bravest and best." 

Their biographies should be clas- 
sified and made a reading text-book 
in the higher grades of our public 
schools. This would stimulate our 
young men to continue the good 
work of the Pioneers and emulate 
their examples of thrift and honest 
industry. 

Among the men possessed by na- 
ture and heritage with a strong phys- 
ical constitution and endowed with 
high mental qualities, to which might 
be applied the term stubbornness in 
the fixity ot his purpose, is William 
Thompson Garratt, whose name is 
well known all over tho Pacific Coast, 
and generally throughout the com- 
mercial world. 

It should, and no doubt will, be 
perpetuated as one intimately con- 



nected with the manufacturing and 
industrial progress of the State. «. 

Mr. Garratt is of English descent. 
llis father, Joseph Garratt, came to 
this country from England and set- 
tled in Philadelphia, where he was 
employed in the foundry of his 
brother William, who established the 
first brass and bell foundry in that 
city and where Joseph obtained a 
practical knowledge of the business. 

Here he was married to Catherine 
Thompson, who was also a native of 
England. On the 4th day of October, 
1829, was born to them a son — the 
subject of this sketch. This event 
occurred in the city of Waterbury, 
Connecticut, where his father was 
engaged in the construction of a 
rolling mill and brass foundry. ' After 
the completion of this the family 
returned to Philadelphia and after- 
wards located in the city of Balti- 
more, where another brass and bell 
foundry was established; but believ- 
ing that the West ottered a better 
field for his business, he removed to 
Cincinnati, where in 1834 he es- 
tablished yet another, and one in 
which William Thompsou Garratt 
learned his trade. 

lie remained with his father until 
he was twenty years of age, when 
the California fever marked him as 
oue of its victims, and he was soon 
on Ws way to the new El Dorado. He 
left Cincinnati ou one of the river 
boats ruuning to New Orleans, from 
which port he sailed to the Isthmus 
of Panama on the steamer Alabama, 
April 20, 1850. lie then went by 
boat up the Chagres river to Gor- 
gona, aud from there the balance of 
the journey was made by mule-back 



166 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



to Panama. On this side he^took 
passage on the whale ship Norman, 
Capt. Gardner commanding, making 
this port July 20th of the same year. 
Like the great majority, Mr. 
Garratt, shortly after bis arrival here, 
sought the mines. He was full of 
ambition to succeed, make a fortune 
and return. The stories told East 
had the same effect on him as on 
others. They fired his ambition and 
urged him to action. •. lie first went 
to Nevada County, Big Deer Creek, 
near where Nevada City now stands. 
There he engaged in placer mining 
for about two weeks* with the usual 
implements of the time, such as the 
long torn and rocker. Ill health 
compelled him to quit mining, how- 
ever. f On the way here he had con- 
tracted the Panama fever. This had 
net entirely left his system and 
work in the snow water but aggra- 
vated his condition. He according- 
ly returned to Sacramento. There 
he accepted a place with the firm of 
Warner & Ferrell, old friends of his 
family. The firm were in the brick 
manufacture some six miles below 
Sacramento, on the Sacramento river, 
and for about a month he coined 
bricks with them. Judge Scbultz 
hearing that Mr. Garratt had come 



our midst. Besides the actual man- 
ufacture of the dies, the firm also 
coined the $5 gold pieces. Owing to 
a scarcity of coin in circulation the 
firm built the machinery for coining 
95 and $10 gold pieces, and con- 
tinued this until the Legislature 
passed a law placing private coiners 
od a banking basis, and on account 
of this law they discontinued. The 
firm coined for Bnrgoyne & Co. and 
Argientia & Co., bankers. This de- 
partment of the business had been 
under the management of Mr. 
Schultz, and when it was given up he 
retired. Since that time Mr. Garratt 
has carried it on, adding to it as the 
demand warranted. 

His first foundry was located on 
Clay street, opposite the Plaza, from 
which he removed to Leidesdorft, 
near Sacramento. Here he was 
doing a thriving business, which was 
comuletely wiped out by the great 
firo of 1851. He started again on 
Hallcck street, the ground on which 
the Amercan Exchange now stand-;, 
and again removed to near the 
corner of Market and First, but in 
1866, the Alta Flour Mills, in the rear 
of his factory took fire, and bis works 
were soon again destroyed. He then 
located on the comer of Fre- 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



167 



and machinery has been established 
at Brannan and Fifth streets, which 
is a perfect bee-hive of industry. 

The life of Mr. Qarratt has been 
part of oar history. He was a strong 
Union roan, naturally, during the 
war, and his contributions were large 
in consequence to the Sanitary Fund. 
The only political office be has held 
was the State Senatorship for his 
district, 1870-4. His election then 
and his majority showed conclusively 
the high esteem in which be is held 
by the people. In politics he has 
always been consistent. Naturally a 
Republican, he is not only one of 
the ablest leaders of the party, but, 
what seldom is the case, this is rec- 
ognized. Political place, however, 
Mr. Qarratt has never sought, being 
the more content with the activity of 
business life. He belongs to many 
societies, and is prominent in several. 
The Mechanics' Institute he was an 
earnest promoter of in its struggling 
days. Every worthy enterprise, in 
fact, he has assisted in proportion to 
its merits. We have had occasion to 
speak in this volume of many prom- 
inent men, but certainly of none who 
have worked with greater zeal from 
the beginning until the present for the 
advancement of this city and coast. 
As, previously stated, Mr. Garratt 
may justly feel a personal pride in 
the progress made. 
- In this connection, in view of the 
fact that the beet sugar industry is 
now so much canvassed, it is per- 
tinent to state, that this industry was 
advocated and entered on years ago 
by Mr. Garratt. The facts are these: 
Beet sugar was made here first by a 
German named Bepler, now deceas- 
ed. He had a small factory near San 
Miguel, of a capacity of about 50 lbs. 
a day. He fully demonstrated the 
fact of the capability of our soil for 
the raising of sugar beets, however. 
Manufacturing on such a small scale 
money was not expected to be made. 
In fact the sugar cost on this account 
nearly $2 a pound. 



This establishment dates about the 
year 1869-70. About the same time 
or shortly after, two other Germans 
came to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, and 
talked up beet culture.'" They suc- 
ceeded in having a company or- 
ganized there and a factory was 
built. Mr. Bonesteel, at one time 
Mayor of Fond du Lac, was largely 
interested. This gentleman wrote 
to General Hutchinson, of this city, 
»ud since deceased, and the matter 
was canvassed here. A company 
jvas formed of which Mr. Garratt 
tvas a prominent and active member. 
He was selected to go to Wisconsin 
and inquire into the matter. He did 
so, ana contrasting the* soil there 
and here came to the conclusion the 
industry would be a very profitable 
one in California. He made an offer 
for the factory and machinery, so 
as to allow free scope to the two 
Germans and Mr. Bonesteel.' This 
was accepted and $8,500 paid for the 
plant, which he again sold at once 
for $6,000, having, however, secured 
these meu. These he brought out 
here, and about the year 1879 a fac- 
tory was established at Alvarado. 
This was found insufficient, however, 
and it was removed in a short time to 
8oquel, where the land was cheaper 
and where there were better facili- 
ties. Considerable expense was gone 
into, seed imported from Germany 
and distributed to farmers, and land 
leased for beet culture. 

The soil, though good for wheat, 
had not, however, that under-surface 
moisture required for beets, and so 
the experiment was not as successful 
as desired. The way to success was 
•pointed out though, and the 

E resent industry is reaping the 
enetit of this outlay, just as. fu- 
ture ones will. Mr. Garratt worked 
very energetically in the matter and 
spent and lost largely so as to estab- 
lish another great business in our 
midst • He has never regretted this, 
however, for he paved, with others 
the way to a success that will surely 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



come and be of great benefit to oar 
people. * 

Id 1866 Mr. Garratt was nominated 
by the Republicans for Mayor of this 
city. Bat hie business calling liim 
East at tbe time he was obliged to 
decline the honor the party desired 
to confer upon him.. 

In connection with Mr. Gamut's 
bell foundry business an interest- 
ing episode occurred in 1874-5. He 
offered to repair the old liberty 
bell at Philadelphia. An interest- 
ing correspondence between the 
mayors of San Francisco and Phila- 
delphia was tbe result. It was pro- 
posed to bring tbe old bell here and 
return at tits own expense and re- 
pair it by a method the invention of 
Mr. Garratl. It was then to be 
baptized in tbe waters of the Pacific 
and returned East to have it baptized 
in tbe waters of the Atlantic, then to 
be placed in the old tower in time 
to ring its centennial song of liberty, 
and again, in 1876, proclaim liberty 
throughout the land unto all the in- 
habitants thereof. The Philadel- 
phiaos were, however, too jealous of 
their prize to permit its removal, 
and while Mr. Garratt's patriotism 
and 'generosity were acknowledged 
his proposition was not - accepted. 



exemplified in the lives of oar 
pioneers. The repairing of broken 
castings by the burning metal pro- 
cess was the invention of Mr. Garratt, 
and is now universally employed 
throughout the world. It was by 
this process that he proposed to re- 
pair the liberty bell as before men- 
tioned. 

He bas been connected with the 
various enterprises of railroading, 
steamboating, mining, etc., since his 
location in this State, and there are 
several steamers running on our 
bays and rivers named after mem- 
bers of his family, and he is still in- 
terested in some of these indus- 
tries. 

Mr. Garratt has aided in fostering 
% great number of enterprises in tbe 
State, which have redounded to the 
lasting good of the community at 
large. 

Socially Mr. Garratt holds a high 
place in the esteem of his most inti- 
mate acquaintances. He might be 
iummed up 03 having nothing small 
ibout bim, either in physical pro- 
portions or in his manner or method 
t( doing things. He is plain and 
blunt. He bas made money, and in 
loing so has helped others to accom- 
plish like results, rather than put a 




Adam Grant, 



•V. 



• •) f 

K, 4 



Adam Grant. 



cjfr S a business man, combining in 
71 himself almost, if not all, the 
~\* attributes necessary to achieve 
prominence and success in the mer- 
cantile world, no better example could 
be found than Adam Grant. 

He comes from a land that has given 
to America many of her merchant 
princes, having been born on the 
twenty-fourth day of September, 1830, 
in Sutherlandshire, Scotland. He 
emigrated to the United States at the 
age of 15, and since the date of his 
arrival in 1850, he has pursued the 
straight and steadfast course by which 
he has risen to his present position of 
wealth and influence in the commu- 
nity. The glitter of notoriety and 
public fame has never held out such 
inducements as to draw him for a mo- 
ment aside from the business course 
to which ho had devoted himself. A 
man of greit individuality and de- 
cided character, Mr. Grant would have 
been likely to attain success in what- 
ever walk of life he had chosen to 
follow, but in selecting as he did, it is 
certain that he made no mistake. 

On his arrival in this countrv he 
entered the diy goods house of Eu- 
gene Kelly & Co., as an employe, and 
has, from that time to the present, 
been connected with the same estab- 
lishment. His promotion was grad- 
ual, until he became junior partner of 
the firm. When Mr. Kelly, in 1859, 
retired from the business, the control 
in San Francisco was assumed by 
Murphy, Grant and Breeze, Murphy 
removing to New York, where he acted 
as purchasing partner. 

Mr. Grant was married in San Fran- 
cisco some thirty-three years ago, and 
has one son, Mr. Joseph D. Grant, 
who is now a partner in the house. 



The great dry goods house of Mur- 
phy, Grant & Co. is known for the ex- 
tent of its business, not only on this 
coast, but in every quarter of the 
globe from which supplies of the kind 
in which it deals are drawn. 

There has been nothing of the adven- 
turous in Mr. Grant's career outside of 
the fields of finance and commerce, but 
there lie has shown himself a knight 
worthy of all honor. He does not 
owe his wealth altogether to the busi- 
ness which bears his name, but has 
made many investments outside of it, 
and with such sagacity and good 
judgment as to largely increase the 
sources of his revenue. 

In handing down the biography of 
a man like Adam Grant, or, in fact, 
that of any person who has taken a 
prominent part in the affairs of their 
day and generation, one of the princi- 
pal objects must always be to afford 
an example to those of the rising gen- 
eration of what has, and can be, ac- 
complished by thrift, efficiency and 
perseverance in any business that may 
be engaged in. 

It is true that natural talent has a 
great deal to do with success in life, 
but if improperly directed, or, rather, 
it' not backed up by fixity of purpose, 
and the most scrupulous sense of 
honor, talent may prove even worse 
than useless. 

Mr. Grant's life is a lesson to every 
young man who engages in business 
and looks forward to some day reach- 
ing the goal to which his ambition 
points. The very fact that he is now 
at the head of the great mercantile 
house in which he was engaged as 
clerk when twenty years of age, now 
thirty -nine years ago, is of the great- 
est significance, and, as it were, an in- 



170 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



dez to the character and talents of 
the man. 

A great deal of Mr. Grant's success 
is due to his bump of order and sys- 
tem. Possessed of first-class admin- 
istrative ability, he organizes his im- 
mense business into such well-defined 
departments as to make the whole 
combination work with the regularity 
of a perfectly balanced machine. 

> As beseems a gentleman of his 
wealth and social importance, Mr, 
Grant is a member of several organiza- 
tions, but carries into private life the 
modesty which distinguishes him in 
business affairs, and is known better 
by his work than his words, as he docs 
not favor publicity in such matters. 
He was, in July, 1888, made an hon- 



onary member of the Scottish Thistl 
Club in consideration of his services t 
the organization. 

As a citizen, Mr. Grant is enterpris 
ing and public spirited, liberal whe 
the cause meets his approval, withou 
any show of ostentation — he gives t 
confer a benefit, and not for vai 
glory. Of thoughtful and unassum 
ing manner, he impresses those wit] 
whom he comes in contact as a mai 
who would give calm consideration t 
any proposition which was presents 
to his notice, but whom it would b 
difficult to draw into any doubtfu 
speculation. His success has not da? 
zled him, nor would the most promis 
ing enterprise serve to move him froL 
his usual self-contained serenity. 





Kalman Haas. 



KALMAN HAAS. 



C9*HE name of Haas Bros, has 
3| i been long and honorably iden- 
«; tified with the history and pro- 
gress of this city. The grocery house 
known as that of Haas Bros, was 
founded as far back as 1852, and has 
long been known as that of Loupe & 
Haas, E. Haas, Charles A. Haas 
and L. Loupe having been associated 
in business as early as 1868. The 
house had an unbroken record of 
success leading back nearly forty 
years, and Ealman Haas, its present 
head, has not only been able to keep 
up its old-time record, but even to 
extend very considerably its influ- 
ence and power. Mr. Haas is one 
of those worthy citizens for whom 
this State is indebted to the German 
fatherland. He was born in Decem- 
ber, 1840, at Keckendorf, a little 
town in Bavaria. There his early 
years were passed, and there he re- 
ceived the first rudiments of educa- 
tion. When still very young, he 
emigrated to the United States, at 
first settling in the East. In 1854 
he came to the Pacific Coast, coming 
hither by the way of Panama. Kal- 
man Haas was then quite a young 
man, and on arriving at man's estate 
we find him in business at Portland, 
Ore. There he conducted a gen- 
eral merchandise store successfully 
for a few years. Feeling, however, 
that the city of Portland, which has 
since been called the metropolis of 
the North, was then too small for his 



business energies, and that San Fran- 
cisco alone afforded proper soope for 
their exercise, he removed to this 
city in 1868. Here he established the 
firm of Loupe & Haas in connection 
with his brother. It was not long 
until this became one of the leading 
mercantile firms of San Francisco. 
In 1875, Mr. Loupe retiring, 
the firm became known as that of 
Haas Bros. There were then three 
partners — Charles A. Haas, who is 
now residing in Europe, Kalman 
Haas and William Haas. In 1886 
Mr. Haas went to New York, there 
to attend to the Eastern business of 
the house. Mr. Haas has since taken 

into partnership Leopold Klau and 
Carl Klau, his nephews, and two of 
San Francisco' s most promising busi- 
ness men, the firm at present being 
composed of the gentlemen named 
and William Haas, previousy men- 
tioned. 

Mr. Haas was married in 1882, 
the fruit of the union being three 
promising children. He is a member 
of the Chamber of Commerce and 
Board of Trade, and is a member of 
all the Jewish charitable societies in 
this city, and is connected besides 
with many other benevolent organiz- 
ations. As a business man, his name 
has long been a synonym for ability 
and integrity, and as such is known 
all over the States. He has for 
twenty years past been prominently 
identified witn one of our principal 
branches of commerce, and as he is 
now in his prime, has a long life of 

Eublio and private usefulness before 
im. 




Abraham Halsby. 



Abraham Halsey. 



$ 



O name is better or more favor- From the early days of placer 

ably known in the business cir- mining to the present time, Mr. 

cles of San Francisco than that Halsey has been more or less en- 

of Abraham Halsey. He has been gaged in the industry of mining, and 

prominently identified with the in- has filled the position of Secretary 

terests of California for more than to some of the most successful corn- 




Representative 

Abraham Halsey was born in the raiser, and cattle dealer, and drove 
State of New York on the 30th day many herds of cattle from the lower 
of October, 1831. Three years later country to the mines in the north, 
his parents moved to New Jersey, in when that was a most profitable 
which State young Halsey passed business, and the State of California 
the years of his minority. In 1850, was virtually one vast cattle range, 
when but 18 years Qf age, he gradu- As the State became settled, Mr. 
ated from Princeton College, and at Halsey was one of Hhe first to plow 
once entered upon the study of the and sow what were known as "the 
law in the office of one of the most plains," and demonstrated the fact 
eminent lawyers of his State. Two that grain could be grown thereon, 
years later ne joined the ever-in- He has been actively engaged in 
creasing throng of emigrants bound the survey and construction of some 
for the golden hills of California, of the largest and most extensive 
Mr. Halsey was one of the first lot of ditches for hydraulic mining ever 
passengers to come via the Nicara- built in the State. He was Presi- 
gua route from New York by way of dent of the first company organized 
San Juan or Greytown, Virgin feay to build a wagon road into the 
and Lake Nicaragua to San Juan on Yosemite Valley, by way of Big Oak 
the Pacific side, and thence by Flat and Hardin's Ranch. Mr. 
steamer to San Francisco, where he Halsey has resided in San Fran- 
arrived October 13, 1851. He went cisco eighteen years and during that 
directly to the mines. First to period has been constantly connect* 
Mokelumne Hill, thence to Coulter- ed with mining and manufacturing 
ville and Aqua Fria in Mariposa enterprises, in various parts of Cali- 
County, and thence in 1852 to fornia and Nevada, Washington and 
Chinese Camp, Tuolumne County, Idaho and in Mexico. During his 
where he remained for about twenty residence in the mines, the knowl- 
yeare. Mr. Halsey passed his first edge of law acquired in his two 
Winter in California in a stone cabin years' study was frequently called 
on Carson Creek, originally built into requisition in the trial of various 
by General John C. Fremont on his mining disputes. The formation of 
Mariposa grant. He was appointed laws for the government of local 
by the Sheriff of Mariposa to serve mining districts, in accordance with 
as one of the "posse comitatus" the custom of the country in those 
in the first hanging of a Mexican in early days, naturally led to his con- 
that county for the crime of murder, tinuing the study of law and subse- 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Juent admission to practice in the 
■iatrict Courts of the State. 
He has held numerous positions of 

Snblic trust, among others those of 
'otarj Public in Tuolumne County, 
Justice of tbo Peace, Assoc iute 
Judge, und Deputy County Attor- 
ney of Stanislaus County- He is a 
prominent member of the Masonic 
order, having been (it various times 
Muster of Lodge California No. 1, 
and High Priest of the Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons of California, 
Chapter No. 5. Has been for several 
years past one of the Trustees and 
Secretary of the California State 
Woman's Hospital, one of the moat 
noted charitable institutions of the 



city of San Francisco. 

Mr. Halsey was married in 1857, 
but shortly afterward suffered the 
loss of his wife and remained a 
widower until 1879, when he again 
married. 

During all the long, varied, and 
at times exciting career above imper- 
fectly outlined, Abraham Halsey 
has borne himself in a manner to 
gain the friendship and admiration 
of all with whom he came in fami- 
liar contact. His probity has never 
been questioned, and every transac- 
tion in which during his busy life 
he has been engaged, will bear the 
closest scrutiny. The world is bet- 
ter for the life of such a man. 





Charles F. Hanlon. 



CHARLES F\ HANLON. 



>*HABLES F. HANLON, though 
4J1 . much the junior of the distm- 
^5 guished members of the bar, 
stands to-day in the very front rank 
of the legal profession. Although a 
native of New York city he has re- 
sided in California since infancy. 
His early education was conducted 
much by his mother, and afterwards 
at St. Ignatius College, and was com- 
pleted at St. Mary's, where he grad- 
uated in 1874, carrying first honors 
in a class of fourteen, only two others 
passing besides himself. 

Evincing a decided fondness for 
the legal profession, his course of 
study had been somewhat directed 
in that channel at college, and short- 
ly after graduation he entered John 
M. Burnett's office, where he read 
and studied law for three years, be- 
ing admitted to the Bar in 1877, at 
the age of 21. 

One of the first things a young 
lawyer does is to seek a partnership ; 
he generally wants to associate him- 
self with some one who, through in- 
fluential connections or large practice, 
will enable him to obtain a good start 
in his career. 

Mr. Hanlon, however, was an ex- 
ception to this general rule, having 
decided to ' ' paddle his own canoe 
and to make no entangling alliance. 
Consequently, never having had a 
professional partner, he has always 
conducted his legal business entirely 
alone, being assisted by a competent 
corps of clerks. 

Early in his practice Mr. Hanlon 
was called upon to act as leading 
counsel in several large estates. 
Owing to his marked success, he soon 
had all he could do in that lucrative 
branch of the profession, being at- 
torney for the Arguello estate, in 



Santa Clara County, valued at $300,- 
000; the Hugh Burns estate, at $200,- 
000; the Berghauser will case, involv- 
ing $300, 000, and other important 
cases. 

One of the memorable legal strug- 
gles in which Mr. Hanlon was inter- 
ested was flie contest over the Curtis 
estate, in which a young adventuress 
laid claim to the greater part of $250,- 
000. Mr. Hanlon, who liad been re- 
tained for the sons of the dead man, 
established the falsity of her claim, 
and succeeded in having the whole 
estate awarded to the boys. He also 
conducted a jury contest of six weeks 
against the codicils of Andrew Kohl- 
er's will, which disposed of $350,000, 
and obtained a verdict setting aside 
the codicils for fraud and mental in- 
competency, which was sustained on 
appeal to the Supreme Court. 

In May, 1886, Mr. Hanlon was 
employed by the Daily Examiner to 
prosecute John Sedgwick for irreg- 
ularities as Superintendent of the 
House of Correction. After a very 
long and bitter fight of twelve weeks, 
through the ability and persistence of 
Mr. Hanlon, the newspaper was vic- 
torious and Sedgwick removed from 
office. 

Following this was the exciting 
Zeehandler contempt case, which he 
won after three contests. Zeehandler, 
an editor on the Examiner, was con- 
fined to jail for refusing to answer 
the Court's questions as to who di- 
vulged to the press certain proceed- 
ings had within closed doors. A 
very able argument by Mr. Hanlon, 
before the "seven Judges in banc," 
led to a decision in favor of the Ex- 
aminer, which also decided an im- 
portant point affecting the rights of 
the press throughout the State. This 



17fi 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



case has since been used as author- 
ity in Now York. 

Mr. Hanlon was also employed by 
the Into Peter Donahue as assistant 
counsel in several important cases, 
and on the death of his son, Col. J. 
M. Donahue, iiis executors, Messrs. 
McGlynn &. Bnrgin, two prominent 
railroad gentlemen, also employed 
Mr. Hanlon as attorney for the splen- 
did estate left and valued at about 
four million of dollars. 

He is also attorney of the Old 
People's Home, a prominent chari- 
table institution of San Francisco, 
and has occupied such position since 
the time of its organization. Politi- 
cally, Mr. Hanlon is a Damocrat, and 
an advocate of pure politics. He was 



President of the "Devoto Sobon" and 
also the Manhattan Club, the latter 
being a local organization whose ob- 
ject it was to reform local politics — 
put an end to bossism. 

For three years he was a member 
of G Company, Second Artillery, N. 
G. O.j was appointed Paymaster on 
General Dimond's staff, Aide-de- 
Camp on General Stoneman's staff, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel on the late 
Governor Bartlett's staff. 

We deem Mr. Hanlon to be oue 
of the brightest and ablest members 
of the San Francisco Bar, and pre- 
dict for him a notable career, not 
only in his chosen profession, but 
also as one of our leading public men 
of the future. 





Col. William Harney. 



Col, William Harney. 



a* ROB ABLY there is no man more 
J J intimately and popularly known 
Jp to the people of California than 
the subject of this sketch. Colonel 
William Harney arrived in California 
about thirty-five years ago, and has 
lived here continuously ever since. 
During these years he has done more 
than his share in helping to build up 
the State. He has seen San Francisco 
grow from a good-sized village to a 
large city. 

Colonel Harney came from New 
York under the care of the late 
Thomas O. Larkin and Admiral C. H. 
Baldwin, United States Navy, arriv- 
ing in San Francisco in the early part 
of 1854. He was then only about 16 
years of age, but, notwithstanding his 
youth, shortly after arrival, 1854, he 
was appointed 'purser of the steamer, 
the old " Senator," in the California 
Steam Navigation Company's line, and 
has been purser of the different sea- 
going vessels of that company from 
the time of the first water service 
until they went out of existence. 

Colonel Harney is one of the few 
officers of that company now left. 
Many old Californians will remember 
him well as the handsome youth hold- 
ing such a high and responsible posi- 
tion at such a tender age, where thou- 
sands of dollars were left to his care 
and custody. His fitness for perform- 
ing the duties of his position made 
him a great favorite with the direct- 
ors of the company, and he was always 
appointed to the pursership of sea- 
going steamers. When the com- 
pany sold out to the railroad 
Colonel Harney was appointed Dep- 
uty County Clerk and Clerk of the old 
Court of Sessions, Probate and County 
Courts, under the late Governor, 
Washington Bartlett, which position 



he held for many years, till the Tax- 
payers and Republicans took him up, 
unsolicited, for the office of County 
Clerk, and in 1871 he was elected, 
running away ahead of his ticket. 

When he entered upon his duties he 
set to work to make that office a model 
one, as has been fully attested by the 
public and the members of the bar; so 
much so that he was, at the expira- 
tion of his term of office, endorsed 
and renominated by all parties, Repub- 
licans, Taxpayers and Democrats, re- 
ceiving the unanimous vote of the 
county, a compliment which had never 
before been conferred on any aspirant 
for office. It is needless to say that 
he retired from his official duties as 
County Clerk with a high reputation 
for honesty, straight-forwardness and 
executi vecapacity, which wasacknowl- 
edged by all who had any business to 
transact with that branch of the city 
government. 

Colonel Harney has been tendered 
various nominations since his retire- 
ment from office, all of which ho has 
steadfastly declined, preferringto work 
his way in the private walks of life. 

He has taken considerable interest 
in our California militia, connecting 
himself with the Cavalry Hussars 
twenty-eight years ago as a high pri- 
vate, and as an officer, reaching every 
rank up to his present one of Colonel, 
on which he was retired some years 
ago, at his own request, with full rank 
of Colonel. He has been on all the 
staffs of Governors Low, Booth, 
Haight, Irwin, Perkins and Pacheco. 

He has.also been a prominent mem- 
ber of several societies, social and 
charitable. He has been Recorder of 
California Commandery, No. 1, Knights 
Templar, for many years, member of 
Oriental Lodge, F. and A. M., California 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Chapter, R, A. M., Apollo Lodge, I. 
O. 0. F., American Legion of Honor, 
Knights of Honor, A 0. U. W., Bo- 
hemian Club, Chamber of Commerce, 
Recorder and Director of the Mercan- 
tile Library for some years, President 
of the Manufacturers' Association, 
and at present President of that 
body; a Trustee of the California 
Home for the Cure and Training of 
Feeble-Minded Children, and many 
other institutions, which we cannot 
now recall. 

He has always been known for his 
kindness in assisting the unfortunate 
of mankind, where he could possibly 
do so, as hundreds of our citizens can 
attest, as through his influence and 
help they ascended the ladder of life, 
and now recall his generous efforts in 
their behalf. 

Many acts of bravery on the part 
of Colonel Harney have been recorded 
in his kind and successful efforts in 
saving human life, both on land and 
sea. 

Colonel Harney has been for many 
years, and is now, connected with the 
Golden Qate Woolen Manufacturing 
Company as Manager and Secretary; 
a very laudable industry. 

Before leaving New York, and at 
the early age of 14, lie entered the of- 



Baldwin and Abram Ditmars. Bald- 
win was a brother of Admiral Bald- 
win of the United States Navy, and 
it was through the latter and the late 
Thomas 0. Lark in, who was the first 
and last United States Consul in Cali- 
fornia, who was then in New York, 
that Colonel Harney, then a youth 
some 15 years of age, was induced to 
come to California. 

Endorsed by such then prominent 
men as Colonel Clinton, Augustus 
Schell, Fernando Wood, George E. 
Baldwin and many others, who were 
friends of his father, John H. Harney, 
the youngster had no difficulty in ob- 
taining, even at his early age, such a 
responsible and honorable position as 
he held in the pioneer days of Cali- 
fornia 

Colonel Harney was married in 
1866 to Miss Benjamina C. Meacham, 
of Mount Vernon, O. This estimable 
woman died, leaving one child, a 
daughter, who is now the wife of Mr. 
Evan C. Evans. Colonel Harney sub- 
sequently married Miss Fannie M. 
Summer by whom he has one son. 

Colonel Harney is a member of the 
Veteran National Guard of Califor- 
nia, and in looking over the list of 
that organization we find he is one of 
the oldest of the retired veterans, ac- 





W. H. H. Hart 



W. H. H. Hart 




H. H. HART was born in 
* Yorkshire, England, January 
1 ? 25, 1848. His father came to 
the United States in 1852, and went 
direct to Little Bock, Kendall 
County, 111. He remained there 
until 1857. In April, 1856, a por- 
tion of the Blackhawk tribe of In- 
dians, encamping near Little Bock, 
then a frontier village, stole young 
Hart. He was kept by them until 
October of the same year, when he 
was recovered. In the Spring of 
1857 his father removed to Iowa. 
His mother died in February, 1858, 
and his father in April, 1859. In 
1857, when he was nine years old, he 
commenced to earn his own living by 
herding sheep, and at this time he 
has taught the use of fire-arms in 
which he had considerable practice. 
At the time of entering the army he 
was considered an expert for a boy. 
Being treated unkindly by a man with 
whom he lived, he ran away in Aug- 
ust, 1861, going to a friend of his 
father's some miles away. For him 
he worked until Christmas of that 
year, when court proceedings were 
threatened to obtain possession of 
him by his guardian. For two win- 
ters previous he had attended school 
with a young man fifteen years his 
elder, by the name of Hinckley. At 
the breaking out of the war, Hinck- 
ley had gone to Southern Illinois, 
and, having been much attached to 
young Hart, had kept up a corre- 
spondence with him. When Grant 
was stationed at Cairo in the Summer 
of '61, Hinckley rendered important 
services, on account of which Grant 
selected him as the proper man to 
organize a company of private scouts. 
Young Hart hearing of the proceed- 
ings about to be taken in court 



against him, drew his money from 
his father's fiiend for four months 
work at $6 per month, and was taken 
by his friend to Bock Island, 111., 
and reached Cairo on the 3d or 4th 
of January, 1862. He there met 
Hinckley and finally decided to join 
his company of scouts, which he did, 
and was sworn in on the 23rd day of 
January, 1862, being then two days 
less than fourteen years of age. 
Hinckley's scouts left a few days 
later for Paducah, and along with 
them young Hart took part in the 
campaigns of Donelson, Shiloh, 
VicKsburg, and Chattanooga, and in 
command of Hinckley's scouts per- 
formed important services at the bat- 
tle of Missionary Bidge, and wan 
wounded three times during that con- 
test while carrying an important 
dispatch from Grant to Sherman's 
command across a portion of the 
field occupied by Confederate forces 
(between Citico Creek and Sher- 
man's right). After partial recovery 
from these wounds he returned home 
in March, 1864. In May he enlisted 
in the Forty-fourth Iowa as a private. 
He was mustered out of the service 
in September of the same year, but 
in February, 1865, he re-enlisted 
in the One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh Illinois. He was finally mus- 
tered out of the service in February, 
1866, having been wounded five times 
— at Shiloh, Pulmes Ferry and Citico 
Creek. In the Summer of 1865 Judge 
Bussell suggested to young Hart that 
he would make a lawyer and pre- 
sented him with a copy of Blackstone, 
his first law book. That was while he 
was doing provost duty at Dawson, 
Terrell County, Ga. He then com- 
menced to study law, and during two 
years after leaving the army he at- 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



tended the public schools, reading law 
at night. In September, 1668, four 
months before attaining his majority, 
he was admitted to practice in the 
county courts of Iowa; in the District 
Court of the same State in September, 
1869; in its Supreme Court in April, 
1870; in the Supreme Court of Califor- 
nia in July, 1873; in the Supreme 
Court of the United States in Decem- 
ber, 1874, and in the United States 
Court of Claims, and was since admit- 
ted to tho Supreme Courts of Illi- 
nois, Nevada and Arizona. In Iowa 
Mr. Hart was elected City Attorney 
for the city of De Witt. Before 
coming to California Mr. Hart was 
known as one of the best criminal 
lawyers in that section of the State. 
He defended four murder cases in 
which he was successful. Since 
coming to California lie has devoted 
himself to the civil law in all its 
branches. 

As a citizen of California, Mr. 
Hart has been interested in manu- 
facturing, agriculture and mining. 
His interest m mining at the present 
time is very large. Ho is ono of our 
best mining lawyers, having gained 
the reputation in the Copper Queen 
cases in Arizona and sustained it 
through numerous prominent eases 
in this St;it I.'. Mi-. Hart is :t member of 



case, true to his instincts, were ardu- 
ous and intricate, but when complete 
there was not a weak place to be 
found. 

His management of the child'scase 
has won for him a reputation that 
will endure through life. He en- 
countered an opposition at everystep, 
composed of the ablest minds at the 
bar, but he knew the wishes of the 
father of his young client, he knew 
her rights, andknowing, dared main- 
tain them through the longest and 
bitterest legal contest ever recorded. 
With the best counsel in the city called 
to assist, he was, through this long 
conflict, the plumed knight, the cen- 
tral figure of the battle against whom 
every attack was directed and who 
repelled them all and whose armor 
sustained every blow. 

Mr. Hart was the Republican can- 
didate for Attorney- General four 
years ago, in the Swift campaign, 
in which he ran more than 7,000 votes 
ahead of his ticket. 

He was instrumental in having 
passed by the Legislature in 1889 the 
bill for a Belt Railroad in San Fran- 
cisco. The road is to be built on 
the State property around the margin 
of the bay and to be controlled by 
the State Board of Harbor Commis- 
sioners, tii be free for all railroads 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



181 



this purpose which carried the boy 
nnmarr eUthroiigh the temptations 6i 
the army, and which have sustained 
the strength of the man through so 
many unusually severe conflicts, still 
prompts him to press onward and 
upward. 

Mr. Hart's experience and educa- 
tion has all conspired to bring for- 
ward and emphasize in him a trait of 
character which has served him well 
in many great legal conflicts. It has 



been remarked that he is always cool 
in danger and coolest where the danger 
is greatest. His large study of con- 
stitutional and international law in 
the Blythe case, and the masterly 
handling of the broad and many new 
issues of that contest point to him as 
a man well qualified to fill any posi- 
tion, either as an attorney or judge/ 
to which he may aspire. He has re- 
cently been elected to fill the posittpn 
of Attorney-General of the State. 




Samuel Hhslett 



Samuel haslett. 



GjjUHE business of the warehouse- 
Jf)L man has been associated with 
^j that of the merchant from time 
immemorial — the very name calls up 
recollections associated with the gold- 
en age of commerce, the spices and 
perfumes of "Araby the Blessed," 
" The wealth of Ormuz and of Ind." 
The business of a great seaport like 
that of San Francisco necessarily 
demands great and extensive ware- 
house accommodations, the need for 
which is constantly increasing. This 
city, the great emporium of the 
West, in lo89 enjoyed a foreign im- 
port trade valued at a sum exceed- 
ing $51,000,000, not to speak of its 
foreign export values, or those with 
the Atlantic States and cities. All 
this emphasizes the great and grow- 
ing importance of the warehouse 
business. Vast interests have sprung 
up in connection with it — to handle 
which properly require great and 
abundant capital. The most promi- 
nent of the firms engaged in it is that 
of Haslett & Bailey, who lease most 
of the large warehouses in the city. 
A brief sketch of the personnel of one 
engaged in such an important enter- 

gnse cannot fail to be interesting, 
amuel Haslett, the senior partner 
and manager, is a native of Belfast, 
Ireland, where he was born in 1841. 
He there received a solid business 
education in one of the leading com- 
mercial and manufacturing cities not 
only of Ireland but of Europe; for 
the ships and products and wealth of 
Belfast, "the Athens of the North," 
have long been renowned in all civil- 
ized lands. Several of our leading 
merchants were born and received 
their training there, and for business 
energy, acuteness and consequent 
success they cannot be surpassed. 



Mr. Haslett came to San Francisco 
in 1875, remaining here but a short 
time. The Territory, now the State, 
of Washington was then beginning to 
offer unusual opportunities to men of 
enterprise and intelligence, and Mr. 
Haslett soon found his way there, 
and engaged in the lumber business 
in which he remained for nearly 
a year. Considering that San Fran- 
cisco offered better opportunities for 
the education of his family he returned 
hither in 1877. Here he became 
interested in warehousing at the old 
Humboldt Warehouse, previously 
known as the Bincon Point. At this 
time he was in partnership with J. 
W. Cox, the style of the firm being 
J. W. Cox & Co. In 1882 Mr. Cox 
retired from the business on account 
of failing health, Mr. C. H. Bailey 
taking his place, and the present well 
known firm was organized. Since 
which time the untiring energy, abil- 
ity and integrity of the partners have 
fostered and developed the business. 

As Mr. Haslett found his business 
increasing he enlarged his facilities 
for transacting it and his warehouses 
now extend in an unbroken chain all 
along the water front, from the sea- 
wall on the north to the railroad freight 
yards on the south, thus bringing ship 
and rail together as nearly as can be 
done in the present condition of the 
water front. 

The warehouses operated by this 
firm have a storage capacity of over 
150,000 tons, and are suited for hand- 
ling and storing merchandise and 
wares of every description, either 
bonded or free: grain, flour, fruit, 
canned goods, coffee, teas, spices, 
sugar, silks, cottons, dry goods, glass, 
crockery, tobaccos, liquors, cement, 
tin, iron, machinery, etc., while in the 



184 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



yards attached to some of them, mill- 
ions of feet of lumber and quantities 
of coal and coke are stored. 

Ikcy are well built and fully 
equipped with proper appliances for 
carrying on business in every detail 
and in accordance with the regula- 
tions of the lire department. All the 
bonded warehouses are under control 
of the United States Government 
which keeps store-keepers of its own 
in charge all the time, but at the 
expense of ttie proprietors, who are 
under heavy bonds to the Govern- 
ment for the keeping of the goods 
placed in their charge. All the 
different warehouses are connected 
by telephone and so perfect is 
the system and attention to detail 
that a single package of merchandise 
can be traced to its location as rap- 
idly as a consignment of 10,000 
packages. Mr. Haslett has so adapted 
the system of bookkeeping in all the 
different houses that in the case of 
Hid absence of any of the clerks or 
bookkeepers one of the others can 
step in and carry on the business 
without any hitch or delay. 

By thus having the warehouses lo- 
cated at different suitable points, con- 
venient to the shipping of the port, 
and yet under the same management, 
the I'ost of moving the- goods to ware- 



There never have been any losses 
sustained by the owners of goods 
stored in his warehouses; there ore 
few disputes and those are readily 
adjusted, and it may be truthfully 
said that the firm never loses a cus- 
tomer worth retaining. To accom- 
plish these reforms and at the same 
time extend the scope of his business 
so materially has called for the ex- 
ercise of a degree of administrative 
ability that is extremely rare. That 
Mr. Haslett possesses this no one 
who has been brought into business 
relations with him can doubt. In 
addition to his partner Mr. Haslett 
has been much aided by his four sons, 
all of whom have been throughly 
trained in every branch of ware- 
housing, the two younger are still with 
the firm, while the two elder are the 
managing partners of the respective 
firms of Bode & Haslett and Haslett 
& Swayne, in the same business, and 
working harmoniously with thoparent 
firm. He has besides a large staff con- 
sisting of clerks and a sufficient, force 
of trained warehousemen. 

Mr. Haslett has never held anypub- 
lic office and has never taken any 
further interest in political matters 
than is demanded by society of every 
good citizen. He is a resident of 

ameda. His homo lift; 






James M. Haven. 



James M. Haven. 



g4*HE legal profession is justly es- 
4|L teemed as occupying a place in 

^T the highest rank of those men 
who render possible in our mod- 
ern civilizatioD the reign of law. 
This profession has always stood 
with the noblest in every land, 
and it is no wonder that in this free 
land its ranks should be thronged 
by our most ambitious youth. 
Nearly all the men who have won 
their way to fame in the world of 
politics and in the conduct of public 
affairs have had their training in the 
practice and study of the law. But 
not all those who adorn a noble pro- 
fession are found in official position. 
Many of those best versed in its 
practice and some of its worthiest 
professors have been content to spend 
their lives in its ranks, and this gives 
the public the benefit of their ripe 
experience and extensive study and 
research. Among these James M. 
Haven has long occupied a worthy 

I>osition. Mr. Haven's family be- 
onged to the early New England 
pilgrim stock, and Mr. Haven has 
inherited the traditional love of free- 
dom in Church and State character- 
istic of this sturdy race in general, 
and of his forefathers in particular. 
Ho is a native of the Empire State, 
where soon after the conquest of the 
Dutch settlements, a sturdy stream 
of New England colonists migrated, 
and helped to render possible the 
lead which that State has always 
taken. Early in this century Mr. 
Haven's grandfather participated in 
the New England exodus and settled 
with his family in Central New York, 
then an unsettled and uncultivated 
forest. His family moved to Illinois 
in 1835, and there Mr. Haven was 
educated. The news of the gold 



discoveries in California in 1848 
stirred up the enthusiasm of all the 
Western youth, and Mr. Haven was 
not long in following the Argonauts. 
Taking the route via the Isthmus, 
he reached San Francisco March 
26, 1850. He has, consequently, 
been a worker in the ranks of our 
California builders more than forty 
years. Mr. Haven at once went to 
the mines in Butte County, on the 
north fork of the Yuba River, and 
mined for several years with vary- 
ing success. 

He was admitted to the practice of 
the law and followed his profession 
in Sierra County, Cril., for several 
years, removing from there to San 
Francisco. 

In his early manhood he was iden- 
tified politically with the free soil 
movement, and "during the Civil War 
was active in the maintenance of the 
Union Party. He held offices of 
responsibility under the general 
Government being at different times 
Collector of Internal Revenue and 
Deputy Provost Marshal. During 
the war he was Secretary of the 
Union Party organization in Sierra 
County. After the close of the war 
he held the offices of District Attor- 
ney and Superintendent of Schools 
of Sierra County, showing his popu- 
larity there. 

He came to San Francisco early in 
1868, and has since devoted himself 
exclusively to the practice of law. 
For over twenty-one years he was 
associated with Giles H. Gray in the 
well-known firm of Gray & Haven 
of this city. On the first of August, 
1889, Mr. Gray withdrew finally from 
the practice of the law, and the firm 
of Haven & Haven is now the suc- 
cessor of that long-established firm. 



186 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Mr. Haven is an earnest member 
of a Congregational Church, and 
Treasurer of the Pacific Theological 
Seminary in Oakland. He is an in- 
defatigable worker in any cause that 
he deems for the benefit of his fel- 
low-men. He is at home in every 
department of the law, but devotes 
his time principally to civil practice. 
His clientage has been steadily grow- 
ing and extending for years. In 
argument be is close, clear and logi- 



cal. He does nothing for show or 
theatrical effect, and may be regard- 
ed as a safe and able legal adviser. 
He is deservedly respected in legal 
circles and oat of them. His char- 
acter is honest and unimpeachable, 
and he ia one of those who add dig- 
nify and honor to the noble profes- 
sion of the law. The firm of which 
he is a member can boast of an 
honorable career, and has built up 
an extensive practice. 





Marsos S. Hawley. 



Marcus C Hawley. 




ATJCTJS C. HAWLEY, the 
head of the neat hardware and 
r }\) implement house of Hawley 
Bros. Hardware Company, was born 
in Bridgeport, Conn., January 9, 
1834, being now therefore in his nfty- 
fifth year. Connecticut has long had 
the reputation of being the birthplace 
of some of the best business men in 
America, and, indeed, if we are to 
take any note of popular sayings, it is 
to the superior tact and business in- 
telligence of tbe natives of the Nutmeg 
State that New England's reputation 
for acuteness and the faculty of mak- 
ing good business bargains is mainly 
due. The success of so many of her 
sons in the various walks of business 
life is further proof, ifproof were 
wanting of this. Mr. Hawley was 
educated in good private schools in 
Bridgeport. When barely sixteen 
years of age his father, who was a 
hardware merchant in the city, deem- 
ing that the best further education 
that a business man's son could re- 
ceive was in the store and counting 
rooms, took young Marcus under his 
own care, and here he received a 
thorough business education. He 
must have had an especial adaptabil- 
ity to commercial pursuits for he 
started out at that early age to make 
regular daily trips between Bridge- 

1>ort and New York, and during the 
ong period of forty years' hard ser- 
vice he has traveled more than three 
million miles over one railroad — the 
New York and New Haven. He is, as 
he may well be, the senior commuter 
of that road, having lived to see 
every official in service at the time 
of his first trip either retired or 
sleeping the sleep that knows no 
waking. While continuing to reside 
in Connecticut Mr. Hawley's place 



of business since 1849 has been in 
New York Citjr. The business in 
which he is senior partner has had 
an existence on this coast since 1849. 
In that year the old firm, which 
boasts an existence dating back to 
1826, commenced shipping hardware 
and agricultural implements to San 
Francisco in the Fail, consigning 
them to David N. Hawley, one of 
the early pioneers. Afterward they 
shipped to the firm of Hawley, Ster- 
ling & Co., until in 1856 the style 
and title was changed to that of 
Hawley & Co., then located on the 
corner of California and Battery 
Streets. Mr. Hawley has been a 
leading member of the firm all the 
time, having made his first trip to 
this coast in its interest as early as 
1852. Since then he has made a 
trip about every year. His first trip 
was made as a matter of course via 
the Isthmus, but since the overland 
road has been pushed through he 
has always traveled by rail. In 1868 
the firm was changed to that of 
Marcus C. Hawley & Co., and was 
composed of three brothers — M. C. 
Hawley, W. N. Hawley and George 
T. Hawley, the two last mentioned 

fentlemen being residents of San 
rancisco since early in the fifties. 
For fifteen years the firm continued 
under the style and title noted, when 
it was incorporated as Hawley Bros. 
Hardware Company, with a paid up 
capital of eight hundred tnousand 
dollars. Located on the corner of 
Market and Beale streets in this city 
it has a branch in Los Angeles un- 
der the firm name of Hawley, King 
& Co., with business connection with 
firms in Santa Barbara and San 
Diego. The house takes its origin 
from the widely known house of 



188 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



Thomas Hawley & Co., which was 
established in Bridgeport, Conn., 
just sixty-three years ago. It 
is stilt in existence, and was founded 
by Thomas Hawley, the father, of 
the various members of the Hawley 
family in San Francisco. There has 
never been a single change in the 
personality of the house during all 
these long years, the brothers having 
been associated from the start. 
Having always been a successful 
man there has been but little room 
in Mr. Hawley's career for any un- 
usual or exciting episodes. He has 
simply gone on from year to year 
improving his business, extending its 
connections, and has laid abroad an 
enduring foundation for increased 
success in the coming year. He was 
msrried in 1856 to the daughter of 
Dr. C. H. Booth, of Newtown, Conn., 



who is still living. He has had 
many requests made to him to 
accept public positions of trust but 
has always declined, and though ha 
is a strong Republican and has been 
in active service in the last campaign 
both in New York and Connecticut, 
has steadily refused all offersof office. 
Ha is largely identified with various 
railroad and steamship interests on 
this coast, among the number are 
the Oregon Improvement Com- 
pany, Oregon Railway and Navi- 
gation Company, Oregon Short Line 
Company, Northern Pacific Railroad, 
together with Union Pacific and 
Atchison, Topeka ft Santa Fe Bail- 
roads. Though having passed the 
half century mile-stone.he is yet both 
physically and mentally a young man, 
and has still a long and useful bus- 
iness career before him. 





Sol. Sreed Haymond. 



Creed haymond. 



CONSIDERED as an orator, a 
«||> legislator, a politician, or a law- 
^l yer, there are few wen in Cali- 
fornia to-day who are the peers of 
Creed Haymond. It is seldom that 
we meet with a character which com- 
bines in an equal degree his qualities 
of brilliancy, industry and tenacity 
of purpose. 

Creed Haymond is a Virginian by 
birth, having been born in Beverly, 
Randolph County (now in West 
Virginia), fifty-four years ago. When 
ho was a child his parents removed 
to Fairmount, where he resided un- 
til he came to California in 1852. 
His father, Hon. W. C. Haymond, 
was a distinguished lawyer, and it 
was from him the son inherited that 
legal talent which afterward shaped 
his own career. Between the father 
and son there existed a remarkable 
affection ; from the latter' e earliest 
years the two were almost insepar- 
able. As the boy grew his father 
made a companion of him and when, 
in the course of his practice, he rode 
the circuit, he took Creed along, the 
latter riding on the saddle in front. 
Thrown as he was in the society of 
his father, and surrounded a good 

{>art of the time by other lawyers, 
istening to their arguments in the 
court-room, he gradually absorbed 
the germs of that legal knowledge 
and erudition which, many jears 
later, on the shores of the distant 
Pacific, were to fructify and bring 
forth abundant fruit. 

When Creed was 17 his ardent 
imagination became inflamed by the 
stories he heard of the wonders of 
California, and he longed to visit 
the El Dorado. The course pursued 
by him was characteristic. Having 
obtained his father's permission to 



undertake the journey, he induced 
five of his associates to accompany 
him, the eldest not being 20 years 
of age. They left the little town of 
Fairmount on the 29th of March, 
1852, and arrived at Babbit Creek 
Diggings (now Liporte), about 75 
miles north of Marysville, on the 
26th of August following. The little 
party met with many adventures on 
the way, but reached their destina- 
tion in safety, though one of the 
number, James D. Lamb, died a 
couple of months later. 

Haymond brought some ready 
money with him, and he was soon 
engaged in business on his own ac- 
count. He became interested in 
mining, packing and merchandising 
in the northern part of Sierra 
County. He also cariied Wells, 
Fargo & Co.'s mail and express mat- 
ter for a year and a half. 

It was at this time that he was 
sketched by Thomas B. Merry in his 
story "Sandy's Vindication," under 
the name of Creath Harthana, as 
the mail rider and conductor of the 
saddle train, "who would fight at the 
drop of a hat, so that no one ever 
dared to stop the train or rob the 
express while he was in charge." 

In 1859, he began the study and 
practice of the law with Hon. James 
A. Johnson, afterward Lieutenant- 
Governor, and Alexander W. Bidd- 
win, later appointed U. S. District 
Judge of Nevada. In his new voca- 
tion the effect of his early associa- 
tions, combined with his inherited 
taste for the legal profession, served 
to advance him rapidly and he 
soon achieved a reputation at the 
Bar of which any lawyer might 
be proud. His first successes were 
gained in criminal cases. One of 



190 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



the first and most interesting of 
these was the defense of an Irish- 
man who had killed an Englishman 
in a quarrel which arose over the 
Heenan-Sayers prize fight. In this 
case the Court, summoned Leland 
Stanford who had been Justice of 
the. Peace at Forest Hill, and in 
whose Court Reagan had been a 
constable. The last important crim- 
inal cose in which Colonel Hay- 
mond was engaged was the defense 
of the men charged with the murder 
of T. Wallace More, a wealthy 
land owner of Ventura County, in 
1877. Seven men were indicted for 
the offence, but only one, Sprogue, 
was convicted, and he was sentenced 
to life imprisonment, but was re- 
leased by executive pardon a few 
years since. 

The catalogue of leading civil cases 
with which Colonel Havmond has 
boon associated is a long one, and 
comprise some of the most impor- 
tant litigation in the history of 
jurisprudence in this State. 

Perhaps the work with which his 
name will ever be most prominently 
identified is the preparation of the 
Code of California. He was Chair- 
man of the Commission appointed 
for the purpose, and with his asso- 



ond term. While in the Senate he 
proposed the appointment of a spe- 
cial committee to investigate and 
prepare a report regarding the evils 
of Chinese immigration audita effects 
upon the industries of the State. 
The report was an exhaustive one, 
and did more to educate the minds 
of the people in the East and to en- 
lighten national legislation on the 
subject than anything before at- 
tempted. The subsequent anti- 
Chinese legislation by Congress may 
be directly attributed to it. He was 
an earnest opponent of the New 
Constitution, foreseeing and predict- 
ing the difficulties over tax questions 
which have followed its adoption. 

Colonel Havmond was sent by the 
Republicans of California to the 
National Convention which nomi- 
nated Garfield, in 1880, and also to 
that of 1888, when Harrison was 
selected as the party's standard 
bearer. On both occasions he at- 
tracted wide attention for his elo- 
quence of speech and skill in de- 
bate. 

His first professional connection 
with the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company was in 1881, when, ut the 
request of Governor Stanford, its 
President, he took charge of the 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



191 



and finally the tribunal of last re- 
sort, is sufficient evidence of his 
rare legal talent. To the student of 
constitutional law, a perusal of Col. 
Haymond' s arguments in these cases 
will prove a liberal education. 

Colonel Haymond for a long time 
commanded the First Artillery Regi- 
ment National Guard of California. 
In 1860 he was Captain of the Sierra 
Grays, and was engaged in active 
campaign against the Indians of Ne- 
vada, after tne Pyramid Lake massa- 
cre. Two severe engagements took 
place, in one of which he was 
slightly wounded. 

When Governor Stanford decided 
to rear to the memory of his son 
that noble monument, the Leland 
Stanford Jr. University, Colonel 
Haymond was one of the first upon 
whom he called for advice and assist- 
ance. The latter not only acted as 
his legal counsel, but as his sincere 



friend. His sympathetic mind has 
become thoroughly imbued with the 
grandeur of the Governor's under- 
taking, and he takes a lively in- 
terest in its development. Ho has 
purchased a farm near the Univer- 
sity, where he expects to make his 
future home, and as he recently said, 
" I shall be willing and most desir- 
ous to contribute all that I have left 
in me to its interests." 

Colonel Haymond married in 
1872 Miss Alice Crawford, an ac- 
complished and beautiful young lady, 
a native of Auburn, Placer County. 
They journeyed along life's pathway 
in happiness until four years ago 
when she was called away, 'leaving 
him childless. 

Personally Creed Haymond is one 
of those noblest of men. Thoroughly 
unselfish, kind and considerate of 
the feelings of others, his friends are 
knit to him with bands of steel. 



■I 




E. P. Heald 



E. P. H EALD. 




HILE we justly claim pre- 
eminence in the commercial 
world for the rapid advance- 
ment of our trade and industry 
during the past forty years, we 
have not been behindhand in 
educational matters, and San Fran- 
cisco's schools, both public and pri- 
vate, contribute not a little to the 
pride and glory of her progress. 
They have developed a ciass of edu- 
cators second to none in their attain- 
ments and their acquirements in the 
art of teaching — an art esteemed 
from all times as one of the most 
glorious; as by it the mind of the 
nation is formed and the proper di- 
rection given to its future course. 
Not one of the least distinguished 
amongst the educators of our State is 
Edward Payson Heald, who has, for 
so many years, been at the head of 
Heald's Business College. 

Mr. Heald was born in Oxford 
County, Maine, in 1843, where his 
father conducted the business of a 
merchant, also owning several exten- 
sive farms in that vicinity. These 
early associations have naturally 
given Mr. Heald a love for the coun- 
try and for agricultural pursuits. Al- 
though a resident of San Francisco 
for twenty-seven years, he has, al- 
most from the first, held extensive 
interests in the country and managed 
several large farms, giving employ- 
ment to many people. 

Mr. Heald comes of thorough Amer- 
ican ancestry, extending back in an 
unbroken line of American residence 
two hundred and sixty years. His 
ancestors, both on the father's and 
the mother's side, came from Eng- 
land with Governor Winthrop, and 
were among the first of the Puritans 
to land at Massachusetts bay. They 



settled near Boston in 1630, and the 
family has resided continuously in 
New England over since, where it 
has become quite numerous and is 
universally respected. It will thus 
be seen that the subject of our sketch 
is of English extraction, but belongs 
to one of the oldest American fami- 
lies. 

After spending some time at the 
ordinary public schools, where he 
began the study of Latin and the 
higher mathematics, Mr. Heald at- 
tended Gorham Seminary, near Port- 
land, Maine, where, in addition 
to his former work, he took up 
French and Greek. Later he attend- 
ed the Bridgeton Collegiate Institute 
for three years, where he continued 
the studies of mathematics, Latin, 
Greek, French and English litera- 
ture. He went thence to the Port- 
land (Maine) Business College, where 
he also taught for a period. This was 
in 1862, when only nineteen years of 
age. He came next year to Califor- 
nia, making the journey by way of 
Panama, and arriving in San Fran- 
cisco on the steamer * 'Golden City." 

Satisfied that San Francisco should 
support a business college, he started 
one immediately on arriving. His 
first classes were taught in Piatt's 
Hall. The enterprise was new — Mr. 
Heald was altogether unknown here, 
and he did not escape the struggles 
incident to those who endeavor to 
benefit the world by teaching it, or 
adventuring beyond the old and well- 
worn paths, which so many genera- 
tions nave trodden. He first opened 
in a small way, but after awhile the 
school grew apace, and the pioneer 
experiment took root and prospered, 
until it ranks to-day as one of the 
leading commercial colleges of the 



194 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



United States. Ite reputation ex- 
tends far beyond the Pacific Coast, 
and it ia almost as well known to ed- 
ucators in the Atlantic States as in 
San Francisco. Students now come 
to it, not only from the interior of 
the State, bat from Oregon, Nevada, 
Washington, Idaho, Montana, the 
Hawaiian Islands, Mexico, and even 
South America, and its graduates 
nre numbered by thousands. These, 
it may be said, include a large pro- 
portion of our leading citizens, and 
it is not an infrequent occurrence to 
enroll as students the sons and daugh- 
ters of men who graduated from the 
college twenty years or more ago. Its 
attendance sometimes reaches as high 
as five hundred pupils, and never falls 
below three hundred. 

Mr. Heald his visited every large 
city of the United States, and nearly 
every Stato in the Union, in search 
of knowledge regarding business 
training. Ho has repeatedly visited 
the leading commercial schools and 
institutes of technology in America, 
for the purpose of studying their sys- 
tems of instruction. He also spent 
nearly a year in Europe examining 
the methods of practical education in 
vogue there. 

Practical education in all its forms 
has been his constant study for 



in the field take equal rank with other 
educators, and business colleges are 
recognized as a most valuable adjunct 
to our educational system. The 
change in public opinion has been 
greatly due to the nigh standard of 
efficiency exacted and maintained, 
and to tne moral power exerted by a 
few of these schools in the large com- 
mercial centers, chief among which 
has been the one founded by the sub- 
ject of this sketch. 

The name of Mr. Heald has been 
frequently mentioned for political 
preferment. He has repeatedly been 
asked to allow his name to go before 
the conventions as a candidate for 
office in the Board of Education, in 
the Board of Supervisors and to the 
State Legislature, but has invariably 
refused. While generally perform- 
ing the duty of an American citizen, 
in voting for whomsoever he consid- 
ers the best man for the office, he 
absolutely has no political ambition, 
but pursues the even tenor of his way 
in a quiet and unostentatious man- 
ner. 

Aa mentioned before, Mr. Heald 
has given much attention to agricul- 
tural interests, aud has great love for 
stock-raising. He has now two good- 
sized stock ranches in Napa County, 
where he has made a specialty of fine 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 195 

important field that he has chosen a good school, which, in the words of 

are now thoroughly recognized, for Whittier, is 

San Francisco, in common with the Giving oat, year by year, 

rest of the world, knows that there is Becroita to true manhood and womanhood 

no higher office than the direction of da*r. 




S. Herrmann. 



SlGISMXJND HERRMANN. 



-WpHF. German fatherland has 
flfll given to San Francisco many 
^Y of her most worthy citizens — 
men who were identified with its 
commercial and industrial interests 
in early days and who still continue 
to give the benefit of their experience 
and capital to the development of 
both. Of such was Sigismund Herr- 
mann, who was born in the proud 
and ancient county of Mecklen- 
burg, July 12, 1816. He camo of a 
family trained to commerce, and 
early received a practical commer- 
cial education. When a mere lad 
he went to Manchester, England, 
and there as a clerk entered one 
of its great cotton manufacturing 
establishments. 

The story of California's great 
wealth was not long in reaching 
Albion's shores, and drew its due 
proportion of adventurous spirits to 
join the hosts that hastened hither. 
Mr. Herrmann, in the first flush of 
manhood, determined to try his for- 
tunes in California. He camo here 
in the sailing ship "Zealous" — Capt. 
Wilson. It took 167 days to com- 
. plete the voyage, and the good ship 
was riding at anchor in San Francisco. 
Bay on the 24th day of August, 1849. 
He came out here with Mr. Bell, of 
Faulkner, Bell & Co., and was for 
a long time their insurance agent. 
Mr. Herrmann brought with him an 
assortment of general merchandise, 
which was disposed of at a good 
profit. In the second year of his 



arrival he started in tie drygoods 
and general merchandising business, 
on Sacramento street, opposite the 
present location. Here he continued 
until 1870. Besides his business in 
this city he, had also a store in Sac- 
ramento. He was engaged in the 
hop trade, which he had followed 
successfully since 1870. 

Mr. Herrmann was also very for- 
tunate in his real estate transac- 
tions, and realized a handsome for- 
tune from a few lots that he pur- 
chased in the early days at the corner 
of Montgomery and Pine streets, 
where the San Francisco Stock Ex- 
change now stands. He died in this 
city March 24, 1890. 

He was married in this city in 
1853 to an amiable lady who has 
borne him four sons, William, Oscar, 
James and George Herrmann, one 
of whom is engaged in banking, 
another is a rising lawyer, while the 
remaining two conduct the business 
founded by their father. Mr. Herr- 
mann was a member of the Board 
of Trade, and had been since its 
organization. 

He was of gentlemanly manners, 
and of thorough business probity; 
a man whose word was as good as 
his bond, and a man who occupied a 
high place in the esteem of his 
brother merchants. As a pioneer 
and a business man he contributed 
much to the growth and prosperity of 
the material interest of the city of 
his adoption. 




Henry E. Highton. 



Henry E. Highton. 



SPOILING earnestly at his chosen 
ill . profession, deaf to all demands 
^jr ior political preferment, one 
whose only desire seems to be a con- 
tinued advancement in the rank of 
his calling — such is the popular view 
of the subject of our sketch. But it 
is a most erroneous one. Although 
there is probably no lawyer in San 
Francisco more zealous in his profes- 
sional ardor, there is also none more 
public-spirited, more watchful of the 
affairs of the municipality, more 
alive to any attack upon its inter- 
ests than he, and wherever these 
interests have been imperilled in 
the past, he has put off his pro- 
fessional robe, emerged from the 
seclusion of his office, and, on 
the public forum raised his voice to 
such good purpose that rascals have 
forsaken their schemes and dema- 

fogues have quailed before him. 
f any man then is entitled to be 
classed among the foremost build- 
ers of our great city it is Henry 
Edward Highton. 

Although comparatively a young 
man, Mr. Highton is a pioneer, hav- 
ing arrived at Weavertown, three miles 
from Placerville, then called Hang- 
town, in September, 1849. He is a na- 
tive of Liverpool, Eng., where he was 
born, July 31, 1836. His education 
was commenced at the school of Be v. 
J. C. Prince, in that city, and during 
his stay at the institution he took 
every prize for classics offered to his 
class. It was the intention to coin- 

Elete his education at the famous 
iugby School, but that was rendered 
impossible by the migration of his 
father to the United States, which oc- 
curred when Henry was twelve years 
of age. They first settled in Milwau- 
kee, Wis., where the son was placed 



in the office of a leading lawyer, 
his father having early noticed in 
the youth a predilection for that pro- 
* fession wherein he has won honor 
and achieved success. 

The study of Blackstone, however, 
was for tne time interrupted by 
the receipt of the news which 
came from the shores of the 
distant Pacific telling of the dis- 
covery of gold in California. The 
adventurous spirit of the boy, in 
whose temperament existed a strong 
tinge of romance, such as stirred the 
knight errantry of old, was aroused. 
He dreamed of fame, of fortune to 
be acquired in the new El Dorado. 
He temporarily flung aside his law 
books and started on the long and 
dangerous journey across the plains. 
He finally reached Weavertown in 
safety. For seven years, with the 
exception of a few months spent in 
Sacramento, he worked in the mines, 
partaking of all the toils and vicissi- 
tudes of a miner's life; yet, never for a 
moment, losing sight of the leading 
object of his life — the study of the 
law. Ho improved every available 
moment to store his mind, and 
although his studies were of neces- 
sity desultory in their nature, they 
were not entirely without system, nor 
barren of results. 

In 1856, Mr. Highton came to San 
Francisco, resolved to try his fortune 
here. He arrived without means, 
his mining experience having been, 
like that of many others, unsuccess- 
ful from a financial point of view. 
The only acquaintance he had in the 
young metropolis was Dr. C. C. 
Knowles, afterward President of the 
Board of Education, who proved a 
good friend of the young man, and 
showed him many acts of kindness. 



BUILDEKS OF A GHEAT CITY. 



He served a brief season as a jour- 
nalist on the old Sao Francisco 
Chronicle, a newspaper directed by 
the late Frank Sonic, and also on 
the Herald. His desire for acquiring 
a legal education was still strong 
within him, however, and he studied 
faithfully, until finally, on the third 
day of July, 18G0, be passed a highly 
creditable examination before a com- 
mittee consisting of those eminent 
lawyers, General Thomas H. Wil- 
liams and John B. Felton, and was 
admitted to practice by the Supreme 
Court. He commenced his profes- 
sional career in Sonoma, then just 
incorporated, and a thriving town. 
This he did by the advice of Oscar 
L. Shafter, who had directed his law 
studies, and was his firm friend. 
Mr. High ton had frequent oppor- 
tunities subsequently to address the 
Supremo Court, when his old pre- 
ceptor was upon the bench, and the 
Judge always expressed the warmest 
admiration for the talent and genius 
of his pupil. In the fall of 1860 
Mr. Highton returned to San Fran- 
cisco and began law practice here. 
During the absence of Judge Shafter 
from this State, in 1861, several im- 
portant cases wero confided by him to 
Mr. Highton"s management, all of 



sional life. Among the most notab! 
of the criminal cases in which Mi 
Highton has been engaged migfc 
be mentioned the trial of I. 31 
Kalloeh for the killing of Charles d 
Young, the trial of A. B. Spreckel 
for the shooting of M. H. d 
Young, and the trial of J. B. Cox fo 
the kdling of Charles McLaughlin 
In all of these cases Mr. Highton' 
clients were acquitted. His crimina 
practice, however, forms but a smal 
part of his legal business, and how 
ever gratifying it may be to the am 
bition of tho lawyer to win sue! 
triumphs, his greatest pride is in th 
success which has followed his ei 
forts in the conduct of importan 
civil causes in the higher courts. 1: 
the spring of 1880, he Becured, after ; 
very hitter legal straggle, the dismis 
sal of the impeachment proceeding 
against Mayor Kalloeh. Piatt I 
Rich, a Virginia City firm, failei 
owing San Francisco merchants ove 
$100,000, who, by reason of non 
residence could not attach. The; 
employed Mr. Highton, who went U 
Virginia City, and, after a lego 
struggle, in which he was opposed b; 
the ablest members of the Ncvadi 
Bar, he succeeded in capturing fo 
Ins client the entire assets, amount 




BUILDER8 OF A GREAT CITY. 



201 



the case of C. E. Huse et al. vs. R. 
S. Den et al., for the possession 
of land situated in Santa Barbara 
County. 

These cases, though briefly re- 
ferred to, give but a slight idea of 
the many and important legal con- 
tests in which Mr. Highton has 
been engaged during the many years 
he has been in practice here. These 
are his professional labors. What 
has he done in the same time for 
the public ? 

In 1860, what was known as the 
Bulkhead Bill came up for passage 
in the Legislature. It was defeated 
by a small vote, but was brought 
up at the succeeding session and 
passed both houses. By the terms 
of the Act the whole water- 
front of the city was virtually given 
away to the French banking firm 
of Fioche, Bayerque & Co. Public 
sentiment was thoroughly aroused, 
and Mr. Highton threw himself 
heart and soul into the fight. He 
wrote column after column in the 
press, couched in that terse, vigor- 
ous English he knows so well how 
to use, pointing out the effect of 
the passage of the bill, and the 
gigantic steal which its promoters 
were undertaking. At a monster 
mass meeting of citizens, it was Mr. 
Highton who read the resolutions 
condemning the bill and it was his 
voice that made clear the enormity 
of its provisions. Finding his hands 
strengthened by this popular out- 
burst, Governor Downey vetoed the 
measure and this bold attack upon 
the city's most valuable property 
was defeated. So highly were the 
efforts of Mr. Highton in this 
matter appreciated that he was pre- 
sented by the citizens with an elegant 
gold watch. He was uvged also to 
be a candidate for the State Senate, 
but he put aside the political crown 
and devoted himself to his profession. 
He has ever since declined all prof- 
fers of political advancement. In 
the spring of 1878, that arrant dem- 
agogue, Denis Kearney, was thrown 



from the stage, at Piatt's Hall, by 
John Hayes, for seeking to run a 
meeting gotten up in the interests of 
the better class of citizens, denuncia- 
tory of Spring Valley. Hayes was 
arrested for battery, and Mr. High- 
ton defended him. In his argument, 
he maintained that Kearney was, 
himself, the aggressor; that in com- 
ing"'to the meeting, and seeking to 
create a disturbance, ho had virtually 
committed an assault on every order 
loving, peaceable citizen present. 
Ho then directed himself to the agi- 
tator, and so realistic was his denun- 
ciation of him, that at the close of 
one of his periods, after writhing and 
twisting in his chair, he half started 
to his feet. Hayes was acquitted, 
and from that day Kearney's power 
for harm was pas3. 

Mr. Highton was engaged in the 
trial of the Blythe case, being 
attorney for Alice Edith Blythe. Mr. 
Highton is prominent in the Masonic 
Fraternity, being a life member of 
Mount Mforiah Lodge No. 44, F. and 
A. M., California Chapter No. 5 of 
Royal Arch Masons, and California 
Commandery No. 1 of Knights Tem- 
plars. In 1882 he was appointed 
Grand Orator of the Grand Lodge, 
and his oration at the laying of the 
corner stone of the Garfield Monu- 
ment in the Park, and later his ora- 
tion before the Grand Lodge, itself, 
are considered masterpieces. The 
first effort especially attracted atten- 
tion all over the country. Mr. High- 
ton is married but has no children. 
Personally he is one of the most 
genial of men, and ho is especially 
popular with the younger members of 
the Bar. He is a warm friend of the 
public schools, and greatly inter- 
ested in the cause of education. He 
is thoroughly American in his ideas, 
and believes that the greatest happi- 
ness and prosperity that man has 
ever known will fall to his lot within 
the limits of our great republic. 

Mr. Highton's father, Edward 
Rayner Highton, who died in this 
city in April, 1889, at the advanced 



202 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



ago of 79 years, was a man of 
marked ability. la his native 
land he held many positions of 
honor anil trust. Although not 
a lawyer he possessed a fine ana- 
lytical mind, and his counsels to 
his Hon and the care he exer- 
cised over his early education have 
had a marked influence upon his 



career. ' 'I owe more to my father, to 
his ad vice and careful instruction than 
lean estimate," remarked Mr. High- 
ton to the writer. The elder Highton 
has had his name associated during 
his residence here with many sub- 
jects of municipal betterment, and he 
has been an earnest laborer in efforts 
for the reformation of criminals. 





H. FrederickHinz 



A. Frederick Hinz. 



rb Frederick Hinz was born March 
jk , 17, 1843, in Schleswig-Holstein, 
&\* in the northern part of Ger- 
many. His father. John Christian 
Hinz, was a miller by trade, and owned 
his own mill, a picture of which now 
adorns Mr. Hinz's parlor. Young 
Hinz attended school from the age of 
6 to that of 15, as is customary in Ger- 
many. He then left his father's house 
and went as an apprentice in a large 
flour mill in the neighborhood of 
Kiel, about forty miles from home. 
Here he served three years. After 
serving his time there he went through 
another apprenticeship of one year as 
a millwright, in the Kingdom of Sax- 
ony, about 400 miles from Kiel. He 
then went as a journeyman, traveling 
through Southern Germany, Switzer- 
land and France for two years, for the 
purpose of studying the different sys- 
tems of milling, in order to attain a 
thorough knowledge of his trade. 

Then, in connection with his older 
brother, a civil engineer, he built for 
his father a steam mill, into which he 

Eut all the latest improvements which 
e had seen used during his travels. 
At this time a verv large mill lo- 
cated at Neumtihlen, near Kiel, was 
being erected. It was a building nine 
stories in height, having a capacity of 
2G00 barrels of flour per day, and op- 
erated by water and steam power 
combined. This was pronounced, at 
that time, the largest and most expen- 
sive mill in the world. At this mill 
Mr. Hinz worked three years. 

In 1866 he had to serve his " Fath- 
erland " in the capacity of a soldier. 
In the same year he was married. 
After being discharged from service 
he went back and worked another 
year in the old milL Then, starting 



for himself, he bought a mill and 
farm of his own. Shortly after, in the 
year 1870, the war between France 
and Germany broke out, so Mr. Hinz 
was called on again to serve his Father- 
land. He had to leave his mill and 
farm, and wife and children, and 
march to France, where, on the 18th 
day of August, at the battle of Grave- 
lotte, he was wounded three times. 
This made him unfit for active service. 

In the year 1873, after obtaining 
his passports, he, with wife and three 
children, left the "old country" and 
came to America, landing at Castle 
Garden about April 23d, and pro- 
ceeded directly to San Francisco, ar- 
riving in this city May 5th, where ho 
at first found it very hard to get work 
at his trade. But after obtaining a 
start he found no difficulty in secur- 
ing employment to better his condi- 
tion. After working at several places 
he obtained a position with Horace 
Davis in the Golden Gate Mills, where 
he remained five years. 

In the year 1878 he purchased an 
interest in the Yolo Mills, associating 
himself with the firm of Dierck & 
Roseberry. They continued in part- 
nership for a few years, when the firm 
changed to Hinz & Plagemann, Mr. 
Hinz becoming the senior partner. 

Mr. Hinz is strong, well knit and 
well developed, a sturdy, broad 
shouldered representative of the Ger- 
man Fatherland, and a good citizen of 
his adopted country. He is impulsive 
in temperament, but warm hearted 
and a good friend, as impulsive char- 
acters always are. In the prime of 
life, active and enterprising, he has 
vet a long life of usefulness before 
him. 




Henry T. Holmes. 



H. T. Holmes. 



tHE whole world owes a deep deb* 
r of gratitude to the pioneers of 

♦ California. Not only have they 
laid the broad foundations of what 
will be one of the largest, most popu- 
lous, and most successful common- 
wealths on the face of the globe, but 
the results of the discoveries of the 
precious metals effected by them has 
changed forever the history of all 
civilized nations. 

Of these pioneers, Henry Thomas 
Holmes was one. Ho was born 
in Lansingburg, Renssalaer county, 
New York, February 28, 1829. 
His father was Gershom F. Holmes, 
and his mother, still alive at the 
age of 89, was of Knickerbocker 
ancestry. He went to the village 
school till he was fourteen, when he 
obtained employment as clerk in a 
store, and thus was fairly launched on 
the world's troubulous sea, to do and 
dare, as he has done, for the past forty- 
six years. 

He left for California by the 
Cape Horn route in January, 1849, 
on the good ship Tahmaroo. One of 
his compagnon8 de voyage was Hiram 
R. Hawkins, afterwards well known 
in the journalistic world of this and 
its sister State, Nevada. San Fran- 
cisco was reached on July 1st. Young 
Holmes did not tarry in the embryo 
city, but at once started up the Sac- 
ramento on a schooner, paying $16 
for his passage. From Sacramento, 
he and others reached the North Fork 
of the American via ox team. Editor 
Hawkins and others here mined till 
the f ill of '49, taking a winter trip to 
the Hawaiian Islands. 

They returned to the mines and 
opened a store near Missouri Bar. 



They then started the Long Valley 
House near Auburn. The county 
of Placer being constituted, an elec- 
tion was held in which Mr. Holmes 
and Mr. Hawkins took very promi- 
nent parts. It was Auburn against 
the rest of the county. Mr. Holmes 
and his friend called a miners' 
convention, which nominated an oppo- 
sition ticket. In the election wnich 
followed, this ticket won, but fraudu- 
lent votes put in by the Auburnites 
gave the color of title to the offices to 
its candidates. Litigation followed, 
but the matter was finally compro- 
mised Samuel Aston, elected Sheriff 
on the miners' ticket, appointed Mr. 
Holmes as deputy. He held this of- 
fice till his return to visit his friends 
in New York. Going back to Cali- 
fornia in 1852, he declined the same 
position, but took charge of the post- 
office in connection with John R. 
Gwynn. A small store was carried on 
at the same time, from which each of 
the partners made over two hundred 
dollars per month. Mr. Holmes in- 
vested his share in lands and lots in 
the town, and made improvements on 
them. He afterwards became associ- 
ated with Mr. Gwynn in his large 
general store and married his partner's 
daughter, Laura Virginia. His father- 
in-law then sold out the business to 
him. In this business he was after- 
wards assisted by his brother. To 
this brother, in 1857, he gave one-half 
interest in the store. 

While in the post-office he started 
the " Alta California Telegraph Com- 

f>any," and built the first telegraph 
ine in California. Mr. Holmes, Mr. 
I. E. Strong, a telegraph operator and 
builder, and a number of the citizens 



20G 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



of Auburn effected the organization. 
Mr. Gwynn was President, Mr. Holmes 
Secretary, and Mr. Strong, Manager 
and Superintendent. Tho line was 
built to Grass Valley and Nevada by 
Mr. Holmes anil Mr. Gwynn, and a 
good deal of money was mode out of i*„ 
It was extended to Sacramento via Co- 
lumn. Win. Gwynn built the line. 
Another from San Francisco to Sacra- 
mento succeeded — all of which after- 
wards eaiiu: into the possession of the 
Western Union. 

Auburn Wing built entirely of 
wood, the idea occurred to Mr. Holmes 
to start a brick yard between Auburn 
and Millertown. The yard was just 
welt under way when a tire came that 
totally destroyed Auburn. There was 
no such thing ox insurance in the 
country then, and Mr. Holmes lost se- 
verely, but Ids brick yard made up 
for the loss. Ho drew the- plans and 
specifications for the Auburn county 
jail, and built it in connection with a 
firm of contractors. He afterwards 
put Tip several other buildings in tho 
same town. lie now became con- 
nected with the lime business, in which 
be tins ever since remained. He 
started (he Auburn lime kiln supply- 
ing the iifi-ds of a large section of tins 

ad 



ho was unanimously elected one of 
the new trustees, both parties concur- 
ring. Mr. Holmes enjoyed the whole 
of the lime business of tho capital, but 
bis views expanding, ho concluded to 
establish his headquarters in Son 
Francisco. Ho and Mr. Gwynn, then 
established at Marysville, now joined 
forces, and thus the firm of H. T. 
Holmes k Co. was founded. Mr. 
Holmes was to manage the business 
in San Francisco, and Mr. Gwynn at 
Sacramento. 

In May, 1865, Mr. Holmes came 
to this city, and with Mr. Henry 
Webb formed the partnership of 
Webb it Holmes. Mr. Holmes did 
not take to exceed a thousand dol- 
lars to establish the business here. 
After about a year be bought out Mr. 
Webb — Mr. Gwynn becoming inter- 
ested in tho whole business, i or nine- 
teen years, or until IS77, it was car- 
ried on with great success, when Mr. 
Holmes and his wife, being in poor 
health, they concluded to dispose of it 
and take a trip to Europe. In April, 
1S81, the partnership between Mr. 
Holmes and Mr. Gwynn was dissolved, 
Mr. Holmes conceiving the idea of 
forming a stock company in 1880. 
This he did, the company being incor- 
.tcd as the H. T. Holmes Lime 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



207 



fuel had to be found, and expensive 
teaming figured not a little in the 
original outlay. The difficul ties were 
such that not more than one in a 
thousand could have successfully 
overcome them. The capacity of 
the works now controlled bv Mr. 
Holmes is 100,000 barrels annually. 
He was one of the early sub- 
Bcribers to the stock of the Central 
Pacific on its first organization, and 
was always particularly interested in 
its successful progress. The diffi- 
culties to be overcome were great, 
and Mr. Holmes gives some inter- 
esting facts imparted to him by Mr. 
Huntington soon after success had 
begun to dawn on them. The re- 



cital of the almost impossible feat of 
obtaining money in the early days ; 
of Oliver Ames, the great tfew 
England manufacturer coming to 
their aid in giving them credit, etc., 
mako up, as far as we know, a 
hitherto untold chapter in Cali- 
fornia's history. 

Mr. Holmes is a kindly, genial gen- 
tleman, who has done more than his 
share in developing various important 
interests in this State. His work in 
connection with the great levee of the 
Sacramento will never be forgotten. 
His career shows that the Empire 
State has some reason to be proud of 
the achievements of her sons in the 
development of this western world. 



^^^ 




Mark Hopkins. 



Mark Hopkins. 



*<3l S one of the builders of one of 
7 \, the greatest engineering works 
^1 of modern times, the first trans- 
continental railroad, tho namo of 
Mark Hopkins will remain in ever- 
lasting remembrance, and but for the 
sanction that his accurate and criti- 
cal judgment gave to the project as a 
business one, it would not have been 
adventured on when it was and might 
have been left for men of enterprise 
to undertake at this late day. His 
history has a claim not only on tho 
attention of Galifornians and people 
of the present day, but also on that 
of all citizens of this great country, 
and upon that of succeeding genera- 
tions to tho end of time, for it was 
one of the mightiest works conceived 
by the intellect of man and carried 
to a successful conclusion by his la- 
bors. 

He was descended of a long line of 
noteworthy ancestors, who made their 
industry felt in the history of New 
England. His lineago was English 
and Puritan; his ancestry were at- 
tached to the cause of the Lord 
High Protector. The founder of 
tho American family, John Hopkins, 
was a native of Coventry, England. 
Ho came to America in 1634, and 
was made a Freeman of Cambridge, 
Mass. One of his descendants was 
Dr. Samuel Hopkins, the eminent 
divine. 

Mark Hopkins was born at Hen- 
derson, N. x., September 1, 1813. 
His mother belonged to the Kellogg 
family, a distinguished one in the 
history of New England. Mr. Hop- 
kins was educated in the public 
schools at Henderson, and later in 
those of Michigan, where, on the St. 
Clair Biver, his father had moved in 
1825. Three years later, when only 



15 years old, his father died, and 
young Hopkins, at this early age, was 
obliged to begin the battle of life. 
He became junior clerk with Hay- 
wood & Bawson, Beynolds Basin, 
Niagara County, New York. In two 

J ears' time the firm dissolved, but 
[r. Bawson took Mark with him, and 
removing to Lockport, N. Y., car- 
ried on the same business. Not 
more than a few years elapsed when 
Mr. Hopkins went into business him- 
self, forming a partnership under the 
firm name of Hopkins & Hughes. 
After a fairly successful career of 
two years the firm dissolved, and Mr. 
Hopkins commenced the study of law 
at the office of his brother Henry, in 
the same city. His legal studies oc- 
cupied the period from 1837 to 1839. 
They were close and conscientious, 
and his brother made him undergo 
a severe and exact training, to which 
is attributed much of his subsequent 
success in life. While in Lockport 
he became interested in military af- 
fairs, and was a Major and Brigade 
Inspector in tho State Militia. 

Becoming acquainted with the in- 
ventor of an improved plow, he trav- 
eled for two years through New York 
and Ohio engaged in its sale. At tho 
end of this time, having made a con- 
siderable sum of money, he went to 
New York and became clerk in the 
house of James Bowlaud & Co. Here 
his services were deemed so valuable 
that Mr. Bowland, who had pur- 
chased the interest of his partner, 
placed the entire control of the busi- 
ness in Mr. Hopkins' hands. At this 
time the news of the discovery of 
gold in California reached the Em- 
pire City, and set the minds of all 
her young and enterprising men 
ablaze with excitement and eagerness 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



to seek their fortune in the golden 
lauds. With enthusiasm duly tem- 
pered by his cool, critical judgment, 
Mr. Hopkins determined that hence- 
forth he would caBt in his lortunes 
with those of the brave band of Ar- 
gonauts who sought Pacific shores in 
quest of adventure and gold . At this 
time he was 35 years old, physically 
perfect, with an unimpaired constitu- 
tion, while there was no mental or 
physical labor from which he would 
shrink. The prospect of toil or bard- 
ship had therefore for him no con- 
cern. The linger of Fortune beck- 
oued him on. Closing his business 
relations with Mr. Rowland, he took 
pissage for San Francisco on the 
''Pacific," via Cape Horn, January 
2-2, 1849. After a voyage nf nearly 
four months, anil an eventful one at 
that, the vo-sel arrived safely at S:in 
Francisco. On tho miy, the captain, 
who abused the crew anil imposed on 
tho passengers, came near ciusiug a 
mutiny. This was prevented by tho 
judicious counsel of Mr. Hopkins, 
by whose advice a committee wa« ap- 
pointed to wait on the American Con- 
sul at Rio do Janeiro, where Captain 
Tibbitts was removed. 

Tho date of arrival in San Fran- 
cisco was October 5. l*l!>. With rive 
; Mr. H 



ed. Being oat of debt, they were en- 
abled to build another store and par- 
chose n new stock of merchandise. 

Iu 1854 Mr. Hopkins sold oat to 
Mr. Miller, and returning to New 
York wa-i married to Miss Mary 
Frances Sherwood, an estimable and 
cultivated lady. Next year he went 
into partnership with C. P. Hunt- 
ington at 54 K street, Sacramento. 
They carried on the iron and hard- 
ware business, and as they worked 
out rely on a cash basis, they soon 
became wealthy, doing a more ex- 
tensive trado nt that time in their 
line than any other house in Califor- 
nia. 

While Mr. Hopkins never held 
or aspired to any public office, he 
took a deep interest in everything re- 
lating to public affairs, and during 
one particulur year consented to be 
made a city counselor. Here he did 
much to inaugurate reform and re- 
duce public expenses. He had been 
long and earnestly a freesoiler nod 
was one of tho founders of the Re- 
publican party in California. At 
this early date the party was small 
in numbers, so that the leaders found 
ample room fur their deliberations, 
at the headqu liters of the firm. 
Here was supplied the first money to 
start and support the first Rcpnbli- 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



211 



baying made a survey, appealed to 
the wealthy men of San Francisco 
and Sacramento for assistance, bat 
they turned a deaf ear to his repre- 
sentations. He was subsequently in- 
troduced to the four friends, and after 
a memorable discussion, which lasted 
till midnight, the building of a great 
road that should unite the Atlantic 
and the Pacific was resolved upon, 
but this was not done till after the 
project was submitted to the judg- 
ment of Mr. Hopkins, and he had 
satisfied himself that as a business 
enterprise it would probably be suc- 
cessful. But difficult times were in 
store for the railroad builders. The 
project was ridiculed and opposed by 
all whom weight, influence or wealth 
rendered prominent in the commun- 
ity. It became known as the " Dutch 
Flat Swindle.' ' Neither San Fran- 
cisco nor Sacramento would give aid 
in connection with the undertaking. 
Seven men ventured their fortunes 
and their capital in its success or 
failure. Of these, however, there 
were soon left only four, whose names 
in this connection became historic. 
Mr. Hopkins is one. 

The building of this road is a part 
of the history of the time. Mr. Hop- 
kins' share consisted largely in the 
purchase of material and in the 
financial management of the railroad 
affairs on this side of the continent. 
He did his full share of the work in 
building, sustaining and extending 
the vast system of roads on the Pa- 
cific. The result, personally to him 



as to his associates, was the founda- 
tion of a vast fortune. 

But the strain of the work at length 
told upon him. During the latter 
years of his life he suffered much 
from sciatica and frequent attacks of 
rheumatism. These became worse, 
and he was advised to seek a warmer 
climate. With this object in view, 
he left for Fort Yuma on the 28th of 
March, 1S78. A crisis occurred, and 
he passed away forever. All of him 
that was mortal lies entombed in a 
costly mausoleum at Sacramento, a 
tribute of love and affection from his 
beloved wife. It is massively and 
solidly constructed of finely polished 
red and black granite, and will long 
be a monument to one of California's 
most noted men. 

Mr. Hopkins left no children, but 
an adopted son, Timothy Hopkins, 
who resides in this citv. His brother, 
Moses Hopkins, has been left the 
management of a great portion of his 
vast estate, and he has performed his 
duties wisely and well. Mr. Hopkins 
was moral and upright, a good citi- 
zen, a warm friend, a devoted hus- 
band and an honest man. He was 
genial and sympathetic, quick to dis- 
cern the solution of a problem and to 
resolve on the proper course to be 
adopted in an emergency. His wise 
and judicious counsels and his sober 
judgment were indispensable to suc- 
cess in the building of a great trans- 
continental road. His name will ever 
hold an honored place in the story of 
California. 




H. P. HOTHLING. 



Anson Parsons Hotaling. 



40NSP1CU0US among those who 
led the advance of American civi- 
lization into California, and who 
have subsequently aided in building up 
to its present noble proportions the yet 
young city of San Francisco, we find 
the name of Anson Parsons Hotaling. 
He claims the State of New York for 
his birthplace. His ancestors came to 
America from Holland shortly after 
the discovery of Manhattan Island by 
the famous navigator, Hendrik Hud- 
son, who gave his name to the ma- 
jestic river, on the banks of which, at 
New Baltimore, Greene county, the 
subject of this sketch first saw the 
light in the year 1827. Mr. Hotaling 
is, therefore, of the old Knickerbocker 
stock on the paternal side, while, 
from the maternal, English Mood also 
flows in his veins — a very good com- 
position for a typical American. Sev- 
eral years ago he erected over the 
burial-place of his parents, on the 
farm where he was born, a stately 
mausoleum, over which guardianship 
is kept by a specially appointed 
guardian. It stands sacred to the 
memory of those whom he loved and 
respected while they were in life, and 
who are always remembered with 
feelings of tender regret. 

Like all of the race, whose special 
mission seems to bo that of peopling 
new countries and spreading civiliza- 
tion, commerce and the arts of peace, 
Mr. Hotaling engaged in the battle of 
life at an early age, and undertook 
various enterprises with more or less 
success, grasping the phantom For- 
tune with wnat seemed a firm hand, 
only to find that it eluded him, not- 
withstanding all his youthful energy 
and apparently careful calculations. 

His earlier experiences were, how- 



ever, valuable, inasmuch as they 
formed the lessons which have en- 
abled him, in maturer years and 
with calmer judgment, to realize in 
the most substantial manner those 
dreams of financial greatness which 
inspired his efforts at the outset of 
life s career. He was building better 
than he knew. 

Whether on the farm or in the coun- 
try store, occupations in which some 
portions of his boyhood and earlier 
manhood were spent, he was being 
equipped with a practical knowledge 
of life and its duties, which has been 
of so much service to him in his pres- 
ent sphere of action. He has thereby 
been enabled to avoid the shoals and 
quicksands of a California commer- 
cial career, where many not so well 
trained at the outset and with less 
early experience, have made ship- 
wreck of life and fortune. 

At about the age of 25 Mr. Hotal- 
ing concluded he would try his for- 
tune in the New El Dorado, to which 
the eyes of the whole world were 
then turned, and the fame of which 
was on every tongue. He sailed for the 
Pacific Coast from New York in the 
ship "Racehound," in the year 1852, 
and, en route, as was the case with all 
vessels making the long and tedious 
trip around the Horn in those days, 
the ship put into South American 
ports to recruit the voyage- worn pas- 
sengers and obtain provisions. Ho 
confesses the phases of life seen in 
these cities and towns made a favor- 
able impression on him at first. Com- 
pared to the struggle going on in the 
old States of the Union for a name 
and a place in the world's affairs, ex- 
istence here was one of tranquil de- 
light. But the impression soon faded, 



214 



BUILDERS OF A GliEAT CITY. 



and he dismissed at once a desire, only 
faintly entertained at best, to make 
his home in the lands that lie under 
the Southern Cross. He was made of 
sterner stuff. Destiny bade him go 
forward, and he obeyed the mandate. 
Mr. Hot&ling arrived at San Fran- 
cisco in July, 1852, and like all the 
rest of the gold-seekers, put out for 
the mines. His experiences there 
were disappointing, and so ho re- 
solved to quit the Pactolian streams 
and auriferous sands, which keep the 
promise to the eye of the treasure 
searcher but nearly always break it 
to the hope, for a business career at 
the bay. He, therefore, returned to 
the city, and in the year 1853 began 
a wine and spirit business at the 
northeast corner of Sansome and Jack- 
son streets. Commencing in a limited 
way at first, Mr. Hotaling's operations 
soon expanded, and in 1866 he was 
compelled to move to larger and more 
extensive premises at the corner of 
Jackson and Jones street, where his 
vast establishment is at present. Al- 
though at the outset ho conducted 
business in partnership with two dif- 
ferent individuals, for many years 
past he has managed his affairs with- 
out a colleague, and the name"Hotal- 
ing" has l^conm a synonym th rough - 



Amoor and winter trips to the islands 
of the southern archipelago. Later, 
about the year 1877, he extended his 
operations to the Australian Colonies, 
and is at the present time in trade re- 
lations with that important part of 
the world. These promise to become 
much more extensive, when, for the 
encouragement of foreign commerce, 
Congress shall have regulated on a 
better basis the export laws of the 
United States. 

The vast wealth accumulated by 
Mr. Hotaling from his various busi- 
ness enterprises has also enabled him 
to engage in many operations nearer 
home, all of which tend to tho devel- 
opment and building up of the coun- 
try. He is an extensive realty owner, 
not only in San Francisco, but in all 
the principal counties in the State, es- 
pecially in Marin. In the chief town 
of this county, San Rafael, he has es- 
tablished a large banking institution, 
which may be said to control the 
financial affairs of that section. In 
San Francisco he has erected many 
buildings calculated to ornament and 
benefit the city. A magnificent pa- 
vilion on the littoral of the Pacific 
Ocean, just beyond the western limit 
of Golden Gate Park, is one of these 
edifices. Hither come, during the 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



215 



While not exactly in the van of those 
who opened the auriferous treasury of 
California, he was certainly the first 
to bring to light in a practical way 
the more useful metal hidden beneath 
the surface of the earth. This was in 
Placer county, where a village bear- 
ing the name "Hotaling" grew up 
around the iron works. In company 
with a few other gentlemen — he be- 
ing the heart and soul of the enter- 
prise — a large tract of woodland and 
of land yielding iron ore was pur- 
chased in this section, and smelting 
furnaces erected, which turned out 
tons and tons of pig iron of very su- 
perior quality. Operations were con- 
ducted for some time on an extensive 
scale. The rapid fluctuations in the 
price of the metal have limited the 
yield of the furnaces for some time 
past; but the enterprise will no doubt 
broaden, with demand, in the near fu- 
ture, to the ample proportions it was 
originally intended to assume. 

Mr. Hotaling has also invested 
largely in quicksilver mining, first in 
the vicinity of the well-known Gey- 
ser Springs in Sonoma county, and 
second, as a large shareholder in the 
Sulphur Bank Quicksilver Mining 
Company in Clear Lake county, an 
enterprise that promises to be a most 
profitable one. 

Mr. Hotaling is fond of travel and 
has made himself acquainted with all 
parts of the Pacific Coast from San 
Diego to Alaska, and no natural feat- 
ure, no promise that the country trav- 
ersed gives for future development, 
has escaped his acute observation. As 
he has a faculty of communicating 
with case, and graphically, the result 
of these observations, a talk with him 
is time spent very pleasantly. Re- 
cently, accompanied by his eldest son, 
Anson Parsons Hotaling, Jr., who has 
recently assumed the management of 
his father's business in this city, he ex- 



tended his travels to the Old World, 
and visited many parts of interest, 
historical, artistic and other, besides 
making himself familiar with the 
commercial methods of our cousins 
across the water. His already am- 

[)le stock of information has been 
argely increased by this European 
tour. 

Mr. Hotaling is conservative in pol- 
itics, without being an active parti- 
san. He is blessed in his family. His 
wife, an accomplished lady, has been, 
in truth, as Solomon describes a virtu- 
ous woman, "a crown unto her hus- 
band." She dispenses the hospitalities 
of their stately residence, at the corner 
of Franklin and California streets, to 
visiting friends in an easy and grace- 
ful way. To the poor she has always 
an open hand, and for her many ben- 
efactions — as the almoner of her hus- 
band—to organized charities, as well 
as to destitute but deserving individ- 
uals, the needy " rise up and call her 
blessed." The three surviving sons 
(Anson P., Richard M., and Frederick 
0.) of the Hotaling household have all 
reached man's estate, and two have 
already entered on careers of useful- 
ness. One son, George, a ripe scholar, 
was snatched away by deatn about a 
year ago, just as ho had attained his 
majority. It was a sore bereavement 
to his parents ; but the sorrow is borne 
with resignation. They felt it useless 
to repine; there is no exemption from 
the common lot. 

Mr. Hotaling is a good father, as 
well as an eminent citizen. The world 
is better for his being in it, as it is for 
the presence of every man who has 
reared a family of worthy children, 
and who makes judicious use of the 
wealth at his disposal He is entitled 
to a front place in the rank of those 
who build great cities— energy, enter- 
prise and commercial integrity being 
the chief means employed. 




John L. Howard. 



John L. Howard. 



£)f»HE coal and transportation busi- 
4|K ness of this city, without doubt, 

^jr forms one of the most impor- 
tant sections of its commerce and 
industry. The first mentioned alone 
equals in value in this market 
not less than ten million dollars 
annually. As to our transporta- 
tion interests they are inferior to 
none, and are capable of indefi- 
nite expansion. Manifestly those en- 
trusted with their guidance must be 
men of more than ordinary mark and 
business acumen. Amongst these 
JohnL. Howard takes, by no means, 
an inconspicuous rank. This gen- 
tleman was born in Philadelphia on 
September 14, 1849. He did not 
come into this world, as it is said, 
with a silver spoon in his moulh, 
but from the very beginning had to 
battle his way through life, having 
little else to start with beyond hon- 
esty, pluck, and a natural aptitude 
for business. He received his edu- 
cation in the public schools of his 
native city, and at the early age of 
fifteen entered the service of the 
Philadelphia and Beading Bailroad 
Company, as errand boy on one of 
the numerous coal wharves belong- 
ing to that corporation. The posi- 
tion could hardly have been a hum- 
bler one, but he was determined to 
rise, and constant assiduity and un- 
remitting attention to the smallest 
details of all he was entrusted with 
prepared the way for promotion. 
He was without business friends, 
excepting as he made them, and at 
this early age became convinced, 
that untiring energy and patient 
merit eventually obtain their reward* 
This has been exemplified in no in- 
stance more than in bis own experi- 
ence. He did not remain an errand 



boy, but rose rapidly in the Beading 
Company's service, and in 1875 found 
himself appointed to the control of the 
business, to which as a boy he sought 
an entrance eleven years before. 

Previous to reaching this goal he 
passed through all the intermediate 
steps, but beyond this there was no 
special incident worthy of recording 
at this period of his life. While in 
this official position his industry and 
the results accomplished in connec- 
tion with the Coastwwise Line of 
Steamships attracted tho attention 
of capitalists having transportation 
interests on the Atlantic seaboard. 
He became known as an able 
and efficient manager, and, we may 
add, as a successful one. At this 
time Henry Villard had attained 
the position, not only of one of 
the leading railroad men of the 
Northwest, but of the United States, 
and he brought to his aid an effi- 
cient body of co-workers. The 
success that had attended the labors 
of Mr. Howard attracted his atten- 
tion, and in 1881 this gentleman 
accepted a flattering business offer, 
made by the great railroad magnate, 
to come to this coast, and as Assist- 
ant Manager of the Oregon Improve- 
ment Company to assume charge of 
the coal interests of the corporation. 
There were then no modern facilities 
for the proper and economical ship- 
ment, discharge and storage of coal 
at Pacific Coast ports, and appar- 
ently no one capable of supplying the 
need that had oeen for a long time 
felt, and had formed such an obsta- 
cle to the proper development of the 
Pacific Coast coal trade. For his 
company, Mr. Howard created these 
indispensable facilities at the vari- 
ous points where they were wanted, 



218 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY.- 



and with the Seattle coal business, as 
a nucleus, he entered the coal trade, 
which he has pushed with such en- 
ergy as to matte the volume of coal 
tonnage handled by the Oregon Im- 
provement Company the largest of 
any that has ever been known on this 
coast. It may be easily believed 
that such a work required no ordi- 
nary abilities — executive and other- 
wise — to bring about its success- 
ful accomplishment. Mr. Howard, 
as a further step on the ladder of 
promotion, was made manager of 
the Oregon Improvement Company 
in 1887, and has since discharged 
the duties of his position with con- 
summate ability and with great cor- 
responding success. Besides this he 
holds the official position of Presi- 
dent of the Seattle Coal and Trans- 
Sortation Company, of the Franklin 
oal Company, as well as of the 
Sacramento Coal Company. He is 
Vice-President of the Pacific Coast 
Steamship Company and of the 
Pacific Coast Railroad Company, 
President of the West Coast Land 
Company, and manager of other 
successful land enterprises. Besides 
this he is a Director of the Alameda 
Sugar Company, and several other 
commercial and industrial corpora- 
tions. It may thus be seen that 



iness life. A promise ought not to 
be made unless there is both the 
ability and purpose to perform, and 
if made, should be kept inviolate. 
This rule has invariably regalated 
every transaction of his life. Thus 
he acquired the confidence of those 
with whom he has come into contact 
in our business community, and 
thus also he has preserved it. 
Years of experience have enabled 
him to make such a thorough study 
of his business that he can at once 
grasp situations as they arise, quick- 
ly perceive his interests, and prompt- 
ly decide upon a definite course 
of action. Under such circum- 
stances only can success be the in- 
variable concomitant of business en- 
terprise. Had we more of such en- 
terprise, with the same sound basis 
for it, San Francisco's story would 
be different, and our standing in the 
industrial scale much more promi- 
nent than it really is. Mr. Howard 
was married in September, 1877, 
while still a resident of the Quaker 
City, and after a happv wedded life 
of twelve years had the misfortune 
to lose an estimable wife — she dying 
last year. His present family con- 
sists of one daughter and three sons 
— ranging in age from four to eleven 
ears. Modest, unassuming and 





Frank R. Huntington. 



Frank A. Huntington. 



j^RANK A. HUNTINGTON, one 

Jlr of our early inventors as well as 
^rl one of our representative man- 
ufacturers of to-day, was born in At- 
kinson, Me., in 1836. His birth place 
was in one of the great forest regions 
of the border State of the north- 
east, and his earliest associations all 
breathe of woods and woodsmen. He 
was brought up in the midst of a 
race, hardy both mentally and physi- 
cally and in the course of a somewhat 
checkered career he has displayed all 
the sterling qualities that character- 
ize some of the noblest of New En- 
gland's sons. His people were inter- 
ested in the lumber trade as were 
necessarily all of importance in these 
days, though now the glory of Maine 
in this respect has well nigh departed 
and has been transferred to the more 
genial clime and more fortunate cir- 
cumstances found on the shores of the 
Pacific His father owned a sawmill 
and a shingle mill so that his later 
life was but a development of the les- 
sons learned in his youth. When he 
arrived at man's estate he must needs 
seek far distant California whose 
fame was then ringing throughout 
the earth, and at the ago of twenty- 
one wo find him here. In 1858 he 
took charge of a lumber mill in Mon- 
terey County and later of a shingle 
mill in San Mateo County. While 
here the inadequacy of the machinery 
then in use gave him the idea of an 
improved shingle machine, but it was 
not till later that he practically 
tested his ideas. He tried mining for 
a while and with varying success. He 
went to Humboldt, Nev. v early in 
the days of the mining excitement 
and was interested in several mines, 
but fate destined him for a different 



sphere. After years of adventure in 
Arizona and elsewhere and not suc- 
ceeding as well as ho wished, gave up 
mining and returned to San Fran- 
cisco. Here he commenced to make 
good use of his inventive faculty and 
in 1865 began to manufacture saw- 
mill machinery, introducing a num- 
ber of improvements which his early 
training and later experience showed 
him to be needed. He was at first 
located in the Pacific Saw Company's 
Building, where he remained threo or 
four years or until 1870. From time 
to time he removed his headquarters 
to the Kittredge Building and to the 
Vulcan Iron Works, until at last we 
find him located at 213 to219 First 
street. During all these years he has 
been incessantly experimenting and 
giving to the world various inventions 
of practical value. His mining ex- 
perience gave him the idea of a roller 
quartz mill and of improved ore 
crushers and concentrators as well as 
many other much needed improve- 
ments in the older descriptions of 
mining machinery. It is inventions 
like his that has made San Francisco 
the center of the manufacture of min- 
ing machinery for the whole of the 
United States. Besides being a prac- 
tical inventor he is also a manufac- 
turer of his special machinery. He 
is now experimenting on what may 
turn out to be a most important in- 
vention. Ho belongs to the Manu- 
facturers' Association, was one of the 
earliest members of the Mechanics' 
Institute, and is a member of Keystone 
Lodge, Knights of Honor. Essentially 
afamily man, he spends his leisure in 
the society of his wife and daughter 
at his charming home on Webster and 
Durant streets, Oakland, where he 



220 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



owns a fine property. Jovial, good 
tempered, kind, always brimming 
over with New England wit, he u a 
pleasant companion and earns the 
good will and regard of all with 
whom he comes m contact Tall, 
broad-shouldered and athletic, he is a 



good representative of the sturdy 
Maine backwoodsmen who have given 
bo many men of eminence to all walks 
of life. His inventive genius is 
typical of what the manufacturer 
should in these days, and particularly 
in California, ever p 





George Hyde. 



njl&HEN the discovery of gold in 
IfUff Calif ornia was heralded abroad 
'* * throughout the world, people 
flocked hither from all nations, and 
rushed to the mines. George Hyde 
was here in San Francisco before the 
gold fever broke out ; was living here 
when the wonderful discovery was an- 
nounced, and yet, strange to relate, 
he did not even visit the diggings. 
Naturally we are led to ask, What 
manner of man is this, who failed to 
follow in the track of the multitude, 
or participate in its enthusiasm and 
excitement ? The story of his life, 
while it is Void of adventurous excite- 
ment, is yet interesting, both in its 
early and intimate connection with 
the history of California and as an ex- 
ample of an even-tempered, self-reli- 
ant man. 

Mr. Hyde was a Pennsylvanian, hav- 
ing been born in the city of Philadel- 
phia, on the 22d of August, 1819. He 
wasof Scotch-English extraction on his 
father's side. His grandfather married 
a nieceof Commodore John Barry, the 
famous "Fighting John Barry," of 
Revolutionary days. His mother was 
a Miss Butcher of New Jersey, who 
was a member of an English family 
who settled in New England in early 
Colonial timea Mr. Hyde began his 
education in Philadelphia, but his 
father dying while he was still young, 
and his mother remarrying, he was 
sent, with his brother, to college at 
Mount St Mary's, Emmettsburg. 

Financial reverses, sustained by his 
guardian, made it necessary that he 
should decide upon some business or 
profession by which to make his own 
way in life. He decided upon the le- 
gal profession, and began the study 
of law, passing, after the usual 



course, so creditable an examin- 
ation that, but for the rule making 
the practice of the law for two years 
first necessary, he would have been at 
once admitted in the United States 
District Court. He received the com- 
pliments of the Board of Examiners, 
as well as of his preceptor, William 
L. Hirst, a famous Philadelphia law- 

}rer of forty years' standing, on his 
egal acquirements. Immediately 
after his examination ho began the 
practice of his profession in his native 
city, continuing in it until 1845. When 
prospects of war with Mexico became 
imminent, he was tendered a position 
as clerk to Commodore Stockton, on 
the frigate "Congress," which he ac- 
cepted, and at once repaired to Nor- 
falk, Virginia, where he joined his 
ship, which set sail on the 21)th of Oc- 
tober, 1845, and on the 14th day of 
July, 1846, cast anchor in Monterey 
Bay, after a [ voyage pleasant as a 
whole, and during which they touched 
at the Sandwich Islands. The frigate's 
arrival at Monterey was just a week 
after the hoisting of the flag declar- 
ing California American territory. 

Mr. Hyde left the "Congress" on the 
29th of July, and traveled overland to 
San Francisco, then Yerba Buena, ar- 
riving here on the 10th of August, 
1846, and, notwithstanding the fact 
that there were at that time not more 
than forty houses, or thereabouts, and 
those not of the most architectural de- 
scription, with but few settlers, prin- 
cipally Mormons, under Sam Brannan, 
then recently arrived, July 31, 1846, 
occupying the site of our present great 
city, he considered that, with Ameri- 
can rule, the prospects for increase 
were good, ana settled down to the 
practice of his profession, t»hu& qys&» 



222 



BUILDEKS OF A GREAT CITY. 



ins the pioneer American law office of 
California, which was then under the 
rule of a military governor, and the 
old Mexican laws were followed aa 
nearly as possible. Washington A 
Bartlctt, who was at that time a lieu- 
tenant on the "Portsmouth," was the 
first Alcalde, and entered upon tho 
duties of his office in 1846. Mr. Hyde 
practiced in his court, and those of 
the surrounding country. 

On the 1st of June, 1847, General 
Kearney appointed Mr. Hyde Alcalde, 
and he held the position up to April 
], 1848. At the time of his appoint- 
ment lie was absent from the city, and 
only hoard of it on his return. Mr. 
Leavenworth's appointment to tho 
office as second Alcalde followed in 
December, 1847. On tho declara- 
tion of peace with Mexico, Gen- 
eral Riley authorized an election for 
Alcalde, etc. A convention was 
called, and steps were taken to 
further tho admission of the Territory 
as a State of the Union. In 1849 
John W. Geary succeeded to the 
office, ami Mr. Hyde practiced in his 
court up to 1831. The gold excite- 
ment had failed to disturb the equa- 
nimity of his life, or the promises of 
speedily acquired wealth, to luro him 
from tho field of his professional la- 



description. His extensive knowl- 
edge in this respect caused him to be 
constantly called upon as a witness, 
his testimony invariably carrying the 
greatest weight. So much was his 
time taken up in this manner that it 
caused him to retire from practice. 
Naturally a man placed in his position 
could not fail to make many enemies, 
and at that early day to even put his 
life in danger. In this connection it 
is a satisfaction to chronicle the fact 
that Mr. Hyde's testimony was- never 
impeached, nor was he ever accused 
of acting otherwise than honorably 
and disinterestedly. 

Of early lifo in California no man 
now living possessed a mora vivid rec- 
ollection or a wider knowledge. In 
the scenes of strife and adventure 
which characterized thoso times, he 
was a looker-on, rather than a partici- 
pant ; but ho was a keen observer, 
and his acquaintance with incident, 
both in and out of tho courts, would, 
if put in book form, make a most 
readable and interesting volume. 

In 1852 ho made a visit to tho East 
For many years now past he had re- 
tired from the active practice of his 
profession, portly on account of deli- 
cate health, and for the samo cause ho 
had not interested himself in enter- 





J. P. JMK30N 



Col. J. P Jackson. 



^tfOLONEL J. P. JACKSON is a 
mm j man with very many sides to 
^i his character. There is noth- 
ing conventional or monotonous in 
his make-up. His diversity of talent 
has enabled him to fill divers roles 
in tho career of a. busy life, and all 
them with successful . results and of 
credit to himself and the causes he 
espoused. 

As lawyer, orator, soldier, railroad 
builder, journalist, man of affairs 
and public official, bo has imprinted 
the marks of distinctive. ability upon 
every project in which he has es- 
sayed. 

He first saw the light of day in 
the city of Cleveland, O., and his 
early life was fettered by thosd 

M Twin jailors of tho daring heart— 
Untitled birth and iron fortune." 

The foundation of his education 
was laid in the public schools of 
Cleveland, including the High School 
of that city, and so apt a scholar 
did he prove himself, that at tho 
ago of 12 he passed the necessary 
examination before three Trustees, 
entitling him to teach school. Dur- 
ing tho famine in Ireland he, with 
his school-mates, published a dimin- 
utive newspaper called The Scliool 
Boy, of whicn he was the editor, 
and thus raised money to aid in 
loading a schooner with supplies for 
the relief of the starving Irish. This 
was his earliest essay at journalism, 
which in later life he amplified, for 
a short period, with the Ohio State 
Journal, and more lately in the pub- 
lication and editorship of the Post, 
Exchange and Wasp in this city. 

Betaking himself from school to a 
farm, he experienced all the hard- 
ships of pioneer farming incident to 
the settlement of the Great North- 



west. Although of slight frame he 
was always characterized by great 
nervous energy, and at the age of 13 
he cut down forest trees in midwin- 
ter, chopped them into cord-wood 
and teamed it seven miles to market. 
In Summer he followed the mower 
(then a scythe-wielder), and "raked 
and bound," subsequently feeding 
the threshing-machine, thus doing 
the work of a full hand. 

At about the age of 16 he removed 
to Cincinnati, O., where he pursued 
his studies in tho higher branches of 
mathematics, and the French and 
Latin languages. He graduated at 
the Central High Scbool when barely 
19. Just at this time thn great Hun- 
garian leader, Louis Kossuth, was 
arousing the sympathy of this coun- 
try by his impassioned appeals in 
favor of his oppressed countrymen; 
and the young men of Cincinnati, 
yielding to tho general impulse, col- 
lected a considerable purse of monoy 
to aid the eloquent exile in his patri- 
otic purpose. They selected young 
Jackson to represent them and 
to present the money. An immense 
crowd gathered to witness the cere- 
mony, and tho young orator was 
cheered from tbo beginning to the 
end of his original address. Tho 
leading critics of tho day wrote con- 
cerning his effort that " of all tho 
speeches delivered to the fiery Kos- 
suth, this one was the most sensible 
and about the best delivered." 

Perhaps this incident was the 
turning-point that decided his future 
career. Among his auditors at the 
presentation to Kossuth was Hon. 
Bellamy Storer, one of the leading 
scholars and lawyers of Ohio. He 
was so favorably impressed with the 
young speaker, that he at once in- 



£24 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY 



Bisled upon taking him into Lib office 
and having him study lav. There 
were at that date no law schools, at 
least not in the West, and the pro- 
fession was acquired — if more slowly, 
certainly more solidly — by the pre- 
ceptor making regular examinations 
of the student in the lessons given 
him from Blackstone, Kent, Chitty 
and Greenleaf . 

Here it was that Colonel Jack- 
son met Benjamin Harrison, the 
present President of the United 
States, who was also a protege 
of Judge Stoker. For two years 
these young men sat together 
in the same office, studied and 
were examined in the same lessons, 
and passed across the threshold into 
man's career at the same time. 

Upon their admission to the 
Bar, Benjamin Harrison betook 
himself to Indiana, there to 
inherit the prestige of his grand 
sire' s fame — knowing that the 
blood of the Presidency was in his 
veins — while Jackson "hung out his 
shingle " for the practice of law in 
Cincinnati. 

From tlio commencement bis suc- 
cess was assured. His preceptors at 
once made him an offer of a salary 
to attend to their business. This he 



George Hoadley — the latter of whom 
was for many years bis partner, 

One portion of his practice that 
was peculiar to himself was that 
before courts - martial and military 
commissions, in the proceedings of 
which he was well versed. Among 
noted cases of this class which he 
prosecuted successfully was that of 
the "Chicago conspirators," who 
were tried for their attempt to re- 
lease the Confederate prisoners con- 
fined at Camp Douglass during the 
war. 

Throughout bis whole career, 
whatever may have been his regular 
colling, Colonel Jackson has always 
been a public speaker on the various 
occasions when first-class oratory has 
been sought. He had been admitted 
to the bar in Cincinnati but two 
years when he was recalled to Cleve- 
land to pronounce the oration at the 
laying of the corner-stone of the 
new High School in that city, which 
he did in a polished address, which 
the authorities published. Being a 
candidate for election on the Lincoln 
and Johnson ticket, he "stumped" 
the States of Kentucky, Southern 
Ohio and Indiana ; in the former 
State meeting in debate many of the 
ablest Democrats of that Common- 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



225 



of whom were relatives of the dead 
warriors. In the large volume that 
was published by the Goverment 
containing the selected gems of ora- 
tory on this occasion, none exhibit 
more intense nationalism, graceful 
rhetoric, fervent sympathy or classic 
illustration than that pronounced by 
the subject of this sketch. 

His speeches in California have 
confirmed his Eastern reputation as 
an eloquent orator, and his efforts in 
the Republican cause have been pub- 
lished as campaign documents. His 
addresses, however, have in no wise 
been confined to politics, but embrace 
every subject of public interest. 
Among other occasions when he has 
appeared as a public orator were the 
Fourth of July, 1872, at Vallejo ; 
Decoration Day, 1878, at San Fran- 
cisco ; the reception of President 
Hayes, in whose company were Gen- 
eral Sherman and Secretary of War 
Ramsey, and to whom he pronounced 
the welcoming address on behalf of 
the citizens of San Francisco ; the 

Sresentation of a diamond, tiara to 
lara Louise Kellogg as American 
Queen of Song, at the Baldwin 
Theater in the presence of all of 
San Francisco's assembled wealth, 
fashion and culture ; the press ban- 
quent to John Russell Young, at 
which he presided, and where his 
speech was characterized by the press 
next day as " a model of post pran- 
dial fellcitv,' , and at the reception to 
General Grant by the authorities of 
San Jose, where the great soldier, 
instead of himself replying to the 
toast in his honor, called upon his 
"friend Colonel Jackson who has 
never yet refused to do me a kind- 
ness, as he said, to respond in his 
stead. And when the hitherto un- 
conquered Chieftain laid down both 
sword and pen at the call of irresisti- 
ble death, and the Republic through- 
out its limits put its beat talent under 
tribute to express a nation's grief, 
Colonel Jackson was one of the chief 
mourners, and both by speech and 
pen paid to the memory of his once 



commander and always friend, the 
most fervent obituaries that the occa- 
sion produced. 

At many public gatherings and in 
times of great excitement, the much- 
vexed Chinese question and labor's 
agitations have received rational in- 
terpretation at his hands, as he 
"never loses his head," no matter 
what may bo the surroundings. 

In the year 1862 ho served with 
the Army of the Cumberland, under 
Rosecrans and Buell, and from Pitts- 
burg Landing to Corinth on detach- 
ed service, under Grant and Halleck. 

In 1867, ho went to Europe to ne- 
gotiate the bonds of the California 
Pacific Railroad Company, and this 
service resulted in his moving to the 
Golden State, where he aided in 
building the road named, and re- 
mained its President until it was 
bought by the Central Pacific Com- 
pany. While at the head of his 
road he concluded negotiations with 
the late Colonel Peter Donahue by 
which the Donahue road was made a 
part of the California Pacific sys- 
tem, by the payment to the form- 
er of the sum of $750,000. Colonel 
Jackson thereupon became Presi- 
dent of the San Francisco and North 
Pacific Railroad Compapy, and held 
that position likewise until that 
road passed to tho "Central." After 
that Colonel Donahue bought his 
road again, paying about $1,000,000 
therefor. 

In like manner Colonel Jackson 
made arrangements with the late 
William C. Kalston, acting on behalf 
of tho California Steam Navigation 
Company, that all the property of 
that company — its boats, wharves, 
and franchises — should be sold to 
the California Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, and that the former should 
thereupon disincorporate and pass 
forever out of existence. This was 
generally considered at the time an 
impossible venture, as the Navigation 
Company had hitherto held undis- 
puted control of the water routes of 
travel in this State, and was regarded 



BUILDERS OK A GREAT CITY. 



as an indispensable necessity to the 
public. Colonel Jackson, however, 
considered that his road had the 
shortest line of travel between 
Marysville, Sacramento and Colis- 
toga at one end, and San Francisco 
at th ) other, and he therefore pro- 
posed to facilitate commerce by his 
speedier route. Having a line of 
only 83 miles between Sacramento 
and this city as against 138 miles 
of the Western Faoidc Railroad, it 
was plain that his road commanded 
t'ie passenger travel. He therefore 
saw no reason why it should not also, 
with benefit to the public, secure 
tlio heavy freight. In this he was 
again successful. 

The details of his railroad man- 
agement ore only referred to here, 
us indicating the breadth of view 
that characterizes this gentleman's 
business ventures. 

After the sale of the California 
Pacific Railroad to the Central, 
Colonel Jackson found himself with- 
out occupation on his hands. Look- 
ing ovvr the State he saw that the 
country to the east and s^nth of 
Stockton seemed to justify the build- 
ing of a railroad. A charter had 
been granted some years before 
under the name of the Stockton 



oak trees — and there established the 
town of Oakdale. Up to this point 
he had not asked or received any 
outside assistance by subsidy or 
otherwise. There w«', however, a 
standing offer by the city of Stock- 
ton and County of San Joaquin to 
pay to any one building a rail- 
road across the Stanislaus River in 
the direction of Visalia, the sum of 
$500,000. Having done this work 
and in one year less time than was 
named in the offer Colonel Jackson 
made request for the promised sub- 
sidy. Just at this time the "anti- 
subsidy ' ' cry became a political 
shibboleth, and the city ana county 
authorities, deterred by political 
reasons, declined . to pay over the 
donation which they had offered. 
Litigation therefore ensued, but be- 
fore it was ended the Central Pacific 
Railway owners saw that the Visalia 
road was bound to be a dangerous 
competitor to their railway system, 
and thereupon they opened negotia- 
tions which ended in their purchase 
of Jackson's road. 

Having thus closed up this busi- 
ness venture, our railroad builder 
projected a road from Alviso to Han 
Jose, and on a promise of a right- 
of-way along the public turnpike 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



227 



a wharf at its ocean terminus. This 
road has also since that time passed 
by purchase into the ownership of 
the Central Pacific Company. 

Looking oyer the State and seeing 
that there was no longer a valley 
running north and south that need- 
ed a railroad, or would justify the 
building of one, Colonel Jackson 
retired from the business of rail- 
road-building and betook himself to 
more quiet pursuits. 

Ho found the Napa Soda Springs, 
a beautiful rural home of rustic sim- 
plicity nestling on the mountain side 
about five miles from Napa City. 
Foreseeing* the illimitable capa- 
bilities of the place, he bought 
the springs with 640 acres of land, 
for $100^000. There were then no 
improvements upon the property, 
and he at once set to work to 
erect valuable buildings thereon. 
As a result of his labors it is 
now the most substantially im- 
proved Spa in this State, and 
the most frequented watering 
place of Middle and Northern Cali- 
fornia. Its white stone buildings 
with battlements, towers and spires, 
can be seen throughout Napa Valley, 
and their glass domes and burnished 
roofs reflect for miles away the rising 
and setting sun. 

While indulging his architectural 
taste tin the development of his ele- 
gant mountain home, Colonel Jack- 
son became, in 1875, the publisher and 
managing editor of the "San Fran- 
cisco Daily Evening Post." He had 
owned the paper some years before, 
haying purchased it from its four 
original founders, each of whom had 
owned one-quarter thereof. It was, 
however, a diminutive sheet while 
thus published, and without stability, 
solidity or influence. Its erratic edi- 
torship held out no promise or hope 
of improvement. As soon, however, 
as Colonel Jackson came to the helm 
he brought his "alert, tense and intel- 
lectual personnel" to bear on the 
publication, and it rapidly became a 
recognized power in the journalistic 



field. He changed its politics from 
Democratic to Republican, and yield- 
ing to the demands of its growth in • 
Sopular favor, enlarged its size three 
ifferent times. For some years it 
made a specialty of the mining in- 
terest, then the leading industry of 
the coast, nnd was regarded as the 
most reliable and enterprising organ 
devoting its columns to that sub- 
ject. Its Republicanism was so well 
defined, that the paper held the first 
placj in the faith and esteem of that 
party, and the " nervous, trenchant 
and perpendicular English " of its 
editorials from Jackson's own pen 
always commanded the attention of 
the public. He very early saw that 
the pictured daily— that is a paper 
illustrating its published events — 
was the quick-coming demand of 
the day. Ho essayed this feature in 
the "Post," first among the news- 
papers on this coast, but owing to 
the crude facilities for this work 
then accessible, his maiden efforts in 
this line were often a subject of 
criticism and ridicule by his envious 
rivals. Ho persevered, however, 
until he had tho satisfaction of merit- 
ed success, and lived to see his pet 
idea adopted by all nowspaperdom. 
Impelled by a desire to escape tho 
treadmill daily routino which tho 
care of both the business and edi- 
torial departments of a leading daily 
newspaper entails upon any one who 
will assume that dual burden, he left 
the "Post" in tho height of its 
power and influence, and for a season 
rested from all exacting occupation. 
Such an active temperament, could 
not, however, long remain idle. 

A number of his friends, disgusted 
with the spirit of personal hate and 
vindictiveness which characterized 
the pictorial "Wasp" in its car- 
toons and lampoons of leading citi- 
zens, and representing to him the 
boundless capabilities of a satirical- 
comic journal, whose aim should bo 
not personal spleen and spite, but 
in humorous and sarcastic vein to 
"shoot folly as it flies," induced 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Colonel Jackson to leave his retire- 
ment and take the ownership and 
charge of that publication. The 
result of his three years of manage- 
ment was to completely change its 
Ishmaelitish nature, enlarge its size, 
increase its subscription list and 
commend it to the regard of all 
good citizens. The field here for 
such a journal and the artistic faci- 
lities of this city for its pictorial 
ilium in a ti on are, however, quite 
limited, and tbo prospect did not 
satisfy the ambition of one whose 
whole life had been engaged on larger 
projects. ColonelJackson therefore 
retired from this publication, and 
then declared that he had quit active 
business for life. 

This, however, was not to be. His 
abiding interest in politics, and his 

{>ersonal friendship for his fellow 
aw-student of early days, induced 
him to enter into the canvass in favor 
of General Benjamin Harrison with 
his wonted nervous energy and zeal. 
Daring the entire contest he held 
close correspondence with the Ro 7 
publican standard - bearer on the 
Chinese question and other points en- 
tering into the debate between the 
parties. As a natural consequence, 
upon Benjamin Harrison's election, 
lio asked ili;i; ('■■I'.mri -):n-ksoti might 



States Treasurer at San Francisco, 
which office he now holds with the 
custody of more than seventy mil- 
lions of dollaru. 

During all of Colonel Jackson's 
manhood career, his public duties — 
monopolizing and exacting as has 
been their tendency — have not in 
any manner interfered with his fond- 
ness for home life. He has ever dis- 
pensed in the family residence all 
the civility, courtesies, and hospital- 
ity that make the social circle most 
attractive. His wife has been a fit- 
ting companion in his busy life-work. 
While seconding his public efforts 
she has made his horned-life attract- 
tive. She is a lady endowed by 
nature with unusual charms of man- 
ner and domestic graces. They 
have nine children — seven sons and 
two daughters. The elder five were 
born in Kentucky — the birth-place 
of their mother and her family for 
many generations back — and the 
younger four in California. Four of 
the children ore married. The eldest 
son is a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity, practicing law in this city ; 
another of Amherst, Muss., and a 
third is now at the California Uni- 
versity. Two others are in business 
here . The elder daughter is a 
:raduate of Cltuke'a Institute. Cof 





N. S. KEITH 



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Nathaniel Shepard Keith. 




ATHANIEL SHEPARD KEITH 
was born in the city of Boston, 
Mass. , in the year 1838, of Yan- 
kee parents and Scotch descent. His 
father, a physician, shortly after went 
to Dover, N. H. , and afterwards to 
New York city , in 1851. The subject 
of this sketch had the benefit of an 
excellent common school education. 
Shortly after his arrival in New York, 
his father established a chemical manu- 
factory which is still carried on under 
the widely known name of B. Keith & 
(■o. Young Keith was early put to 
work in the laboratory, where he ac- 
quired a gcod knowledge of chemistry 
in the most thorough, practical way — 
that of actual work. 

In 1861 he invented a new process 
of desulphurizing and treating gold- 
bearing pyrites, or sulphurets. He 
went with it to Colorado, and there 
several mills were erected to utilize the 
process. He remained there until 
1869. During his stay he became 
quite celebrated as a mining and 
metallurgical expert, and invented .a 
number of improvements in milling 
processes and apparatus. In 1868 he 
was sent by a mining company to Eu- 
rope tc visit the mines and metallurgi- 
cal establishments to observe the vari- 
ous methods of mining and treating 
silver tres, especially, so that such im- 
provements as might be found neces- 
sarv could be adopted by the company. 

From 1869 to 1871 he spent in the 
service of various mining companies in 
experting their gold mining properties 
in South Carolina and Georgia. 

Li 1871 , believing in the great fu- 
ture of the science and art of electricity , 
he left mining and engaged actively 
in electrical investigations. He shortly 
after — in fact, in that year — invented 



and patented a new solution for electro- 
plating with nickel , which was put into 
extensive use. He also invented a 
process for separating the tin and iron 
of tinplate waste by means of electric- 
ity. Three establishments, one each, 
in the cities of New York, Newark, 
and Lowell, were started, but stopped 
in 1878 owing to the low price or tin 
consequent upon the discovery of ex- 
tensive tin mines in Australia, and the 
then depressed price of scrap iron. 

In 1878 he invented the electrolytic 
process of desilverizing and refining 
lead-base bullion, for which he has re- 
ceived the highest commendations of 
metallurgists in this and European 
countries. He had been writing and 
publishing treatises on electro-metal- 
lurgy, ('socially relating to copper 
and lead, for some time previous, and 
had endeavored to interest capitalists 
in the establishment of works wherein 
metals would be refined and separated 
by electricity. But he was ahead of 
the times. The wonderful capabili- 
ties of that agent were not then so at- 
tractive to capitalists as they have 
since become. Now, copper is very 
extensively desilverized and refined by 
means of electricity in several estab- 
lishments in the United States and in 
Europe; and home day when the pat- 
ents thereon have expired, the elec- 
trical process of refining lead will be 
practiced, if we are to take the substi- 
tution of the Parkes process for the 
old Patterson process of desilverizing 
lead, as a precedent. 

Meantime, Mr. Keith was acting as 
expert before the courts, and other- 
wise, in electrical and chemical mat- 
ters. This he has continued up to the 
present, having been called upon sev- 
eral times during his residence in 



230 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



California to testify upon such subjects 
before the courts. 

In 1884, while editing the scientific 
department of the "Electrical World'' 
of New York, the largest and most 
important electrical periodical in the 
world, he was called upon by the 
Government of the United States to 
attend as a conferee, the International 
Conference of Electricians, held in Phil- 
adelphiain September, 1884. The pub- 
lished report of the Conference snows 
that he took a very active part therein. 

In April, 1884, he organized the 
American Institute of Electrical Engi- 
neers, and was its lirst Secretary. He 
was also one of the "Examiners" of 
the International Electrical Exhibition 
held at Philadelphia in 1884, under 
the supervision of the Fraukliu Insti- 
tute. He was selected there to lecture 
upon " Electro-Metallurgy ,"'■ as an au- 
thority on the subject among the 
noted men who gave lectures upon 
various electrical subjects with which 
they were puhlieally identified. 

In Novemlcr, 1884, be came to San 
Francisco, where he has been prom- 
inently before the public, as an inventor 
and manufacturer of electric generators 
and electric motors. He may l>c said 
to lie the father of elect ric power trans- 
mission on this coast. His motors are 



power can be brought to the places 
where war, ted , by the aid of his mo- 
tors, has already increased the in- 
dustries of San Francisco, and will 
continue to add to them for years to 
come, until the present few hundreds 
of electric motors in operation here 
will increase to many thousands. As 
the city grows and lives by its in- 
dustries, shall not he who has estab- 
lished a new industry here, and aided 
the organization and operation of 
others, l>e doubly entitled to have his 
name go down to posterity as one of 
the "Builders of a Great City (' 

Mr! Keith has l>een addressed for 
many years by the title of ••Professor,'' 
in recognition by the public of his pro- 
fessional attainments. He is contin- 
ually devising and inventing improve- 
ments in- electrical and chemical pro- 
cesses and apparatus. He has secured 
many patents in thess lines, and has 
several now pending before the Patent 
Ufficc. 

The Electrical Engineering Company 
in Kaii Francisco has purchased the 
right to his patents in the States of the 
Pacific Coast and has engaged his 
services as its electrical engineer, an! 
entered extensively into all the 
branches of electrical manufacturing 
and engineering. It is a strong com- 





John F. Kennedy. 



JOHN F. KENNEDY. 



^JLF the substantial and public- 
jf|J spirited citizens of San Fran- 
>T Cisco, none have had a more 
honorable and successful business 
career, or served in public life with a 
more unblemished record, than John 
F. Kennedy. 

This gentleman was born on his 
father's farm at Ardoi.se Hill in the 
county of Hants, Nova Scotia, fifty 
four years ago. By an inadvertent act 
of friendship, his father had gone 
bondsman for a considerable amount 
and subsequently had to pay it; and 
in doing so the whole of his property 
was absorbed. 

He died soon after this unfortunate 
transaction and left young Kennedy 
at the age of eleven years the sole 
support of his mother, and the younger 
members of the family. 

This necessitated his bidding fare- 
well to school, and feeling keenly the 
responsibility which had fallen upon 
him he concluded to leave the old farm 
and commence life's battles. 

Accordingly he at once proceeded 
to Halifax, where remuneration for all 
sorts of labor being small, he remained 
but a short time, going to Boston, 
Mass., there learning the trade of a 
painter. After finishing his appren- 
ticeship, a strong desire to better his 
condition took possession of him, and, 
hearing favorable reports of Califor- 
nia, he soon decided to embark for 
the Golden State. No sooner was 
this decision made than he secured 
passage and set sail on the "Star of 
the West" for Aspinwall. Crossing 
the Isthmus he took the "John U 
Stevens" at Panama, and after an 
uneventful voyage, arrived at San 
Francisco the loth of May, 1858. 

Immediately upon his arrival Mr. 
Kennedy commenced work at his 
trade. Full of manly vigor and 



equipped with a stock of pluck and 
determination, he soon did a paying 
business. This he relinquished tem- 
porarily to become forejnan of the 
bonded warehouse on Vallejo street 
built by Daniel Gibb & Co. He soon 
after resumed the painting business 
and secured contracts which insured 
his future prospects, and, as his 
savings accumulated, he invested 
judiciously in real estate. Assured 
that he had now reached the goal of 
success, he went back to his old home 
and returned with his widowed 
mother and the younger children. 

Being again united with his family 
his whole energy and time were de- 
voted to his business interests, and 
seeing opportunities to embark in the 
lumber trade, he organized the 
Western Mill and Lumber Company. 
Securing a favorable site on ruget 
Sound, he at once commenced the 
erection of mills equipped with 
modern machinery. Disposing of this 
property he turned his attention to 
redwood timber lands and has now 
in the neighborhood of 10,000 acres 
in the redwood belt. He organized 
the Central California Lumber Co. 
and the Kennedy & Shaw Lumber 
Co., being now President of both. 
Under the firm name of Morris & 
Kennedy, which firm still exists, he 
also became interested in the artist 
material and fine art business, a taste 
for which was then rapidly develop- 
ing in San Francisco. 

He is a large stockholder and di- 
rector in the Ray Copper Company 
of Arizona, and received from the 
California State Mining Board a 
diploma for valuable specimens given 
by him. He is a member 01 the 
Mechanics' Institute, of the Geogra- 

Shical Society and a director in the 
[asonic Mutual Aid Association. He, 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



is also a member of numerous benev- 
olent organizations, among which 
may lie mentioned the Odd Fellows, 
Caledonian Club, Masons, St Andrews 
and A. 0. 17. W., and has held promin- 
ent offices in each. 

In 1882 be was elected by the sous 
of "Ait Id Scotia" as the chief of their 
representative society, the Caledoni- 
ans, and was re-elected repeatedly to 
that office for years. From him 
evolved the idea of this body possess- 
ing a hall of its own, the happy re- 
sult of which is the present Scottish 
Hall, of which he was its tirst and 
successive President, until his time 
would not permit it longer. His lat- 
est effort is the organization of the 
Pacific Masonic Hall Association, and 
he, as its President, lias lately pur- 
chased a piece of property 80xl37J 
feet on Geary street, with a view of 
erecting a Masonic Hall thereon. 

As it is the duty of every good cit- 
izeu to take an interest in the politi- 
cal situation of the State and country, 
Mr. Kennedy has not failed to do his 
part manfully, intelligently and hon- 
orably. He has been a member of 
Republican State Conventions at va- 
rious times. He was a member of 
the last Taxpayers' Convention held 
in San Francisco in IS77. In this con- 



Buildings he soon had these occupied, 
and with the 850,000 then appropri- 
ated for the building, he had more 
offices fitted up, which, by his timely 
efforts, were occupied within six 
months from the time he commence;! 
to stop this flagrant, needless expen- 
diture, thereby saving to the city a 
very large yearly outlay. 

He never advocated a measure in 
that Board that was no teamed, and this 
illustrates his general good judgment 
and the high estimation in which he 
was held by the members. In 1884 
he was nominated for the Legislature, 
but owing to the press of his private 
business, which required his whole 
time, he declined tho honor. This, too, 
was at a time when the nomination 
was equivalent to an election, his dis- 
trict being very largely Republican. 

Mr. Kennedy was married in 1860 
to Miss Alice Ncvin, the result of 
which union has been four children — 
three sons and one daughter. Albert 
Warren Kennedy, tho eldest son, is 
Treasurer of the Kennedy & Shaw 
Lumber Company and of the Central 
California Lumber Company. The 
two younger sons arc attending 
school: Arthur John receiving his ed- 
ucation at tho Brewer College. San 
Mateo, while Henry Alexander at- 





m 



J. N. KlLLIP 



■ j 



i; 

i 



JASPER NEWTON KILLIP- 




N business as well as in social 
circles it is not always those 
who make the most show or 
affect the greatest display that are 
most necessary to the welfare of the 
people. The bulk of the important 
work in the founding of city or State 
is put forth by those who emphatic- 
ally make no sign, but who are con- 
tent to enlist their best energies 
in the accomplishment of a life work 
and in the building up of im- 
portant enterprises without any hope 
or expectation of notoriety or of the 
empty satisfaction that often accom- 
panies it. The men in the ranks, 
whether of commerce, manufacture, 
or kindred occupations, are the real 
city and State ouilders. Amongst 
such we may class Jasper Newton 
Killip. Mr. Killip is of German 
ancestry. He was born in • Bloom- 
ington, McLean County, 111., in 1837. 
His parents removed thence when he 
was very voung. They settled in 
Racine, Wis., where he attended the 
public schools. The greater part of 
his education, however, was of the 
eminently practical kind, and derived 
from his long and varied experience 
of the world and of man. Most of his 
life lias been passed on the Pacific 
Coast and in the midst of its busiest 
scenes, as he accompanied his parents 
to California in 1852 when a mere boy 
of fifteen, they settling in the city of 
Sacramento, where they remained till 
1854. Thence he proceeded to the 
mountains and spent some time in 
the occupation of mining in Nevada 
and Sierra Counties. He was not, 
however, very successful in this pur- 
suit and abandoned it, going to Vir- 
ginia City in 1859. There he em- 
barked in the liquor business. He 
was also interested in mining. Ho 



came to this city in 1861 while still a 
very voung man, and may, therefore, 
in all respects be said to be a thor- 
ough San Franciscan. He first en- 
gaged in the livery stable business 
in which he remained for eleven 
years. He had for a partner E. J. 
Baldwin, better known as "Lucky 1 ' 
BaMwin, with whom he remained six 
years. A man named Nathan then 
sharedhisfortunesforacoupleof years 
more, James Craig being his partner 
for the balance of the time. In 1872 
he became engaged in the auction 
business, being at first in partner- 
ship with Horace Covey, his specialty 
being the sale of live stock, in which 
he and his partners for the past nine 
years have been very successful. The 
sales made by his firm while of the 
greatest possible advantage to own- 
ers of stock farms have also, by induc- 
ing competition, been the means of im- 
proving much the various breeds and 
in offering inducements for the in- 
troduction of the best to the State. 
The firm has made in this line the 
largest sales over heard of in Cali- 
fornia, and which have been steadily 
increasing. Mr. Killip has been as- 
sociated in business with Charles 
Metaphor Chase for the past sixteen 
years. The partners are well suited 
to each other, the result being that 
a more than ordinary amount of suc- 
cess has attended their operations. 
Mr. Killip is a member of Excelsior 
Lodge, F. & A. M. He is a quiet, 
unassuming gentlemen. He has led 
an active business life but is opposed 
to show and ostentation . His charac- 
ter being social and domestic, of 
good repute and ample fortune, he 
has readied the goal for which many 
are striving. He lias yet many years 
of business usef uli\&«& tataWWifiu 




F. R. King. 



1 i ■: 



. ! 



Frederick r. Kino. 



g4>HE subject of our sketch is the 
SH\j inheritor of a name that is par- 

^T ticularly dear to Californians. 
Frederick K. King is the only son of 
Thomas Starr King, who died in this 
city at the early age of 39 years. 
Although the parent enjoyed a nation- 
al reputation before coming to this 
State, his labors on behalf of the 
Union after arriving here in 1860 up 
to the time of his death, four years 
later, shed a halo of patriotism around 
his name which can never be effaced. 
His strong speeches in different parts 
of the State revived the drooping 
spirits of the people and helped to 
anchor the Golden State firmly to 
the Union cause. His eloquent 
tongue was especially employed in 
soliciting aid in behalf of the Sani- 
tary Commission, and to his efforts 
alone are generally accorded the 
munificent contributions made by 
California to that noble cause. 

Frederick R. King was born in 
this city April 4, 1862, during one of 
the most stirring periods of the war. 
He was educated in the public 
schools, and after graduating from 
the High School entered Harvard 
College. During his college days 
he became acquainted with many 
members of his father's old congre- 
gation in Boston, and they watched 
the career of the son of their revered 
pastor with unusual interest. Soon 
after the death of Starr King his 
library, according to his request, had 
been sent to the Hollis-street Church 
in Boston, whose pulpit he had occu- 
pied for twelve years. When Fred- 
erick was about leaving college the 
Trustees invited him to revisit the 
library and take from the books for- 
merly belonging to his father, 
such volumes as he might de- 



sire. Mr. King graduated in 1884. 
and soon afterward returned to this 
city. Although he had always had a 
predilection for the law, there did 
not at that time appear to be a satis- 
factory opening, and he accepted the 
offer of a position with the Oregon 
Improvement Company where he re- 
mained a year. At the end of that 
time he entered the office of Fox & 
Kellogg and began the study of the 
law. In 1887 he was admitted to 
practice and for two years remained 
in the office as managing clerk. On 
the 1st of January, 1889, he was ad- 
mitted a partner, the firm being 
known as Fox, Kellogg & King. 
When, upon the appointment of 
Governor Waterman, Mr. Fox took 
his place, in July, 1889, on the 
Supreme bench, to fill out the unex- 
pired term of Jackson Temple, the 
firm became Kellogg & King. 

There is no doubt that the profes- 
sion of the law affords ample oppor- 
tunities for the utmost exertion of 
the mind, and that the well-equipped 
lawyer may find in the exercise of his 
vocation ample scope for the employ- 
ment of his intellect, be it ever so 
active or robust. It is not to be 
wondered at, therefore, that in- 
stances are so rare where the lawyer 
takes up some study outside of his 
profession. In commenting upon 
this matter, Hamerton, the artist- 
author, speaks of asking an eminent 
London lawyer whether he ever visit- 
ed an exhibition of pictures, and he 
answered by the counter-inquiry 
whether " I had read Chitty on Con- 
tracts, Collier on Partnerships, Tay- 
lor on Evidence, Crave's Digest 
on Smith's Mercantile Law ? " Not- 
withstanding this proverbial "disin- 
terestedness," as Haxo&ttarcL tan&s&> 



286 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



it, of lawyers, Mr. King has found 
time apart from the cares of his pro- 
fession to indulge in intellectual 
recreation outside of it. Besides 
being the possessor of a large mis- 
cellaneous library, he is an enthu- 
siastic collector of Shakesperean 
literature. This is, as all must be 
aware, slow work, but Mr. King has 
already made an excellent beginning. 
He now has between 40,000 and .50,- 
000 titles, and is constantly on the 
lookout for additions. 

Mr. King has never shown any 
fondness for politics, and has never 
held any public position. He is a 



member of the order of Native Sons 
of the Golden West, and is sec- 
ond Vice-President of the Harvard 
Alumni Association in this ciftr. 

Mr. King was married in 1885 to 
Miss Boswell, a daughter of S. B. 
Boswell, a well known resident of 
this city. The fruit of this union is 
two boys, the younger bearing the 
name of his paternal grandfather. 
He has a sister, the wife of Hon. 
Horace Davis. His mother is also 
living in this city. She married for 
her second husband William Nor- 
ris, Secretary of the Spring Vallev 
Water Co. 



Q 




J. L. KOSTEf^. 



,i 



JOHN LUDWIG KOSTER. 



CjjUHE German- American, properly 
JI J . so called, as a general thing, 
^TT unites in his own person the best 
qualities of the dweller in this country 
and the fatherland. To the solidity 
of the German character he adds the 
inventive genius and the quick adapta- 
tion of means to ends so characteristic 
of the native of Yankee land. John 
Ludwig Koster was born in Charles- 
ton, S. C, in 184-0. When he was 
only four years of age his parents took 
him to Germany where he remained 
till he was between 14 and 15. He 
thus acquired a thorough acquaintance 
with the language and manners of 
both countries, which has often proved 
useful to him since. On his return, 
he, as a boy, became employed in the 
grocerj' and provision trade in Brook- 
lyn, N Y. In 1855, when barely 19 
years of age, or in 1859, he came to 
the Pacific Coast. He sailed for Pana- 
ma on the " Northern Light," which 
was not very far away f ram New York 
when she came into collision with a ves- 
sel engaged in the Brazil coftee trade, 
which was returning with a load. A 
hole was stovo in the other vessel while 
the " Northern Light," in command 
of Captain TInklepaugh, sustained no 
damage worthy of mention. Captain 
Blethen, being the commander of the 
4 ' Orizaba ," on the Pacific side, well 
known in this city, often talks to such 
of the old passengers as arc within 
hail, of the incident, which the prog- 
ress of time renders comparatively un- 
important. No other mishap occurred , 
and by the steamer " Orizaba" the 
Golden City was at last safely readied, 
and the straggles of the adventurers 
with the peculiar conditions of life in 
the new land then fairly began. Ar- 
riving here, Mr. Koster soon went into 



the employ of Schultz & Van Bergen, 
then engaged in the liquor trade. He 
remained with them till they sold out 
in about nine months, when he pur- 
chased the business from them. In 
this he continued for three years when 
he disposed of it and entered into the 
cigar trade with Henry Plagemann. 
While here, he went to Nevada and 
established a branch of the firm under 
the style and title of Koster, Itenke & 
Co. He remained three years in this 
also. Finally selling out, he returned 
to this city and meeting Joseph Pohley, 
who had started the business of manu- 
facturing vinegar, the latter gentleman 
told him that he was about to dispose 
of his business to Francis Cutting. 
Mr. Koster, on the spur of the mo- 
ment, asked him to reconsider his de- 
cision and to go in with him. To this 
Mr. Pohley at once consented. This 
was in 18(>7. The works were those of 
the Pacific Vinegar and Pickle Works 
which to-day still continue to flourish. 
After Mr. Pohley \s death the works 
were incorporated by Koster with the 
following Trustees: Francis Cutting, 
Sol Wangenheim, Joseph El felt, John 
L. Raster and Charles J. King, with 
Mr. Koster as President and Manager, 
which position he holds to this day. 
He, in conjunction with Henry Brick- 
wedel, conceived the idea of importing 
sulphur from Japan instead of sending 
all the way to Italy for it. The first 
shipment hither was made in the Ger- 
man vessel " Mohburg," and consisted 
of only twenty-five tons. It proved 
everything expected of it, and tne two 
partners took in with them Judson 
and Shephard of the Acid Works. 
They made a contract with the Gov- 
ernment of Japan which lasted three 
or four years and was quite profitable % 



BriLhERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Mr. Koster was thus one of the first 
who had the honor of opening up to 
us this important souree of supply. 
He organized the California Barrel 
l 'ompany , of whirl i he i.s the President , 
in con ju net ion with Henrv Brickwedol 
and I tola Welhuau. in 1883. It lias 
I won most successful, as have in faet 
nliout nil the enterprises with which 
Mr. Knster has N-on connected. The 
Pacific, WooJenwaro & t 'ooporagc Com- 
]iany, with works on Sixth an-l Chan- 
nel streets, and of which he is Vice- 
l*ivsidont . was organized in 1H81. Kc 
lias lieen in the steamship business. 
He ran a line from this city to Kureka 
ami way pints- -the Coast and Itlver 
Steamship Company— &« two and a 
half years, lie was ahV- to .success- 
fully eomjiete with the I'aeitic Coast 
Steamship Company. The object of 

Iterniaiuntly lowering the rates was. 
lowever. attained, and particularly at 
a time when it was very much needed. 
it enabling lal«>r to lie transjiorted 
cheaply when it was in groat demand, 
and the goods were carrioil at a lower 
late to market, and to-day the people 
■ if Humlioldt County are thankful to 
Mr. Koster for his successful efforts in 
their Mialf. He was married in Xew 
York , in ] 8(!."i . to a graceful and eharm- 
' d liannv moth 



Guard , then Adjutant on General 
Cutting's staff, with the title of Major. 
In two years he was made Adjutant 
with the title of Colonel. This is an 
enviable record for one so young. He 
is a member of El Dorado Parlor, Na- 
tive Sons of the Golden West, and is 
Commander of the Native Sons Drill 
Corps, which he himself organized. 
The noted General Wagner, who in 
the war, fought for the South, is his 
uncle on his mother's side. Frederick 
Jacob Kostor, his second son, 20 years 
cf age, is Superintendent of the Cali- 
fornia Barrel Company, and is also a 
member of the Native Sons. The rest 
of the children arc at school. Though 
often adjured to take an active part 
in politics and to run for office, Mr. 
Koster has always steadily declined, 
though he has never failed to support 
good men for place and position. He 
lielongs to the Ancient Order of United 
Workmen and to the German Benevo- 
lent Association. Slightly over the 
middle height, neither slender nor 
corpulent, blonde of complexion, with 
full features hearing the hue of good 
health, Mr. Kosteris still destined to 
a long life of usefulness. He has a tine 
country retreat near Boulder Creek, in 
the heart of the Santa Cruz Mountains , 
Inch ho jia 





Wm. Kreling. 



William Krelino. 



tILLIAM Kreling, one of San 
Francisco's most enterprising 
and energetic citizens, was born 
on the eighth day of August, 1850, in 
Prussia, Germany. He left his native 
land with his parents for the United 
States of America when but a boy, only 
having attained his seventh year. The 
family took up their abode in the em- 
pire city. Here Mr. Kreling received 
a liberal education. On its comple- 
tion he was apprenticed to the furni- 
ture business. He continued at this 
occupation until 1874, when he re- 
solved to try his fortune in the Golden 
West 

In the year mentioned he reached 
San Francisco, having traveled thither 
by the overland route. His father and 
brother, F. W. and Joseph Kreling, had 
already preceded him, having arrived 
in San Francisco in 1872. The two 
brothers were men of great musical 
culture, and they thought that there 
was a good opening in this city for 
that class of entertainment that forms 
such a pleasing diversion to the many 
millions of honest toilers in the Fath- 
erland. So, shortly after their arrival, 
they opened a place of entertainment 
on the corner of Stockton and Sutter 
streets. Their idea was to supply the 
public with good music at a minimum 
of cost. How they succeeded, the pub- 
lic know right well. 

In 1874 William Kreling was taken 
into partnership. In 1877 the firm 
resolved to try something more ambi- 
tious, and so they went in and built 
the New Tivoli on Eddy street. Here 
they decided to produce light operas 
in their entirety, and to place them 
upon the stage with a proper regard 
to accuracy of costume and scenic 
effect The charge of admission was 
so fixed as to be within the reach of 



everybody. The establishment of the 
Tivoli Opera House supplied a long- 
felt want, as before its opening the 
public only had occasional opportuni- 
ties of witnessing opera, and then had 
to pay comparatively high prices, and 
this, of course, deprived many thou- 
sands of persons of moderate means 
of the pleasure of witnessing this 
class of entertainment. 

The Tivoli was a decided success 
from the start. The management was 
in good hands, and the most laudable 
endeavors were used to win the pub- 
lic approbation. Light opera was the 
class of entertainment fixed upon. 
The most popular works were chosen, 
and the artists engaged in their inter- 
pretation were of a high order of 
merit. The orchestra of the Tivoli is 
composed of first-class talent, and is 
one of the finest musical organiza- 
tions in the city. Occasionally the 
management has taken ambitious 
flights, and has produced grand opera, 
and in most cases the departure has 
been both a financial and artistic suc- 
cess. 

There is ono thin" in connection 
with the policy of trie management 
that must not be overlooked, and that 
is the encouragement given to local 
artists and composers. Said Pasha, 
f he work of Richard Stahl, a former 
leader of the Tivoli orchestra, had a 
very lengthy run at this house, and 
was subsequently taken East, where 
it was most favorably received, both 
by press and public. The First Lieu- 
tenant, another local effort, was also 
produced at this house, and met with 
much success. The management has 
several other local operas under con- 
sideration, and will probably produce 
them at no distant date. 



240 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



The Messrs. Kreling have a regular 
stock company of about ninety mem- 
bers. The principals are changed 
from time to time, a* occasion de- 
mands. 

In 1880, the brothers, who are alt 
practical men. went into the furniture 
business. The new venture proved n 
great success, and at the present time 
Kreling Brothers have one of the most 
extensive establish incuts of its kind 
in the city. The firm employs 18"> 
people. In 18K4 n severe calamity 
overtook them, their factory on Fifth 
street, it being located there at that 
time, being totally destroyed by fire, 
the loss being $4.5,000. 

In 1887 Joseph Kreling, one of the 
partners, died, and his interest was 
bought by William Kreling. This 
gentleman has been the leading spirit 



in all the firm's business ventures. He 
is a man of great energy, and a good 
citizen. He was married in July, 
1880, and has two children. He has 
taken an active part in politics. He 
was elected Tax Collector of San Fran- 
cisco in 1887, and filled the position 
till the beginning of the present year. 
He discharged the duties of his office 
with honesty and great ability, and 
gained the good will and esteem of 
not only his own political friends, but 
also of people in the opposite camp. 
He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and is also an Odd Fellow, a 
Knight of Honor, and a Knight of the 
Golden Eagle. Such a man as Will- 
iam Kreling will always find manv 
friends. The State needs more of such 
citizens. 





R. D. Lhidlhw. 



r 



4- ■ 

I ! 



. r. 



i 



: I 



,L 



. i 



.'i 



Royal D. Laidlaw. 




OME are born to greatness; 
others have greatness thrust 
upon them. " Others yet attain 
it by their own unaided efforts or 
rather by a proper use of the talents 
bestowed on them by Mother Nature. 
San Francisco furnishes many illus- 
trations of the truth of this observa- 
tion — she will furnish many more. 
There are scores of young business 
men in our midst who are conspicu- 
ous examples of the truth of our 
statement. Of these Royal D. Laid- 
law, the Pacific Coast agent of the 
great tobacco house of P. Lorillard 
& Co., has been one of the most 
energetic and successful. When it 
is known that this house was found- 
ed in 1760, the oldest and largest 
tobacco manufactory in the world, 
has during the past quarter of a cent- 
ury paid in taxes to the United 
States Government not less than fifty 
millions of dollars — a vast fortune in 
itself — that it constantly employs 
about five thousand people, and that 
it does about one-sixth of the tobacco 
business of the United States, some 
idea may be formed of the qualities 
that have to be possessed by any one 
representing such a firm as this. 

This gentleman comes of mixed 
Scotch and French ancestry, and was 
born in New York city in 1858, be- 
ing now therefore only as it were in 
the opening of his career. He re- 
ceived a good public school educa- 
tion in his native city, and started in 
his fight with the world at a very 
early age. At that time he went to 
work in the plug department for 
Allen & Co., tobacco merchants of 
New York. He took to the trade, 
and it was natural to him, for he may 
be said to have come of a tobacco 
family. From Allen & Co. he found 



his way to Lorillard's, where many 
of the smart young men of the trade 
eventually gravitate. He has been 
in their employ ever since, attached 
to the New England agency, and also 
travelling in various parts of the 
United States. They treat those in 
their employ well, and good service 
is the rule. They constantly keep 
up a large night school for the bene- 
fit of factory employes, with a regular 
attendance of about five hundred 
scholars. From this, those who 
show the proper capacity, are, if 
they so prefer, sent to college at the 
expense of Mr. Pierre Lorillard. 
Then there is a splendid library of 
fifty thousand volumes and commo- 
dious reading rooms provided with all 
the leading newspapers and periodi- 
cals. Their old employes who have 
given faithful service they pension 
off — in this respect paralleled only by 
the general Government. In such a 
mercantile institution as this, where 
ability is the only standard, Mr. 
Laidlaw rapidly advanced, and in 
1884 had the honor of being chosen 
as the representative of all their in- 
terests on this coast. He had two 
predecessors, Mr. Herman Heyne- 
man and Mr. George Griswold, the 
latter a nephew of P. Lorillard. 
The business, as he found it, was 
flourishing, but under his manage- 
ment it has increased wonderfully in 
volume. He has travelled all over 
the coast in its interests, and has 
done remarkable work during the 
past six years. Outside of business, 
which has, so to say, kept on the 
even tenor of its way, his life has 
not been noted for any unusual inci- 
dents. A steady current of success 
has always accompanied him in his 
career. He has made the Po&A&s. 



242 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Coast trade of the great firm repre- 
sented by hiin one of the largest 
mercantile interests on this coast, 
anil that is Having a great deal. 

Mr. Ltudltiw was married in 1884 
in Portland, Me., to Katherine A. 
Shaw, the daughter of Frederick 
Shaw, Esq., an amiable and talented 
lady, who has borne him one child — a 
daughter. He is interested in sever- 
al enterprises, in some of which he 
is a director. He is u thirty-second 
degree Mason and also an Odd Fel- 
low. Ho is much enamored of Cali- 
fornia, and says that his only regret 



is that he was not born here. He 
declares that California has better 
promise for a young man than any 
other part of the country, and a more 
glorious future than any other part 
of the United States. He is enthu- 
siastic over its magnificent resources, 
its unparalleled climate, and its gen- 
erous and prosperous people. 

Mr. Laidlaw is foil of grit and en- 
terprise, and is one of the energetic 
ana progressive young business 
men on whose shoulders rests the 
responsibility of San Francisco's 
future. 





John Lucas. 




J. Wm. Lucas. 



John and J. William Lucas. 




T is a rare thing indeed to find 
three generations engaged in 
fighting the battles of Califor- 
nia industry, and fighting them 
successfully. It is rare, at least, 
in California, whatever it may be in 
old States and older countries. 
Sometimes, however, we find fa- 
ther, son and grandson working har- 
moniously in harness together. A 
notable instance is that of the Lucas 
family, which has been, since 1874, 
engaged in the manufacture of plaster 
of JParis on this coast which, in fact, 
founded the industry both on the 
coast and in the city. 

John Lucas tfas born of English 
parents in 1823, but was brought up 
in the city of NewYork, and has been 
connected with the plaster business 
for forty years. He had charge of 
the largest plaster mills in New York, 
where he was Superintendent for 
seventeen years. While there ho 
made many new inventions, and util- 
ized many new ideas of value pertain- 
ing to the manufacture of plaster. 

J. William Lucas, his son, com- 
menced at these mills in New York, 
at the bottom, one might say, of the 
business. He was born in 1848. His 
birthplace was New York city. He 
received good, solid commercial edu- 
cation in the common schools of 
that city. At the age of 17, under 
the instruction of his father, he 
learned how to manufacture Plaster 
of Paris. After serving an appren- 
ticdship of ten yeara, he thought he 
would start out for himself. He went 
West and embarked in the business. 
He was fairly successful at first, and 
thought he could fight the world's 
battles alone; but he soon found out 
that he needed the practical experi- 
ence of his father and a general 



knowledge of business to achieve the 
success that he sought. Father aud 
son accordingly joined forces, and 
had a very successful trade. They 
knew something about the consump- 
tion of plaster on the Pacific Coast, 
and they thought there was a good 
prospect for plaster mills here. 

In 1874 father and son came to the 
coast by rail, the journey occupving 
eight days. They built the Golden 
G;ite Plaster Mills at 215 to 217 Main 
street, where they have labored in 
the business over since. For more 
than a quarter of a century all the 
plaster used in the State of California 
had been imported in clippers via 
Cape Horn, and the business was a 
very profitable one to importers. 
When the Lucases, father and son, 
started, there were very few people 
who did not predict a lamentable 
failure; but they had practical knowl- 
edge and experience, knew what they 
were about, knew their market, and 
how to produce a good article, and 
persevered in the face of every op- 
position and discouragement. Of the 
latter there was abundance; not the 
least of which was that many unsuc- 
cessful attempts had been made to 
manufacture plaster previously. Con- 
sequectly they found it up-hill work 
to convince the people here that a 
good article in all respects, equal, if 
not superior to that "mported, could 
and would be manufactured on this 
coast. The first trial given their 
plaster was at the Palace Hotel. It 
gave good satisfaction, and the build- 
ing was finished with the Golden 
Gate brand, some three thousand 
barrels being used. This gave them 
a grand start and great encourage- 
ment, and from that day up to the 
present they have slowly but surely 



■m 



IU'ILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



gained ground in their business on 
this coast. 

Tliey have from two different mines 
nil inexhaustible supply of the right 
quality of gypsum, which they manu- 
facture into Plaster of Paris, ami 
manufacture the right quality. They 
have built up on this coast a business 
of no little importance. At present 
classed amongst oar minor industries, 
iu future it will assume more note- 
worthy dimensions. Nothing but 
great practical knowledge, the expe- 
rience of a liletime and uncouquer- 
able energy could have brought suc- 
cess to th.se interested in the face 
of the great d mVultks and tbe vigor- 
ous opposition from formerly old and 
well-kuown brands that they have 
hal to encounter iu the course of 
their arduous struggle to establish 
themselves, but success has come to 
them. 

While Mr. John Luca* is still a 
vigorous, hale old gentleman, and 
while his sou, J. William Lucas, is 
yet iu the pr me of life, a wise divi- 
sion of labor has ai led measurably 
iu their success. Mr. John Lucas 
t.ikcs charge of the manufacturing 
portion of the business, while J. Wil- 
liam Lucas attends to that pertaining 
to the office aud sales. 

Tuc L'r.iiulsoii. WiUi.itu !•'. Liu-iis. 



who is now 21 years old, is fast 
mastering the details of the industry. 
He at present attends to the office 
and accounts, and, like his father, 
will in due time master all the 
details of the manufacture from his 
grandfather, as some day he will 
probably become the successor to 
both in the Golden Gato Plaster 
Mills 

Mr. John Lucas, Sr., unbowed 
and unbent by the weight of years, 
does not look to be over fifty, and 
still may perform the work of a gen- 
eration. His vigorous constitution, 
inherited from an old English ances- 
try, has not been impaired by the 
wear, tear or worry of a long life. 
His son, a gentleman of medium 
size, robust in form, ruddy, rotund 
countenance, with good humor gleam- 
ing from every lineament of his face, 
is one of our smartest business men, 
and possesses, in addition to the de- 
sirable qualities of his ancestry, a 
full measure- of American wit and 
humor, which is constantly overflow- 
ing and which never seems to aban- 
don him nnder any and all circum- 
stances. The grandson is a youth of 
bright promise, strictly attentive to 
business, and bids fair to be one of 
San Francisco's future representative 
lu.umtucturcrs ami business 





D. A. Magdonald. 



i ■ 1 



j » 



D. A. MACDONALD. 



(X 1852, the good ship " Samuel 
Appletoiv' brought to this city 
a gentleman of whom we give 
the following sketch. He came from 
Prince Edward Island, bringing with 
him a good character, an indomitable 
will, and the trade and tools of a 
carpenter. Not only these, but a 
pride of family, for he belongs to 
the Scottish clan whose name he 
bears, and whose record in the annals 
of Scotland for heroic deeds and 
suffering in the cause of loyalty and 
truth is unsurpassed and unsurpass- 
able. For two years after his arrival 
ho followed his trade, but in 1854 
went into partnership with 13. T. 
Chase and bought a small planing 
mill at Beale and Market streets. 
Upon the death of Mr. Chase he was 
appointed administrator of his estate 
and guardian of his children. He 
was so faithful ami successful with 
this trust, that Judge My rick com- 
plimented him in open court at the 
time of the settlement. 

About ten years ago, Mr. Macdon- 
ald moved to his present location 
on Spear street, first conducting the 
business in his own name, but after- 
wards organized it into a corpora- 
tion. He has been no stranger to 
] political life. He was elected Super- 
visor of the Twelfth Ward in 1873-5 
by the Taxpayers, and had charge 
of the New City Hall as Chairman 
of the Building Committee of the 
Board of Supervisors, under the 
regime of Hon. James Otis, Mayor, 
while the Democrats subsequently 
accorded him a similar mark of pub- 



lic confidence. But he has always 
been conservative and looked upon 
public affairs more from the point 
of view of a business man solicitous 
for the public welfare than from that 
of the mere partisan. When San 
Francisco determined to celebrato 
the Centennial Anniversary of Inde- 
pendence in a manner befitting the 
occasion and her own importance, 
Mr. Macdonald was elected Grand 
Marshal by acclamation. The re- 
sult of the choice was seen" in the 
grandest and most orderly demon- 
stration ever held in the Golden City. 
He has figured in military matters, 
having been Captain of the San Fran- 
cisco Hussars for several years. For 
fifteen years he has been a Director 
of the Mechanics' Institute. He 
was twice elected Vice-President, 
and for a number of years an active 
member of the building and finance 
and executive committees. The insti- 
tute owes much to his labors in its 
behalf. Though a North American 
by birth and an American citizen bv 
adoption, he has never forgotten the 
land of his fathers, and has long been 
a conspicuous member of the Scot- 
tish societies of San Francico. For 
seven years he was chief of the Cale- 
donian Club, and is a welcome guest 
at every social gathering. His en- 
deavors to advance the condition of 
San Francisco industrially, and to 
promote the welfare of tho State 
generally, should not be forgotten. 
The mechanics of San Fraucisco owe 
him a debt of gratitude, he being 
tho first and only one to start the 
niie-hour system of labor in this city, 
tw3nty-one years ago, and kept it 
up ever since, while all other mills 
were running tan hours, until within 
a very short time. 



0° 




William MsAfee 



William McAfee. 




RITISH COLUMBIA has pro- 
duced a hardy, industrious, 
and talented race. Some of 
our best citizens in New England and 
the West were born within its bor- 
der. With its rugged climate and 
its hardy sons inured to toil, it lias 
proved a most valuable nursery of 
men. To the ambitious and enter- 
prising amongst them, the great re- 
public across the border has always 
appeared a veritable land of promise. 
Amongst those whose labors have 
helped to build up the land of their 
adoption and shed luster on the land 
of their birth, we must number Will- 
iam McAfee, the pioneer boiler man- 
ufacturer of San Francisco and the 
Pacific Coast. He was born at St. 
Johns, New Brunswick, on March 0, 
1829. He was educated in the com- 
mon schools of that city. At the age 
of 14 he was apprenticed to a black- 
smith, with whom he remained about 
two years. At the end of this time, 
young as he was, the spirit of en- 
terprise filled him with an ambition 
beyond his years, and going to Bos- 
ton, the Mecca of the Northwestern 
land, he sought employment. Ho 
found it in a boiler shop where he 
served as rivet-heater and boiler- 
maker, about six years. It was then 
the golden jear of '49, and the fame 
of California's mines had filled the 
earth and sent tens of thousands, by 
land and sea, to seek the new El 
Dorado. Besides gold seekers, 
great numbers of mechanics, mer- 
chants and others found their way 
thither. Mr. McAfee had a longing 
to seek the new country, and with 
six others entered into a contract to 
go to California and build a steam- 
boat, which was to ply on San Fran- 
cisco Bay. It was named the 



Henry T. Clay. This was the 
first ever seen in our waters. 
Mr. McAfee was to do the 
boiler work. The boat was shipped 
in sections on the bark " Emma," 
which left Bath, Me., in October, 

1849. The " Emma" had an exciting 
and adventurous voyage and arrived 
at San Francisco on June 16, 

1850. The boat was put together 
at what is now known as South 
Park. During the following six 
years Mr. McAfee worked for the 
P. M. S. S. Co. as foreman 
boiler-maker, and was also foreman 
boiler-maker at Mare Island Navy 
Yard, where the lute Admiral Far- 
ragut became his great friend. He 
mined at Bidwell's JBar, Yuba Coun- 
ty, for two years. In 1856 he ac- 
cepted the position of foreman with 
Coffee & Kisdon, where he remained 
twelve years. During this time he 
put up the largest boilers ever built 
on the Pacific Coast, including those 
for the steamers "Orizaba" (these 
being 60 tons each, the largest built 
on this coast, all being made by 
hand), "Capital," " Chrysopolis, 
and "Yosemite." Having now had 
seventeen years 1 experience of Cali- 
fornia life, and having amassed suf- 
ficient capital, he, in 1866, formed a 
partnership with B. Baurhyte, then 
the chief engineer of the steamer 
"Capital." 

The new establishment was opened 
on Howard street, between Fremont 
and Beale, and as Mr. McAfee was 
well known, it at once commanded a 
large amount of business. The fol- 
lowing year James Spiers bought out 
Baurhyte' s interest and the firm of 
McAfee, Spiers & Co. was formed. 
Mr. Spiers was his partner for the 
next ten years. In 1877 Mr. McAfee 



248 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



30M oat his interest to Mr. Spiers 
and established the McAfee Boiler 
Works at 216 Spew street, which 
have remained at the same location 
ever since. In 1884 he admitted his 
son William A. McAfee to partner- 
ship, the firm being now known as 
that of William McAfee & Son. It 
has been one of the most successful 
manufacturing establishments in San 
Francisco. Mr. McAfee wa* married 
in 1852 to Miss Ann Campbell. They 
hare lived happily together and hare 
had a largo and interesting family of 
eleven children, seven of whom are 
now living. One, as already stated 
above, is a partner with his father 
and has proved himself a most suc- 
cessful business man, and is one of 
oar men of promise of the future. 
The others are Su-an, George, 
Frank, Jennie, Hattie, and Robert, 
the last-named being tho youngest. 
Mr. McAfee is a charter member 
of Pacific Lodge, A. 0.0. F., hav- 
ing been a member of Yerba Buena 
Lodge No. 15, afterwards becoming 
a member of Pacific Lodge No. 55. 
He is also a prominent member of 
Valley Lodge, A. 0. U. W. Ho has 



never sought public office all this 
time, hid attention being devoted to 
his business, interests and those of 
his family.- His tastes are all domes- 
tic. When free from business 
cares his principal solace is in the 
enjoyment of the society of his fam- 
ily. The pioneers, those who have 
built up the great industries of San 
Francisco, will ever be held in grate- 
ful remembrance by the historian, 
and will always be justly regarded as 
prominent amongst the founders of 
the commonwealth of California. 
The struggles and trials of tho.-e who 
have first trodden the rugged pathway 
that leads to success in industrial 

Enrsuits will be better appreciated 
y those who come after them than 
by their contemporaries or the pres- 
ent generation, and posterity in tho 
annals of the city will leave them 
monuments of everlasting fame. 
Manufactures ore the foundation of 
commerce and n itional wealth, and 
too much honor cannot be conferred 
on those who have in the first in- 
stance established them. Amongst 
these, William McAfee may proudly 
claim a foremost rank. 





J. H. McMenomy. 



Captain John h. mcMenomy. 



«" in 



record of our self-made men 
vouid be complete that did not 
t include the name of John H. 
McMenomy. For the more than 
twenty-nine years he has been a resi- 
dent of San Francisco he has pros- 
pered in life, and his fortune has 
steadily advanced with the growth in 
population and importance of the Gol- 
den City. Ho was born in Troy, N. 
Y., in 1841. He received his early ed- 
ucation in the public schools in that 
city, but the departure of his father to 
California in 1852 compelled him to 
learn the sturdy lessons taught in the 
stern school of life and that of self-re- 
liance, as he was then obliged to help 
in the support of the family. When 
only eleven years old, he made his first 
start in life as a newsboy, but the 
lad was ambitious and determined to 
improve his condition. He therefore 
became an apprentice in his native 
city. Hero he learned the niolder's 
art, and before he left this establish- 
ment, became a proficient workman. 
His father, who had tempted fortune 
in far off California with moderate 
success, returned to Troy in 1854. 
Making up his mind to embark in 
the farming business in the then new 
Northwest, he moved out with his 
family to Wisconsin, but the hum- 
drum life of a farm in a far distant 
State was not to the taste of the man 
whose blood had been fired by the 
search for gold and the adventurous 
life of the mining camps of Cali- 
fornia. Ho had an ever-longing 
desire to return, and in 1857, having 
sold out his farm, found his way back 
to Troy. Thence he sailed for San 
Francisco, and sent for his family 
the year ensuing. They arrived here 
via the Isthmus on the fourteenth 
day of February, 1858. John H., 



now 17 years old, went to the 
mines with his father, but soon 
determined that all that glitters 
was not gold. He turned his back 
upon the mines forever and con- 
cluded to engage in more profitable, if 
more prosaic, pursuits than that of 
gold hunting. He first became 
foreman of the late Daniel Mc- 
Glynn, then contractor for the 
Howard-street Road. On its com- 

t)letion he went back to Calaveras, 
>ut did not again engage in mining. 
His brother-in-law carried on the 
butcher business and he became his 
assistant. He sought San Francisco 
a^ain in 1861 and found employment 
with William Smith, then engaged in 
the wholesale butchering trade and 
now a member of the firm of J. G. 
James & Co. After a brief stay of 
four months with Mr. Smith he was 
hired by Stephen Story, of the 
Occidental Market. Here he re- 
mained four years, working industri- 
ously and acquiring a large number 
of friends and business acquaint- 
ances. So well was he known and so 
much respected for integrity and 
ability, that in 1866 he was enabled 
to open a stall of his own in the 
same market. Here he prospered 
for about one year; but when the 
California Market was opened, in 
1867, he immediately rented Stall 
No. 7, the central one occupied by 
him to-day. To this he has added 
several others in the course of the 
long years since intervening, until 
now his trade is one of the largest 
of the kind in the city. He entered 
in 1885 into the business of feeding 
fat cattle for this market, especially 
for his own trade, and in this has 
been completely successful. The 
cattle fed by him would be hard to 



ItriLPERS OF A GREAT CITT. 



match either in California or the 
United States. He in the only retailer 
in the State who stall feeds and kills 
his own cuttle. He has thus aroused 
a heulthly competition amongst those 
whose business it is to supplv the 
markets of San Francisco with that 
indispensable article — healthy, fresh 
meat, and from this point of view 
may be regarded as a benefactor to 
to the State. All the cattle sold by 
him are fed and killed in his estab- 
lishment which is as clean ns the 
cleanest dairy in the conutrv. He 
has experimented on pulled Angus 
nod Durham cattle :is well as other 
rioted breeds. City and State have 
benefited by the results of his 
experiments. In 18(W> he married 
Miss Story, who has borne him nine 
children. He is public-spirited and 
deserves well of the State and city as 
ho has served seventeen yearn in the 
National Guard and never lost a 
drill. He was for ten years Captain 
of the MeMahon Guard, having been 



elected seven times consecutively and 
could have had that honorable posi- 
tion still had he chosen. This com- 
Sany was the only one of the old 
hii-d Regiment that was not dis- 
banded and became Company A of 
(he First Regiment. He was a 
member of the Volunteer Fire 
Department for five years, during 
which time he never missed a fire. 
These twenty-two years of public 
service have been without pay and for 
the good of the community. He is 
now exempt from military duty 
and an exempt fireman as well. 
He lias a beautiful home in Golden 
Gate, Alameda County, which is all 
that a business man can desire. He 
is tall, muscular and well made, hand- 
some in person, and liberal in heart. 
He has attained his present position 
by courage, energy and unremitting 
industry. Being still a young man 
he has, no doubt, a brilliant career 
before him. He is a good example 
of a self-made man of San Francisco. 





William Lawrenge Merry. 



William Lawrence merry. 




ILLIAM L. MERRY comes 
from a New York family of 
English extraction, and is 
now 54 years of age. It was the in- 
tention of bis parents that he should 
study law, and to this end his early 
education was directed. But in 1850 
his father bought and loaded an 
American vessel in which the family 
arrived at San Francisco in June, 
1850. In June, 1851, he first went 
to sea before the mast, and for six- 
teen years was afloat, except during 
a period of three years when he re- 
presented New York transportation 
corporations in Nicaragua and Pa- 
nama. 

During his experience at sea, 
Captain Merry has been five times 
around the world, eleven times 
around Cape Horn, and six times 
around the Cape of Good Hope. He 
has always been a student and a close 
observer, constantly acquiriug in- 
formation. His early education and 
natural talent combine to make him 
a fluent writer and conversationalist. 

His first command was the clipper 
"Tornado," of New York, to which 
vessel he was temporarily appointed 
during the illness of Captain Mum- 
ford, with whom ho was first officer. 
He subsequently commanded the 
clipper ship "White Falcon," the 
steamships ' ' America, " " Arago, ' ' 
"Nebraska," "Fulton," "Dakota" 
aud "Montana," all of New York, 
and navigating between New York 
and Nicaragua and Panama, also 
from San Francisco to Central Ame- 
rican ports. The wide experience 
and the knowledge of foreign coun- 
tries obtained by visits to all parts 
of the world, and his habit, never 
relaxed, of "learning something 
every day," make him a man of 



marked ability, and have drawn him 
into intercourse with the foremost 
men of the country. His knowledge 
of the isthmian canal question prob- 
ably equals that of any one living. 
Aside from having studied it atten- 
tively for years, he has the great ad- 
vantage of an intimate knowledge of 
all the local conditions from per- 
sonal and repeated examination of 
the routes. Thus, when Lesseps 
boldly announced his intention of 
building a Panama sea-level canal in 
1880, Captain Merry did not hesitate 
to publicly assert that he would fail ; 
an assertion which our French fel- 
low-citizens deemed presumptions, 
but which events have proven cor- 
rect. His advocacy of the Nicaragua 
Canal has been persistent, able and 
judicious ; events tend to prove that 
his opinion in its favor will be borne 
out by results, there, as at Panama. 
In 1880 the interoceanic canal 
question was engaging public atten- 
tion here for the first time. Very 
little was known on the Pacific Coast 
as to the merits of the different 
routes, although many pioneer Cali- 
fornians had passed over Panama 
mid Nicaragua, and had some general 
deas about the matter, which is more 
than could then be said of any other 
community in the world. The Board 
of Trade of San Francisco appointed 
a committee to report on the subject, 
and Captain Merry was placed at its 
head. The published report of this 
committee attracted attention all 
over the country, especially at Wash- 
ington. When the canal question 
came up in Congress, Captain Merry 
was invited to appear before the com- 
mittee having charge of the subject, 
and made two prolouged visits to the 
Capital in the interest of the Nvo&r 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



ragna Canal Company, in which he 
hail then become interested. He 
then proved himself folly competent 
to combat the fallacies of Captain 
Eads with his ship railway, as well 
as the Panama tide-level project at 
Panama. The company then own- 
ing the Nicaragua Canal concession 
lost it through the failure of tho In- 
corporation Bill in Congress. It 
Kassed the Senate, bat as it had to 
e called up ont of order in the 
Honse it failed to pass, although it 
had within live votes of a two-thirds 
majority. Captain Merry has never 
given up his interest in the Nica- 
ragua Canal, however. His friend- 
ship with the principal public men 
of Nicaragua always led them to re- 
gard him as their best friend in this 
countrv, and they have constantly 
urged him to assist them iu pushing 
the enterprise to a successful con- 
clusion. He has written articles on 
the subject which have attracted 
public attention throughout the 
Republic, and has addressed many 
audiences in favor of a project which 
he lias always contended will be a 
great boon to the Pacific Coast, and 
of important advantage to the whole 
country. It may be safely asserted 
that his interest in this great enter- 
nri.se will never flair, and that bgfojg 



In 1884 his name was placed at the 
head of the Republican Municipal 
ticket for the Mayoralty of San Fran- 
cisco, and was defeated by the late 
Governor Bartlett, whose election 
carried with it no comment upon his 
opponent, who emerged from the 
political contest with character and 
ability unquestioned. Captain Merry 
was subsequently twice elected Presi- 
dent of the Chamber of Commerce of 
San Francisco, and so increased the 
membership and influence of this pio- 
neer commercial organization of the 
Pacific Coast, that lie was retired at 
his urgent request and presented 
with a testimonial which has never 
before been tendered any retiring 
President of the Chamber. 

Since 1869, when Captain Merry 
resigned his position as commander 
of ocean steamships, he has engaged 
in commercial pursuits in this citv. 
The firm of Merry, Faull & Co. 'is 
well and favorably known to onr 
mercantile community, while his 
personal word is regarded as good as 
n written bond. His interest in the 
public welfare of our city and State 
never flags* and his many efforts on 
behalf of the commercial progress of 
San Francisco are familiar to all oar 
leaders. He is high in the Masonic 
I-'rateruitv. befog ■ life member of 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



258 



Construction Co., of which Hon. 
Warner Miller, of New York, is 
President. 

Captain W. L. Merry is a thor- 
ough American, with patriotic be- 
lief in his country and in repub- 
lican institutions, and an ardent 



supporter of our public schools. 
His family and social connections 
are of the most agreeable char- 
acter, and his life has been a long 
record of honorable usefulness, which 
it is hoped may be prolonged for 
years to come. 




D. 0. Mills. 



Darius Ogden Mills. 



s4»HE name of Darius Ogden Mills, 
JIL for more than forty years, has 
^T been familiar to people on both 
sides of the Rocky Mountains as that 
of a great banker. Not only in this re- 
spect but also in that of an indus- 
trial pioneer it will long occupy a 
distinguished place in the roll of 
California worthies. 

His family were of mingled Scotch 
and English descent and were among 
the early settlers of New York and 
New England. That branch from 
which he comes was, near the begin- 
ning of the century, settled in West- 
chester County in the State of New 
York, a location which though then 
a successful grazing and agricultural 
district, now forms one of the sub- 
urbs of New York city. 

His father was a successful busi- 
ness man, took an active part in 
social and public affairs generally, 
and possessed a large influence in 
that section of the country. 

At North Salem, in this district, 
on September 5, 1825, D. O. Mills 
was born. His father, in good con- 
dition as to wealth, gave all of his 
children excellent educations. Pro- 
fitting by all these opportunities, 
Mr. Mills at an early age showed an 
aptitude for a business life and his 
surroundings brought him in close 
contact with business men, so that 
at the early ace of eighteen years 
he began his life's work in New York 
city, and within three years went to 
Buffalo, N. Y., to the position of 
cashier of the Merchants' Bank of 
Erie County. Later he became a 
part owner in the bank. He was 
ever an untiring worker and ac- 
quired a keen insight into human na- 
ture. 

At the age of twenty-two he start- 



ed for California leaving his relations 
with the bank unchanged, thus hav- 
ing a reserve to draw upon. At 
Panama he found the city full of 
people who could not get away owing 
to want of vessels. He went south 
to Callao to obtain a vessel, but could 
only get a passage for himself from 
Callao to San Francisco arriving in 
the latter city June 4, 1849. 

Sacramento was then the centre of 
trade with the mines and he engaged 
in procuring from the East largo 
stocks of goods for the use of miners, 
and indeed made one trip to New York 
and back the next year for this pur- 

Eose. Almost immediately, however, 
e went back to his first occupation 
of banking, and some of his old ac- 
count books, still in his bank in that 
city, show that the transition from 
merchandising to banking took placo 
in 1849, although the latter was not 
formally entered on until 1850. 

The early business of the bank 
consisted largely in buying gold dust 
and selling exchange. Deposits 
were not of great volume, and the 
large express companies held most of 
these, but their failures and Mr. 
Mills' stability made him take their 
place in the community. 

This bank is still in existence and 
is known as the National Bank of D. 
O. Mills & Co., and it advertises 
that he retains yet one-third in- 
terest; the remaining two-thirds be- 
ing held by the original partners or 
their families. 

On June 18, 1864, the Bank of 
California was opened of which Mr. 
Mills was President and a tenth own- 
er of the capital— then $2,000,000. 
This capital was soon increased to 
$5,000,000, and the bank had a pros- 
perous career for nine yeoro *xns\ n«v- 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



til he iwtired from the management 
to give his time to Lis own rapidly 
increasing estate. 

Two jears later he was recalled to 
assist intho reorganization of the bank 
and gave three years of hard labor to 
this task, and then again retired feel- 
ing that his work was now well done. 

During these years lie became 
largely interested in such enterprises 
as the Virginia and Truckee Rail- 
road, and the Carson and Colorado 
liailroad, and tin- Eureka and Pali- 
wide Railroad; also the Pacific Roll- 
ing Mills and the Pacific Oil and 
Lead Works and raauv others. 

Though often urged, Mr. Mills has 
always declined taking any active 
part in politics; lie votes for thw best 
men irresjicctive of party. While a 
member of the Board of Regents of 
the State University, ho invested 
£75,000 in a fund to establish a chair 
or as it is known "The Mills' Profes- 
sorship of Intellectual and Moral 
Philosophy and Civil Polity." 

He has a liking for pictures and 
statuary, and presented to the State 
a line piece of Italian marble carved 
in Florence, Italy, by Larkin G. 
Mead, of Vermont, into a beautiful 
group of three figures, one being 
4jueeu Isabella, another Columbus, 



sume the undertaking for my own 
Crown of Castile, anl am ready to 
pawn my jewels to defray the ex- 
penses of it, if. the funds in the 
treasury shall be found inadequate." 
It cost $30,000, and is a masterpiece 
of work, and the only piece of art of 
the kind in the United States. 

.In New York he has built a fine 
training school for ■ male nurses. 
This and his other deeds of charity 
will give emphasis to the universal 
verdict of the people of the United 
States who know him that his easy, 
polite and unaffected manner springs 
from the heart and not from selfish 
policy. His business ventures have 
proven him to hold a clear Judgment 
nod to be conservative. He is yet in 
his prime, and doubtless has long 
years of usefulness before him. His 
name is one of peculiar power in the 
financial world, and it will long be 
remembered as that of one of Cali- 
fornia's great men and as the name 
of one of the great "Builders of 
San Francisco." 

On September 5, 1854, D. O. 
Mills married Jane T. Cunningham, 
a most estimable lady, whose death 
in 1888 was a cause of profound re- 
gret to her many friends. They had 
two children, both living, a daughter 





F. B. Morrow. 



Frederick: B. Morrow, 



cmrN compiling the biographical 
mi sketches of San Francisco's re* 
7* presentativo men in commerce, 
manufacture, etc.. it is not amiss 
to briefly mention the career of the 
late Frederick B. Morrow, who, dur- 
ing the years he was idsntitied with 
the business interests of the city, 
had, by his indomitable pluck, fore- 
sight and intelligence, earned a most 
enviable reputation in commercial 
circles. Wnilst in his prime he was 
suddenly carried away, and by his 
death the city lost one" of its bright- 
est public-spirited business men. 

Mr. Morrow was born in Reho- 
both, Bristol County, Mass., Novem- 
ber 12, 1857. Ho was raised on a 
farm, and during his boyhood days 
received such ; educational advan- 
tages as were afforded by the neigh- 
boring schools. Possessing that 
sturdy and independent nature, char- 
acteristic of most of our New Eng- 
land boys, he, at an early age, de- 
termined to make a start in the 
Avorld and carve out his own future 
and fortune. On learning of the 
possibilities of success to be ob- 
tained in the far west, he concluded 
to come to California, and when but 
eleven years of age, in company 
with his brother, Mr. J. A. Morrow, 
now of tbe Pacific Metal Works in 
this city, he left his country home 
for New York City. Here the two 
brothers took passage on a steamer 
bound for Aspinwalf; arriving there 
they crossed the Isthmus and took 
the first steamer for San Francisco, 
where they arrived in October, 1868. 
It was a snort time before this that 
San Francisco experienced* that 
memorable heavy earthquake, which 
did such damage to many of the city's 
large buildings. This, however, 



did not deter the young men from 
deciding on making California their 
future home. Soon after their ar- 
rival they embraced a good opportu- 
nity offered them to purchase a dairy 
ranch in Sonoma County, where 
they remained until 1875, and then 
moved to Oakland. Mr. Morrow 
always had a desire of entering into 
mercantile pursuits, which his nat- 
ural bent of mind fitted him for, and 
he sought for an opeuing, where his 
latent talent in that direction could 
have full scope. Six months after- 
wards he succeeded in buying Mr. 
Nisongers interest in the firm of 
Nisonger & Miller Metal Works, 
situated at 215 First street in this 
city. Though unacquainted with 
the business Mr. Morrow was not 
long in mastering its details. Short- 
ly after his accession to the partner- 
ship Mr. Miller sold out his interest 
to Mr. N. R. Strong, and the firm 
then became known as Morrow A; 
Strong. Mr. Morrow lent his en- 
ergy and ability to the promotion of 
the business, and his efforts wore 
awarded with the most signal suc- 
cess. In 1880 the firm, finding their 
place inadequate to meet the growth 
of their trade, moved to a larger 
building at 115 First street. Here 
they continued until December, 
1880. Their business had now as- 
sumed such proportions as to neces- 
sitate still larger quarters, and at 
this time they had decided to incor- 
porate, so they moved to tho more 
commodious premises at 141 First 
street. A stock company was then 
organized, with a capital of ¥23,500, 
in January, 1887, under the name of 
the Pacific Metal Works, and the 
following Directors elected: F. B. 
Morrow, President; N. R. Strong 



258 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Vice-President; J. A. Morrow, Sec- 
retary; John S. Reese, Manager, and 
YV. H. Morrow, Manager of their 
Portland, Or., branch. 

The business had from time to 
time extended until the whole Pacific 
Coast was brought within the range 
of their field of operations, and in 
1880 their trade in the Northwest 
had grown to such an extent that 
they found it necessary to open a 
branch bouse in Portland, Or., and 
Mr. W. H. Morrow was sent there to 
take charge of it. 

Since its incorporation the com- 
pany's stock increased, until now 
the capital is $60,000. The excellent 
standing of the company, commer- 
cially, and its reputation throughout 
the coast for fair and honorable deal- 
ing, in addition to the acknowledged 
fine quality of all the material turned 
out of its shops, has made it in all re- 
spects one of the strongest concerns 
in San Francisco. To placing the 
business upon the firm financial 
basis it now enjoys Mr. Morrow con- 
tributed no small share. His death, 
which brought about a slight change 
in the directorship, Mr. John S. 



Reese, who is an experienced metal 
expert, being elected President, has, 
however, not in the least affected the 
growing prosperity of the company. 

There was no important public 
movement but found in Mr. Morrow 
an earnest friend and promoter, and 
he was always looked upon as one of 
the city's most enterprising men. Of 
a genial and unassuming demeanor 
lie was endeared to a host of friends, 
and the community in which he 
lived esteemed and honored him as 
an upright man and a representative 
citizen. 

In April, 188*2, he was married to 
a very estimable lady of Oakland, 
Miss Kirkman, the result of which 
union was two daughters, whose 
ages at the time of his death were 
respectively six and four years. 

Mr. Morrow's death was brought 
about by being kicked in the fore- 
head by his horse, causing a fracture 
of the skull. Two days before his 
demise his skull was trepanned but 
to no avail. He died on the 23d of 
April, 1889, and was buried from 
the Plymouth-avenue Congregational 
Church, Oakland. 





S. G. Murphy, 



Samuel green mukpky. 




VERY section of tlio Uuiuii has 
contributed the talent, genius 
and enterprise of its sons to 
help build up this great common- 
wealth on the Pacific; so also has 
every rank and section of society. 
Somo (i our best commercial men 
and kings of finance have been re- 
cruited from the ranks of the people , 
and have climbed the ladder from 
the very lowest to the topmost rung. 
Tho bankers of San Francisco arc 
not excelled in financial knowledgo 
and business ability by those of any 
other section of our great country. 
Amongst those who have been r.o- 
ted for their success in banking af- 
fairs, Samuel Green Murphy is not 
tho least prominent. He was born 
in Guilford County, North Carolina, 
on November 6, 1836, and is there- 
fore still in the prime of an active 
life. He father was a farmer, but 
ho was connected with some of the 
best families of his native State. 
His grandfather took an active part 
in the revolution that freed the col- 
onies, while the noted jurist, Judge 
Murphy \ celebrated in the history of 
North Carolina, was a great-uncle. 
While yet a boy ho went to work in 
a country store at the not munificent 
salary of $30 a year — board and 
washing included. Even under these 
unfavorable circumstances he saved 
the first year tho sum of $4 25, not a 
great foundation for a future fortune- 
But the lad was full of grit and enter, 
prise, and this circumstance, though 
trifling in itself, gave good promise of 
what his future was to be. He then 
took employment in an uncle's store 
and gave such satisfaction that in 
three years he was sent to New York 
to act as purchasing agent for the 
house; and then, acception of sales- 



mini in ono of the larger dry goods 
houses. He was then engaged by the 
Now York house at a salary of $1800 
a year, which was a big salary for 
thoso clays. He remained in this 
position for two years, and on being 
taken sick he returned to North Caro- 
lina. After he recovered his health 
he went into business with his uncle, 
who was engaged in tho manufacture 
of tobacco. Ho traveled throughout 
the South and West as salesman for 
the establishment. When Lincoln 
wus elected he was in northern Kan- 
sas, where he came near losing his 
life in a snow-storm. Going to Chi- 
cago he secured a position in a com- 
mercial house there. When he saw 
that war was inevitable ho resigned, 
and returned to hi-* nativo State. 
Excitement ran high, but the con- 
servative people were in iavor of 
settling the trouble by peaceable 
means. Mr. Murphy was of the 
opinion that the matter should be 
settled by Congress, and not by an 
appeal to arms. But such counsels 
were not suited to tho then excited 
temper of the people, and war being 
declared, he cast his lot with his 
native State, and served with distinc- 
tion. After an almost fatal illness he 
retired from the service. When peace 
once more happily prevailed through- 
out the land he returned to New York 
city, and there for about a year was 
engaged in the commission business. 
Going thence to Columbus, Ga., he 
formed a partnership with G. P. Swift 
(establishing the firm, Swift, Murphy 
& Co.), who was conducting a general 
warehouse and commission cotton fac- 
tor for the planters. Here he married 
Mr. Swift s daughter, a handsome 
and estimable lady, on June 1, 1870. 
The business prospered, and he and 



200 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Mr. Swift together built a largo 
cotton-mill. In August, 1876, be 
visited this coast oil a pleasure trip, 
and being delighted with the climate 
concluded to make his future home 
in the Golden State. In June, 1877, 
he settled himself permanently in 
California. Having some business at 
the Pacific Bank, he was offered tliu 
position of assistant cashier, without 
asking for it. This he accepted, and 
in 1878, when the cashier retired, Mr. 
Murphy took his place. He remain- 
ed in the bank four yearn, thence go- 
ing to New York and engaging iu 
banking there. But lie could not for- 
get California, and returned in 1881 
and again took the position of cash- 
ier of the Pacific Bank where he re- 
mained until January, 1888. He was 
then offered and accepted the posi- 
tion of President of the First Na- 
tional Bank. Ho has an interesting 



family, including two daughters now 
at school. He has traveled much, 
having made several trips to Europe 
for pleasure and in search of informa- 
tion. He has seen touch of life in 
his somewhat eventful career, and his 
judgment of things is generally ac- 
curate and reliable. The necessities 
of his position, that of banker, have 
made him cautious and conservative, 
characteristics indispensable in a 
financier. In conversation he is 
pie isaut and agreeable, but as a rule 
is strictly business, and wastes littlo 
time in discussing pleasantries or 
other frivolities of the day. He 
has no political ambitions, being sat- 
isfied to serve his country in tho 
ranks. He stands high amongst 
bankers, and his advice in financial 
matters is generally followed. Wo 

fired ict for him a long career of usu- 
alness in his chosen profession. 





JarijTon Newman. 



CARLTON NEWMAN. 




AN FKANCISCO — California 
— can never sufficiently paj 
the deep debt of gratitude it 
owes to our pioneer manufacturers. 
Without manufactures a community 
is robb d of two-thirds of its wealth, 
and must always remain poor until 
they are solidly established. A his- 
tory of the trials and struggles of 
the pioneer men would be one of ab- 
sorbing interest. To them is due all 
and every honor the commonwealth 
can bestow. Their brains, capital 
and labor have been used unstint- 
ingly to lay deep the foundation of 
its prosperity, and future genera- 
tions, as well as the people of our 
own day, will have cause to bless 
the enterprise and courage of those 
who have been successful. Among 
the manufacturers, we know none of 
more inventive brain and indomit- 
able energy than the late Carlton 
Newman. He was a born inventor, 
and one of the best business men of 
his day. The magnificent industry 
built up by him from nothing suffi- 
ciently attests this. He was born in 
Wheeling, W. Va., June 26, 1829. 
At an early age he learned the trade 
of glassblowing. He removed with 
his mother and brothers to Pittsburg, 
Penn., in 1848. Here his early man- 
hood was passed amidst the bus 7 in- 
dustrial scenes of " the smoky city." 
He received a good common school 
education, and supplemented this in 
after life by diligent study of what 
pertained to his calling. 

In Pittsburg he perfected the 
knowledge of his trade, though he 
was all his life a diligent student of 
mechanical problems. He was an 
early inventor, many of his inven- 
tions pertaining to his own line of 
business. With the result of the sale 



of two patents he obtained the means 
to reach this coast, where, with his 
family, he arrived in 1863. 

In 1865 he saw an opportunity to 
build up the glass business known 
as the San Francisco Glass Works, 
located on Bitch and Townsend 
streets, Carlton Newman and P. 
Brennen composing the firm. They 
were engaged in the manufacture of 
green and black glassware. In 1867 
a new copartnership was formed — 
that of Hosstetter, Smith & Dean — 
and with increased capital they es- 
tablished the first flint glassworks in 
this city — nn eight-pot furnace for 
making white glassware. The loca- 
tion was on Townsend street, be- 
tween Third and Fourth. Here Mr. 
Newman was the manager and prac- 
tical business man. 

In 1868 the works, having been but 
fairly started, were destroyed by fire 
in the Fall of the year. Mr. Newman 
was again thrown on his own re- 
sources to battle with the world. 
He had nothing left save indomi- 
table pluck and perseverance, and a 
knowledge of his business which 
was not easily paralleled. So, 
nothing daunted, in 1870 he started 
again, organizing the San Francisco 
Glass Works, of which Newman and 
Duval were proprietors, Mr. Newman 
being senior partner. In his strug- 
gle against adverse fortune he was 
aided by some of our leading business 
men, who had admired his honesty, 
energy and ability. From this time 
on he prospered in business, and 
the San Francisco Glass Works soon 
became a power in the industrial 
world. 

In 1876 a consolidation was effected 
with the Pacific Glass Works, and 
John Taylor, proprietor of tha Uttat % 



2G2 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



retired. Later Mr. Newman became 
sole proprietor of the San Francisco 
and Pacific Glass Works, as the new 
organization was known. Several 
attempts were made to start opposi- 
tion factories, but none succeeded; 
no less than seven factories having 
started and made failures. 

In 1883 he built a furnace espe- 
cially adapted to what is known as 
flint glassware. This was the second 
venture of the kind in San Fran- 
cisco. He believed that an oppor- 
tunity existed for its successful es- 
tablishment. He found, however, 
after spending $18,000 that it would 
not be profitable and he closed this 
department. This did not, however, 
interfere with his manufacture of 
black, green and amber glassware, 
which is to-day a success. 

Mr. Newman died March 8, 1889. 
He was attached to no particular 
church, but fulfilled all the precepts 
of a practical religion, and, though 
making no show, was benevolent and 
charitable in a private way. He was 
a mun of warm heart and generous 
impulses, manly and outspoken ; a 
good brother and a kind father ; 
an excellent business man ; a typi- 
cal American, possessing great fove 
for our flap; and country. In polities 



Francisco Lodge, No. 1, F. and A. 
M. ; a member of Occidental Lodge, 
No. 22, F. and A. M. ; a member of 
Terba Buena Lodge, No. 1788, 
Knights of Honor; a member of 
Terba Buena Lodge, No. 15, I. 
O. O. F-, and of Fidelity Lodge, 
American Legion of Honor. 

In dying he left a widow find one 
son, George, and three daughters, 
all the latter married. His oldest 
son died in his early infancy. His 
son George is now identified with 
the successful business that his father 
built up and planted on Bach broad 
foundations . 

During the closing year of Mr. 
Newman s life he had great faith 
in the fruit-growing possibilities 
of this State, and wishing be- 
sides to establish a country home 
where he could occasionally rest 
from the busy cares of city life, he 

Surchased a large ranch in Santa 
lara County which he set out with 
the choicest of fruit trees. This, 
outside of the successful establish- 
ment of the glass industry in this 
State, was one of the great objects of 
his ambition, but at last death came 
and cut him off in the prime of life, 
while yet planning many notable 
triumphs in the industrial field. As 





George W. Osborn. 



George W. Osborn. 



CJjUHE world owes a deep debt of 
<f| . gratitude to the early pioneers 

^T of California. They it were who 
rendered possible the development of 
the myriad resources of the Golden 
State and its consequent boundless 
future riches. The result of the ef- 
fort of each particular one has not 
in all cases been great, but when we 
multiply this one hundred thousand 
fold some inadequate idea may be 
had of the mighty work performed 
by those who left home and kindred 
to seek their fortunes in an un- 
known land. We read the reward, 
and in many instances the only re- 
ward, vouchsafed to their heroic and 
self-sacrificing efforts. Many, how- 
ever, have amassed a liberal fortune 
as the result of their early toils and 
labor. Amongst these may be 
counted George W. Osborn. This 
gentleman possesses a memory re- 
tentive of names, facts and faces, 
and as for the past forty years he 
has been brought into almost daily 
contact with the leading men of San 
Francisco, and besides has a rich 
fund of pioneer experience to draw 
from, he is one of the most racy 
raconteurs who tell of the olden 
times and relate stories of camp, 
field and foray. The world has 
never produced so many good story 
tellers as are numbered among the 
Argonauts, who acquired the art in 
the mining camp, where were gener- 
ally congregated men with vivid im- 
aginations, filled with the spirit of 
emulous wit, rendering them unable 
to tell .their experiences, except in a 
humorous vein, and making them 
wander from the straight paths of 
fact into those of fun and fiction, as 
if to do so were a part of their 
nature. 



George W. Osborn first saw the 
light of day among the white moun- 
tains of the American Switzerland, 
New Hampshire, in 1831. His 
father was the keeper of a modest inn, 
and the owner of a blacksmith shop, 
with a wagon making place attached. 
While he was still a small boy, his 
family moved to Boston, and again 
to Waltham, and in the latter place 
he finished his education, but, in 
his own expressive language, "more 
time was devoted to sport than to 
books." 

When the news of the new El Do- 
dora reached the East, the gold fever 
seized upon young Osborn, and with 
but a trifle more money than was 
necessary to furnish his passage, he 
hardly stopped to say "good-bye" 
to any one, and was soon on his voy- 
age. 

Reaching Panama, 1850, without 
friends or means, he found that the 
steamer he intended to take had not 
arrived and might not for weeks to 
come. He had no money to pay for 
lodging, and so made his bed under 
the trees outside the walls of the 
city. Through the efforts of Tom 
Hyer, a noted sport and pugilist of 
those days, he got his ticket changed, 
and as a deck passenger was soon on 
his way to San Francisco. One of 
his fellow voyagers, who was very 
sick with Panama fever, was nursed 
tenderly by him until he died. He 
then took possession of the dead 
man's berth and blankets, and, with 
fifty dollars, which he had borrowed 
of a sympathetic traveling compan- 
ion, the balance of the trip was made 
in comparative comfort and luxury. 

Arriving here, he first found work 
in Benicia, and for a few days was 
employed in unloading ve^^^^V^x 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



this be was engaged in lathing a 
building, and making good wages he 
was soon in the possession ot suffi- 
cient funds to pay his way to the 
mines on Bear River, where he was 
quite successful for a time, but the 
report of rich diggings on Scott 
River induced him and others to try 
their luck there. The expedition 
w..s fitted out at Sacramento, and as 
the pack train was leaving the town, 
a man came running at full spued 
down the street, crying ont, " Os- 
born, Osborn." It wus the very 
party from whom he had borrowed 
the fifty dollars on the steamer; he 
said he waa ' ' dead-bi oke," and 
asked if Mr. Osborn could help him. 
"Ceitaiuly, my dear fellow, come 
right into the store," was the reply; 
and there picking np the weight that 
was used in handling groceries, he 
laid it on one side of the scale and 
began pouring the gold dust from a 
bag into the tray which he continued 
to heap up until the fellow begged 
him to desist, and with tears in the 
eyes of both, they said " good-bye," 
and never met again. 

The Scott River venture proved a 
failure, and Mr. Osborn returned to 
San Francisco penniless. He went 
to a cheap hotel and frankly told the 



employed here, he married Miss 
Susan E. Garfield, a cou-in of the 
late President Garfield. By her he 
had one child, G. W. Osborn, Jr. 
After the close of the war he, in 
company with his wife and son, vis- 
ited the East and all the noted 
battlefields of the rebellion. 

Upon his return he, accompanied 
by Edward G. Sessions, of Oakland, 
began a real estate business at 611) 
Merchant street, San Francisco, 
which proved very successful. They 
handled much property, and their 
clients were among the millionaires 
of the city. One of the first opera- 
tions of the new firm was in pur- 
chasing the ground now known 
as Oakland Point, subdividing it 
into lots and selling it. They next 
bought the Wadsworth Tract, and 
subdivided it, where now stands 
some of the finest houses is Oak- 
land. Then they handled the Wat- 
son Tract; sold with profit to the 
sellers and buyers. He bought the 
Minturn estate in Alameda, which 
he subdivided and sold. Many of 
the lots have made the buyers rich 
men. He has taken great interest 
in and given considerable aid to 
public improvements, and is, him- 
self, a large nal estate owner. In 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



265 



of a committee to go to the Legisla- 
ture, for the purpose of getting a bill 
Sassed to widen Dupont street from 
[arket street to Broadway. The 
active men who did the work were 
Gt-orge W. Osborn, Jacob Kohn, 
myself, and another. Mr. Osborn 
and I made ten or twelve trips to 
Sacramento, where we had access to 
the committees of both houses of 
the Legislature. I addressed them 
a number of times on the subject, and 
without the efforts of Mr. Osborn 
and myself the street would never 
have b en widened, as Mr. Kohn only 
attended once. Mr. Osborn was an 
active worker from the beginning to 
the end — his services were simply 
invaluable. We never missed a 
meeting of the Legislature. He 
counseled and assisted me, and was 
never weary of devising ways and 
means for the passage of the bill. 
"We were unable to extend the 
streer to Broadway, as a number 
of property owners objected, par- 
ticularly the church, so we had to 
be contended to have it widened 
to Bush street. This we did the 
last day of the session. The prop- 
erty holders did nothing. The only 
money paid by them was $450 to 
Governor Haight for drawing up 
the bill and for other legal ex- 
penses to Senator Pierson. All the 
work was done in the face of strenu- 
ous opposition, particularly of Gov. 
Irwin, Senator McCoppin, who was 
particularly opposed to it, and Don- 
ahue. Through me, however, Mc- 
Coppin wus kept in town until the 
bill was pas ed. We never received 
one cent of remuneration. It was 
through me, Mr. Osborn and Con. 
O Connor that the name was 
clanged, first to Fleet street, and 
then because that happened to be 
my name, to Grant avenue. Here 
again his service was invaluable*" 

llis sou, G. W. Osborn, Jr., is a San 
Fruncisc < boy, King born in this 



city in 1860, near the present location 
of the Grand Opera House, and re- 
ceiving as good an education as the 
public schools of our city could 
afford. He next was a graduate of 
the Pacific Business College. He 
was then sent to Harvard, and 
graduated from the Law School of 
that famous university. He was 
subsequently admitted to the Bar, 
and to the right of practicing in all 
the courts in San Francisco — City, 
State and Federal. He is a member 
of Fidelity Lodge, F. & A. M., of 
this city, in which organization ho 
has advanced to the thirty-second 
degree, something unusual in one so 
young. 

G. W. Osborn, Sr., is now inter- 
ested in mining, and is the owner in 
whole or in part of several very large 
mining properties. He is half owner 
in tbe celebrated Boyle Mine on 
Humbug Creek, Siskiyou County, 
and which, in the opinion of min- 
ing men, will prove to be one of 
the richest mining properties in 
California. He is a member of 
Unity Lodge, I. O. O. F., in this 
city. While with Canfield, Pier- 
son & Co. he joined the Volunteer 
Fire Department, being a member 
of Young America Company, which 
made a notable record in early 
days. He is still proud of this, 
and of being an Exempt Fire- 
man, as are so many of our old 
and valued citizens. He is of a 
pleasant, genial disposition, fond of 
his joke, and never happier than 
when relating some of the humorous 
or eventful incidents connected with 
his life in the mines, and which 
would furnish abundant material for 
a dozen good stories of the Bret 
Hart type. Though forty years a 
resident of California, he is still 
hale and hearty. His step is elastic 
and vigorous, and his eyes bright as 
of yore, while a still useful life opens 
up its pleasant vista before him. 



I 



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J. I 




Louis B, Parrott. 



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i 



Louis B. Parrott. 



^jjUHIS city has boasted a notable 
fl||! . succession of shipping houses; 

^V some dating as far back almost 
as 1848, and all worthy of remem- 
brance for the services which they 
have rendered to our trade aud com- 
merce. Even the completion of the 
overland rail road has hardly interfered 
with their importance, to which there 
are promises of a magnificent acces- 
sion in the future, when we have an in- 
teroceanic canal and swift steam com- 
munication with all the ports of the 
world. The founders of these houses 
have done as great service in build- 
ing up the trade of San Francisco 
ns have those of later date in putting 
her manufacturing industries on a 
secure footing. 

The old and well-known banking 
house of Parrott & Co. was founded 
away back in the early days, and had 
a most successful career for twenty- 
two years. At the expiration of this 
period, in 1870,its business was turned 
over to the London aud San Fran- 
cisco Bank. At that time Mr. John 
Parrott was the proprietor of the 
bank. In retiring from banking, 
he, Tiburico Parrott, William F. 
Babcock, Joseph W. Alsop and W. 
B. Duncan conducted a shipping and 
mercantile business in which they 
had been interested for several years 
previous. This was known as the 
importing and commission house of 
Alsop & Co., which had been repre- 
sented in this city almost continu- 
ously for nearly twenty years. 

For a while it had ceased to op- 
erate, but in January, 1866, was re- 
vived by the gentlemen named. In 
the year 1870 the firm name was 
changed to that of Parrott & Co. 

Mr. Louis B. Parrott and Mr. Wm. 



Babcock became members in 1876, 
thirteen years ago. Mr. P. has long 
occupied an important position in it, 
and is now senior member. He was 
born in the famous and wealthy city 
of Baltimore, Maryland, in 1842. 
Though a native of Maryland, his 
family was one of the first in Vir- 
ginia. He received a solid educa- 
tion in his native State, and wa3 en- 
gaged in the shipping and commis- 
sion business in Mississippi, which, 
through a long and successful career, 
has ever since claimed his undivided 
attention. He came to California in 
1865, not, like many others, in search 
of the much coveted treasure of her 
mines, but to take a clerkship in the 
banking house of Parrott & Co. He 
arrived via Pauama, and had the 
usual experience of all who traveled 
by that route. After laboring hard 
for eleven years, and acquiring a 
thorough knowledge of what was to 
be his life business, he was admitted 
a member of the firm in 1876, as 
already mentioned. 

Tiburcio Parrott retired in 1880, 
leaving William F. Babcock senior 
member. On the death of Mr. Bab- 
coci , in 1885, Mr. Parrott, with Mr. 
W. Babcock, continued the business 
until December 30, 1887, when Mr. 
Babcock retired actively, and Mr. 
Joseph PLw was admitted as a 
member. As already noted, the 
business is one of the oldest and 
largest in its line in the city, and has 
reached its present standing through 
the labors of a series of able and tal- 
ented men. Not any of the financial 
panics of earlier or later days affected 
it, and it has kept on its way, ac- 
quiring strength with years. The 
business, of which Mr. Parrott U 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



head, extends to China, Japan, Aus- 
tralia, the East Indies, Central and 
South America and Europe, and con- 
sists in all the great staples which 
form the basis of our commerce with 
these countries. The house has been 
especially prominent in the great 
coffee trade with Central America. 
Mr. Parrott occupied the very re- 
sponsible position of Guatemalan 
Consul for six years, for which his 
education and commercial connec- 
tions especially fitted him. lie is a 
member of the Chamber of Com- 
merce and the Produce Exchange. 



lie belongs to the Pacific Union 
Club, and is also a member of the 
Bohemian Club. He was married 
in 1880 to an amiable and respected 
lady, who has borne him two chil- 
dren. He is a pleasant, unassuming 
gentleman of amiable manners. His 
business qualifications are such as 
become the responsible head of » 
house like that of Parrott & Co. He 
is of a charitable, friendly and oblig- 
ing disposition, and has always pre- 
served his character as a gentleman, 
unspotted and unstained during a 
long career. 





James Patterson. 



James Patterson. 



OS* HE successful pioneers of our Cal- 
^|h ifornia industries should be held 
<* in everlasting honor, as it is main- 
ly by industrial pursuits that a people 
grow rich and powerful. The task of 
establishing such industries in our day 
is no easy one when powerful manu- 
facturing States and nations have, at 
their beck and call, all that wealth 
and science and the latest triumphs of 
invention can bestow to keep them 
far ahead in the race. The industrial 
pioneer must therefore be no ordinary 
man even though often but the re- 
sult of his labors are seen, while he 
himself, modest and shrinking from 
publicity, is not unseldom robbed of 
the credit and honor that is justly his 
due. We have been led into these 
observations by a consideration of how 
such a great industry as that of saw 
making in our city could be so suc- 
cessfully developed, while the men 
who have done it all were, for the 
most part, hardly known outside of 
their own immediate circle. This is 
one of the industries which has suc- 
cessfully maintained itself against the 
wealth and power of the Eastern man- 
ufacturers in the same business, and 
sketches of those who have done it 
all will by no means come amiss. Not 
that there is anything of startling or 
absorbing interest in the record of 
their careers; on the contrary, they 
have gone on quietly, and we may say 
uneventfully, were it not for the suc- 
cess that has attended steady and un- 
remitting toil well directed. James Pat- 
terson, the manager of the firm tyiown 
as the "Pacific Saw Manufacturing 
Company " was born in Dalkeith, Scot- 
land, in 1835. He was taught to be 
useful at a very early age, and helped 



the family by his labors from the time 
that he was nine years old, so that he 
has been both literally and metaphori- 
cally the architect of his own fortune. 
He attended night school in New York 
while otherwise employed during the 
day. He left the shores of "Auld 
Scotia" in 184G, arriving in Baltimore 
in the same year. As he was then 
barely eleven years old, his education 
and training must be considered as 
having been wholly American. He 
was apprenticed to the business of 
saw making in Baltimore, and served 
three years at George Stead's estab- 
lishment ; thence going to New York 
he worked at Hoes for eight years. 
Here he became a thorough mechanic, 
and as Hoe had a night school wjicre 
the scholars were supplied not only 
with tuition, but with books, slates 
and pencils free, he laid here the 
solid foundation of a good business 
education. While an apprentice with 
George Stead at Baltimore, he first be- 
came acquainted with Charles P.Shef- 
field, who was afterwards to be a life 
partner in the business which both 
had learned. 

Mr. Patterson came to the Pacific 
Coast in October, 1858, by the 
Panama route — on the steamer St. 
Louis on the Atlantic side and the 
Sonora on the Pacific side. In 18G3 
he met his old shopmate, C. P. Shef- 
field, in this city and both went into 
the business of saw repairing on the 
northeast corner of Battery and Jack- 
son streets. While here engaged it 
occurred to them that saw manu- 
facturing on a small scale would pay. 
The great and inexhaustible lumber 
resources of the Coast and the mag- 
nitude that they had even then 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



assumed, rendered thu manufacture 
of saw:; for cutting down the forests 
already a great and thriving industry. 
But others were not at all of their 
opinion, and Mr. Patterson's land- 
lord, who would have loaned him any 
amount of money under ordinary 
circumstances, regarded the new 
project as wild and chimerical, and 
said : " You are intelligent, indus- 
trious and have a knowledge of your 
business. I will loan you money, but 
not to make saws." " People who 
used saws all had their preferences," 
said Mr. Patterson. " Some used one 
brand of saws, some another; tliey 
would only give us second chance. 
We would say to them, ' If the saw 
does not suit you send it back at our 
expense.' For ten or fifteen years," 
continued Mr. Patterson, "it was just 
this way ; hut then it became acknowl- 
edged that we could make a saw 
better suited to the wants of the 
coast than any one else, and that it 
was merely n matter of price that 
sent custom elsewhere. In this we 
have been handicapped ; we have to 
pay dearer for our material, dearer 
for our labor, for our fuel— more for 
everything. Could we manufacture 
as cheaply as in the Eastern States 
we could enjoy ten times ■" 



feet, the other twelve, were ex- 
hibited in the Mechanics' Institute 
Fair, held where the Lick House now 
stands. They were sold to McPherson 
fa Wetherbee and to Duncan's Mills. 
Our first establishment was on the 
northeast corner of Battery and 
Jackson streets, in the old iron store 
still standing. We removed from 
that to Pine street, between Front 
and Battery, and then to our present 
location in 1868." 

In 1864 Mr. Patterson, Mr. Sheffield 
and Mr. Spaulding joined themselves 
together under the style and title of 
the Pacific Saw Manufacturing Com- 
pany. There has not been since any 
change in its personnel, but in 1884 
the partners, like many others, thought 
it wise to incorporate. 

Mr. Patterson was married in 1856 
and has had several children. One 
son is engaged in the business with 
him, having learned the trade of 
saw-making in California. 

In person Mr. Patterson is slightly 
over the middle height, strongly but 
not stoutly built, in the prime of life 
and in the full flush of mental and 



igor. unassuming in manner, 
with a kindly word for ovorybody, 
but intensely practical ; he is a fitting 

type of the successful pioneer in the 





Geo. 0. Perkins. 



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11 

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George C Perkins. 



nltEW ENGLAND has no worth- 
ier son, nor one better known 
throughout the length and 
breadth of California, than the Hon. 
George Clement Perkins. His posi- 
tion in tbe mercantile community 

and in the political world has for a 
long series of jears been second to 
that of none in our State, and we 
may add that in few instances lias 
this prominence been better de- 
served. Tet, while such is the case, 
he has climbed the ladder of success 
round by round, having, throughout 
his diversified career, received none 
of the adventitious aids of wealth or 
fortune. His family traces its origin 
to England, but so far back that they 
may be truly regarded as essentially 
American. Their first settlement was 
made in Massachusetts, that small 
State which has given birth to so 
many renowned men, and thence it 
gradually spread all over New Eng- 
land. One branch settled in Maine, 
and Mr. Perkins is therefore one of 
those patriotic sons of that State to 
which California in general and San 
Francisco in particular owes so much. 
His birthplaoe was Kennebunkport; 
the year, 1839. His childhood was 
spent on his father's farm. His edu- 
cation was afterwards obtained in the 
schools of the neighborhood, which, 
however, in that day and generation, 
were more remarkable for their defi- 
ciences than their excellencies. He 
owes more, however, to home in- 
struction, to home example, and the 
precepts of honesty, industry and 
perseverance there inculcated than to 
anything that he acquired in schools. 
His parents were people of sturdy 
New England character, and he is in- 
debted, perhap*, more to their ad- 



vice, and above all their example, 
than to anything else in the world. 

The necessities of the case com- 
pelled him to leave home at a very 
early age, and he was, so to say, 
matured and grew to manhood amidst 
a constant succession of toils and 
struggles that doubtless helped him 
to acquire those very qualities which 
were the necessary conditions of his 
after suocess. He went to sea when 
only 12 years old. He chose a life 
on the ocean owing to his love of 
adventure, and to that craving which 
impels so many youths to see the 
world and seek adventures in strange 
lands. He shipped as cabin boy 
on the " Golden Eagle" to New 
Orleans. He did not want to go home 
after his first trip, but persevered in 
the path marked out for him, and 
made seven voyages to the Old 
World as a suilor boy, visiting Eng- 
land, Ireland, "Wales, France, Nor- 
way, Sweden and Russia. 

After his return home he attended 
the district school for six mouths. 
While yet not 15 years old, he 
again sailed for New Orleans, where 
he had an attack of yellow fever. 
Upon his recovery, he made three 
more voyages to Europe on the ships 
"Lizzie Thompson," "Nath. Thomp- 
son " and " Luna," from New 
Orleans, Maine and New Bruns- 
wick to Cork, Ireland. The men 
mutinied on the last voyage, and 
so well advanced was he in sea- 
manship that the officers placed him 
at the wheel. The mutiny being sup- 
pressed, the "Luna" returned to 
to port. While on this trip, an old 
sailor whose acquaintance he had 
made pictured to him in glowing 
terms the glories of California, when 
the resolve was at once formed to 



272 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



seek the Golden State at the first op- 
portunity, and, after a voyage to 
Dublin and Liverpool, thence across 
the oeean to New Orleans and back 
to New York, he visited home and 
friends once more, and made prep- 
arations for the trip to California. 
He arrived here on the clipper ship 
" Galatea" in the Fall of 1855. He 
shipped before the mast, and 
came as a sailor on the vessel around 
Cape Horn. At that, time his re- 
sources were few, but his enterprise 
and ambition great. A few days 
after arrival he went to Sacramento 
by schooner, thence to Oroville, 
nearly one hundred miles distant, 
walking all the way. He engaged in 
mining for about two years, but, 
meeting with poor success, he after- 
wards found employment in teaming 
and lumbering. The work was hard 
and the remuneration small, with lit- 
tle chance of improvement. This 
being apparent, he gave up the occu- 
pation, finding employment in the 
store of Hedley & Knight. Here bis 
energy and industry attracted atten- 
tion, and he was advanced step by 
step, till finally he become a partner 
in the business. At last the whole 
management devolved upon him, and 
it prospered exceedingly. While 
hero lie assisted in cslal>iishinL' Hie 



Boucher. While a member of the 
State Senate he worked honestly 
and earnestly to advance the interest 
not only of his section, bat of the 
great State of which it formed a part. 
It was at this lime that he made 
the acquaintance of Captain Charles 
Goodall, who was a men: ber of the 
Assembly from San Francisco. The 
result was the formation in 1872 of 
the well-known firm of Goodall, Nel- 
son & Perkins, which has exercised 
such an important influence in the 
transportation interests of the State. 
The partnership continued as at first 
constituted until 1876, when, Mr. 
Nelson retiring, the firm assumed the 
style and title of Goodall, Perkins 
& Co., which it retains to this day. 
Despite the attention which his great 
business interests required, Mr. Per- 
kins still remained in the political 
arena, or rather, his friends knowing 
his worth and his importance to the 
party, would not consent to his re- 
tirement. The result was his '-lec- 
tion as Governor in the Fall of 1879 
by a plurality of over 20,000. There 
was a sharp struggle before the State 
Convention, but the majority of that 
body felt that it needed a man of 
character and standing to lead the 
Republican host* to victory. He was 
nrntoil JiHiiDtvv I, JS8i), ami 




BUILDERS OF A GKEAT CITY. 



273 



Commander. In 1868 he was elected 
Grand Standard Bearer of tho Grand 
Commandery of California, and 
in 1871 Grand Senior Warden. In 
1882 he was elected Grand Com- 
mander of the Grand Commandery 
of Knights Templar of California, 
and held the position dnring the Tri- 
ennial Conclave of the Grand En- 
campment of the United States in 
this city. At that session he was 
elected Grand Junior Warden of the 
Grand Encampment of the Knights 
Templar in the United States. 

He is connected with many char- 
itable and benevolent associations, 
especially with the Boys and Girls' 
Aid Society, of which he has been 
President for eight years. He was 
President for two years of the Art 
Association, and is a member of the 
Pacific-Union, Bohemian and Athe- 
nian Clubs. He served as President 
of the Merchants' Exchange in 1878, 
and was again elected President in 
1889, holding the position at this 
time. He has been for several years 
a Trustee of the Academy of Scien- 
ces, and is also a Trustee of the 
State Mining Bureau, and a Trustee 
of the State Institute for the Denf, 
Dumb and Blind at Berkeley. 

As a shipping house the firm of 
which he is a member has long com- 
manded or controlled the most ex- 
tensive business on the coast, ex- 
tending from Alaska to Mexico. 



This has largely been developed by 
their energy and industry. About 
two thousand men are constantly em- 
ployed in this trade. The firm, be- 
sides, has a large interest in the 
Pacific Whaling Company and other 
corporations. Governor Perkins him- 
self is largely interested in various 
industries. He is a Director 
in the First National Bank of 
San Francisco, Starr & Co., 
Bank of Butte County, California 
State Bank, Pacific Steam Whaling 
Company, Arctic Oil Works and 
other corporations. He is largely 
interested in mining, and is the 
owner of a large cattle ranch in 
Southern California. 

He was married in Oroville in 
1864 to his present wife, an accom- 

Elished and excellent lady. They 
ave a fine family of three sons and 
four daughters. As a public speaker 
he is forcible, pleasing, and, abovo 
all, convincing. He expends much 
money in charities, and has never 
been known to turn a deaf ear to the 
calls of benevolence. He is courte- 
ous, gentlemanly, cheerful and genial, 
and withal adverse to pretension — 
modest and unassuming. He has 
been one of our most enterprising 
and successful men, and none have 
been more deserving of success than 
he. It is hoped that he will long re- 
main one of California's representa- 
tive citizens. 



i : 




Di\. E. B. Perrin. 



Dr. Edward B. Perrin. 



^t^K 



ITH the exception of the Bo- 
JhRrf nanza Kings and the leading 
~4 ♦ stockholders of the Southern 
Pacific, Dr. Edward B. Perrin may 
be said to be one of the wealthiest 
men in California, and though he 
possessed all the advantages that 
birth, education, and a competent 
fortune could supply, yet his success 
in building up his colossal fortune 
may be said to be entirely due to his 
own good sense and eminent busi- 
ness ability. He was born January 
12, 1839, in Green County, Ala. 
Through his father, who was an 
eminent physician, he was of French 
descent, while his mother was of 
English line) ge. Besides being re- 
nowned in his profession, his father 
was a wealthy Southern planter, and 
lived in all the style and elegance 
that characterized the Southern gen- 
tleman in the ante-bellum era. Dr. 
Perrin' 8 early education was ac- 
quired at his home from competent 
teachers. He subsequently attended 
the South Carolina College, from 
which he graduated with distinction, 
and afterwards studied medicine at 
New Orleans, Philadelphia, and 
Mobile, Ala., from the medical 
college of which latter city he gradu- 
ated as Doctor of Medicine. He did 
not intend to become a practicing 
physician, but undertook the study 
solely as an accomplishment. He 
also intended to study law for the 
same purpose when the war broke 
out and called him to the field. He 
responded to the summons of his 
native State and entered the army 
of Virginia as a private soldier be- 
fore the first battle of Manassas. 
He was soon, however, at the re- 

Siest of Dr. Choppin, who was an 
d teacher and the Medical Director 



of the army of General Beauregard, 
assigned to duty as his assistant. 
He was afterward assigned to duty 
on the staff of General Pendleton, 
who was first General Johnson's and 
afterwards General Lee's Chief of 
Artillery. He was on hi* staff until 
after the first battle of Fredericks- 
burg. At his own request he was 
transferred to the Army of the 
South, where he remained till the 
close of the war, at which time he 
was Chief Surgeon of a division 
of cavalry under General Forrest. 
After the war he was engaged in 
cotton planting for two years at his 
own home in Middle Alabama. Hero 
he was interested in and carrying 
on five cotton plantations, employ- 
ing about 200 hands. Finding the 
country going backward, he deter- 
mined to seek out some new field in 
which to woo fortune and begin a 
practical business life. For this pur- 
pose he determined to go either to 
Baltimore, New York, Chicago or 
San Francisco. He first visited Bal- 
timore and then New York, from 
which latter city he proceeded to 
San Francisco by way of Panama. 
This was in 1868. To accomplish 
his purpose he must visit Chicago, 
and traveled overland from San 
Francisco to that city. He went by 
car to Humboldt only, from there to 
Green Biver, Wy. The result of 
this trip was that he made up his 
mind to settle in San Francisco. 
When he arrived here, Dr. Toland, 
who had been a warm friend of his 
father, strongly urged him to resume 
the practice of medicine, promising 
that ne would aid him to advance in 
his profession to the utmost of his 
power. He had, however, finally 
made up his mind to enter on & ^\a&- 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



tical business career, and all the good 
doctor's pletvlin-jB were of no avail. 
Ho had mapped out his path in life 
and was firmly resolved to pursue it. 
Ho brought with him to this coast 
about £-10,000. This he determined 
to invest in country lauds, wheru he 
knew the railroads in days to come 
would be sure to lead. Having pur- 
chased thesu lands he would, on the 
advent of the railroad, sell a portion 
of them at advanced prices and hold 
the rest. This policy has worked 
like a charm. In order to do this 
intelligently lie visited personally the 
valleys of Sacramento, San Joaquin, 
Sonoma, Sant.i Clara, Salinas and 
Los Angeles. Following out this 
idea he made arragements for the 
purchase of the land where the flour- 
ishing town of Redding now stands. 
Ho also bought land near the town 
of Shasta, and three of the present 
depots of the Southern Pacific in 
Fresno County. These depots are 
now known as Herndon, Malaga and 
Fowler. Still following out the same 
lino of action he went to Southern 
Arizona, and bought the Babacomo- 
nari Ranch, a land grant of 132,000 
acres, and containing three town- 
sites. Iu Nothern Arizona on the 
line of the Atlantic and Pacific Rail- 



sists of 11,000 acres, near Herndon. 
Colony No. 4 will be called the Mc- 
Hulltm Colony, after Miss McMullen, 
now his wife. He controls tliu Chow- 
chilla Ranch, consisting of 115,000 
acres, and located near Fresno. Ar- 
rangements will soon be made to 
divide this up and place it on the 
market. Dr. Perrin owns altogether 
not less than half a million acres of 
land. 

He has been twice married. He 
was united to his first wife, a Miss 
Herndon, a cousin of the wife of the 
late President Arthur, on May 10, 
1864. He married his second wife, 
Miss Lilo McMullen, a daughter of 
Mrs. John McMullen, in June, 1887. 
His oldest daughter, a young lady of 
19, has recently returned from Wash- 
ington, where she had been visiting 
Mrs. Hearst. His second daughter 
attends school at Farmington. His 
son is being educated at home by 
private teachers. He has been en- 
gaged in many enterprises besides 
those mentioned. He commenced 
the construction of the railroad from 
Dunbar ton Point, via Newark, to 
San Jose, which has wince been con- 
tinned to Santa Cruz on the south, 
and brought up to Alameda on the 
north. He is a member of the 





John Perry, Jr. 



I 



I ' 



John Perry, Jr. 



<4tfOHN PERRY, Jr., whose tall 
31 and erect figure has been famil- 
^f* iar for forty years to the fre- 
quenters of Montgomery and Cali- 
fornia streets, San Francisco, and 
who now (1889), though seventy- 
four years old, is as busy and active 
as though he were yet in the prime 
of life, is a native of the old Granite 
State. He was born in 1815, in 
Strafford County, New Hampshire, 
being the second of the nine children 
of John Perry and Abigail Kimball, 
his wife. 

His ancestors were among the 
earliest settlers of that State, being 
of English descent. His father was 
a farmer of the sturdy old New Eng- 
land class, that more than any other 
may claim the credit of laying the 
foundation of American national 
character. His mother was distin- 
guished by her strong common sense 
and unusual kindliness of feeling, 
and it was from her that the subject 
of this sketch inherited his peculiar 
characteristics. 

John Perry, Jr., like thousands of 
other New England boys, felt that in 
certain cities, the South or the We^t, 
he could do far better for himself and 
for his parents than he could possibly 
do under the disabilities of his native 
town. 

So at the early age of sixteen, with 
twenty-five cents in his pocket and a 
bundle containing his spare wardrobe 
in his hand, he started out amidst 
the snows and slush of March, 1831, 
to walk to Boston, one hundred miles 
distant, where he hoped and intend- 
ed to earn enough money to pay off 
the mortgage on his father's farm be- 
fore he reached his eighteenth year. 

But on reaching Andover, twenty 
miles from Boston, weary and foot- 



sore, he heard of a situation which 
he succeeded in obtaining. His em- 
ployer was the Rev. Bailey Loring ; 
his salary one hundred dollars per 
year and his board. 

Before he was eighteen years old he 
had fulfilled his intention of paying 
off the mortgage on the farm, and 
thereafter throughout their lives he 
continued to contribute amply to- 
wards his parents' support. 

In April, 1832, he resumed his 
pedestrian trip to Boston where he 
obtained a situation in a wholesale 
West India goods store at one hun- 
dred dollars per annum, with board. 
At the end of four years, answer- 
ing an advertisement, he obtained a 
clerkship in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina, at a salary of six hundred dol- 
lars per year and traveling expenses. 
But the financial crash of 1837 car- 
ried down in its vortex the house in 
which he was employed. 

He returned to Boston with only a 
a few hundred dollars as capital, but 
with enterprise, close observation and 
determination to succeed, he resolved 
to enter the brokerage business on his 
own account. So he took an office, 
hung out his sign and made his bow 
to the public as a full-fledged broker 
at the age of twenty-two. 

His energy and business tact soon 
attracted attention. Through the in- 
fluence of leading firms, in 1839 Mr. 
Perry was admitted to membership in 
the Boston Board of Brokers, which 
then consisted of sixtv gentlemen of 
wealth, honor and integrity, and 
wielded great influence throughout 
New England. 

By 1842, his accumulations reach- 
ed $30,000. A false rumor in those 
anti-telegraph days to the effect that 
Great Britain had declared wax 



278 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



against the United States on the 
Northeastern boundary question 
c insed a panic in the stock market of 
Boston and New York. In a single 
day Mr. Perry, like many of his 
confreres, lost his entire assets, and 
found himself several thousand dol- 
lars iu debt. He recovered gradually 
from this first heavy blow, kept his 
seat iu the Board, justified ttio confi- 
dence reposed in him by the ultimate 
payment of every debt with interest, 
and again prospered till 1849, when 
a second disaster forced him into 
bankruptcy. This time his debts 
reached $30,000. He assigned all 
his property to his creditors, obtain- 
ed a discharge from the Insolvent 
Court, aud with fifty dollars in his 
pocket, after bis passage was paid, 
tie joined the crowd of gold seekers 
and sailed for California, via Pana- 
ma, April 15, 1850. 

At Panama tickets per steamer for 
San Francisco were selling at enorm- 
ous prices; about $1,200 being paid 
for Uie cabin and $800 for the Bteer- 
age. Perry invested $6, his entire 
capital, in a bulletin board, leased 
an office, and charging a commission 
of $10 to both buyer and seller of 
tickets, he soon accumulated so much 
that on reaching San Francisco, Sep- 
tember (j, 1850, niter 



ordinary transactions. Here was 
Mr. Perry's opportunity, and he in- 
stantly availed himself of it. 

He made arrangements with the 
agent of the once great banking 
house of Page, Bacon £ Co. to ad- 
vance all the money necessary to pur- 
chase all of these bonds, or as many 
as could be procured. The rate of 
interest on these advances watt to be 
three per cent per month. Mr. Perry 
then opened the first broker's office 
in San Francisco, on the corner of 
Montgomery and Merchant streets, 
aud he succeeded in purchasing dur- 
ing the next eighteen months more 
than three-fourths of the entire issue 
— thirty per cent and upwards for the 
city, and forty per ceni and upwards 
for the State issue. The result to 
Mr. Perry was a fortune within two 
years after his arrival. His first use 
thereof was the full payment of all 
his Eastern creditors, principal and 
interest, though he had been legally 
discharged from all his debts. 

He then opened a banking house, 
and realized large profits from mer- 
cantile loans and exchange and 
handling gold dust. As one of the 
founders of the Unitarian Church in 
San Francisco, he contributed liber- 
ally to its funds , and as its Treasurer, 
acted on the unusually liberal ] 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



279 



and lie returned with his bride to 
California, then beginning a wedded 
life that for more than thirty years 
(until her death in 1885) was signal- 
ized by unalloyed happiness. 

Unfavorable reports from his busi- 
ness enterprises nad contributed to 
Mr. Perry s speedy return to Gan 
Francisco. He did not find another 
opportunity to retrieve his losses un- 
til the discovery of the great silver 
mines in Nevada, in 1861, lighted the 
fires of universal speculation, and de- 
veloped the brokerage business in 
San Francisco to a far greater de- 
gree, compared with the population 
and proportionate other interests, 
than was ever attained by it in any 
Eastern or European city. 

But this culmination, preparatory 
to the terrible crash, was the growth 
of years. At the beginning, when 
the demand for shares was confined 
to strictly mining men, yet had in- 
creased so as to require special facili- 
ties for the transactions of the busi- 
ness, Mr. Perry's experience as the 
only well known broker in San Fran- 
cisco who had been a member of an 
Eastern Board was availed of by his 
associates. Largely through his ef- 
forts the Old Board (or Big Board) 
was brought into existence. Mr. 
Perry was one of the first members 
of this Board, and its first Vice- 
President. He continued his con- 
nection with it until 1876. During 
all that time his transactions were 
large and his clientage numerous. 
He made heavy profits at times, but 



his organ* of benevolence was too 

Erominent to permit him to retain 
is accumulations. He often dis- 
suaded poor people venturing upon a 
risk. Like all other brokers, he was 
obliged to carry his customers. 
Consequently his losses were fre- 
quent and sometimes heavy, and 
about 1876 he executed his resolu- 
tion to confine his future efforts to 
transactions in bonds and other local 
investment securities, which were 
sought by conservative purchasers 
for safe and permanent investments. 

During the war he had exerted 
himself in placing the bonds of the. 
Government on the San Francisco 
market, a difficult task here, on ac- 
count of their low rate of interest. 
But he succeeded to a large extent. 

After his retirement from the min- 
iug stock board in 1876, he turned 
his energies in aid of the formation 
of the San Francisco Stock and Bond 
Exchange, of which he was elected 
tho first President, a position he has 
held from its organization. 

John Perry, Jr., has only friends 
among his thousands of acquaint- 
ances. He never had an enemy. A 
firm disbeliever in the doctrine of 
natural depravity, he sees in every 
human being the elements of good 
and takes pleasure in contributing 
to the growth of that good by the 
exhibition of kind sympathy to all. 
He is thus a true philanthropist, 
a real lover of mankind, and conse- 
quently he is loved and respected 
by all who know him. 

C. T. HoPHNa 



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James Phelan. 



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James Phelan. 



r& 8 the years roll on and the ranks 
TJk of the once numerous band of 
f\* pioneers of our State become 
thinned by time, the history of the 
lives of those who have taken an act- 
ive and prominent part in the devel- 
opment of its industrial and commer- 
cial affairs becomes more and more 
interesting and valuable to the pres- 
ent and to future generations. Asso- 
ciated as he has been for more thau 
forty-one years as a business mau, 
financier, capitalist and representa- 
tive citizen, with the progress of 
San Francisco, the name of James 
Phelan stands out prominently in her 
history, and the publishers are glad 
to piesent a condensed account of 
the principal events in his long and 
successful career, without which a 
work of this kind would, of course, be 
flagrantly incomplete. 

By nativity, Jame3 Phelan is an 
Irishman, having been born in the 
year 1821, at Grautstown, Queen's 
County, in the Emerald Isle; the 
brain and muscle of whose sons have 
aided so much in the development of 
the United States. He came, how- 
ever, with his father, when but a 
child, to America, and while retain- 
ing the mental and physical pecu- 
liarities of his sturdy race, has 
become thoroughly Americanized 
and a staunch supporter of and 
believer in the principles of his 
adopted country. Keceiving his edu- 
cation at the public schools of New 
York city, in early youth he evinced 
a marked predilection for trade, and 
entered a store, where he acquired 
the knowledge of business which, 
supplemented by great natural ability 
and tact, has placed him in the front 
rank of San Francisco's wealthy and 



influential citizens. Commencing at 
a modest wage he rapidly advanced, 
and by economy and good manage- 
ment accumulated the capital neces- 
sary, and entered business for him- 
self while yet a very young man. 
Mr. Phelan engaged successfully in 
merchandising in Philadelphia, New 
Orleans and Cincinnati, and was in 
the latter city when the news of the 
great gold discovery hi California 
was confirmed by private letters and 
bv the official reports of Thomas O. 
Larkin, U. 8. Naval Agent at San 
Francisco. With therare prescience 
or insight into the future which has 
always been a predominating char- 
acteristic of this gentleman, Mr. 
Phelan at once perceived that the 
distant El Dorado offered superior 
inducements to a young and ambi- 
tious man, and though engaged in a 
prosperous business throughout the 
Mississippi Valley, he concluded to 
make California his base of opera- 
tions. 

With him, to resolve was to act. 
Quick to perceive, he was equally 
prompt to execute. Closing up his 
business, he proceeded to New York, 
and there secured a large stock of 
such goods as would necessarily be 
in demand in the land of gold, con- 
sisting of general merchandise, and 
including liquors, tobacco, beans, 
nails, glassware and hardware of 
every kind. These he shrewdly 
shipped on three different vessels 
bouud for California "around the 
Horn," and he himself took passage 
on the schooner <k El Varado M lor 
Chagres. Here he was attacked by 
Panama fever, by which he was 
prostrated for three weeks. Having 
partially recovered, Mr. Phelan was 



282 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



fortunate iu securing passage on the 
historic vessel "Panama" and finally 
arrived at San Francisco without fur- 
ther adventure, and gradually re- 
gained bia health and strength under 
the vivifying influence of our "glori- 
ous climate." Mr. James Phelan was 
now 27 years of age, full of youth, 
energy, determination, and with a 
wide business experience. The field 
before him was indeed a promising 
one. Money was plenty, values un- 
settled and prices high. His brother 
Michael was already here, having 
come to California with the party 
organized in New York by the la- 
mented David C. Broderick, and 
with this gentleman he formed the 
first and only partnership of his life. 
The firm of J. & M. Phelan was a 
prominent one, transacting a heavy 
business and making money rapidly. 
They were represented inSew York 
by Mr. John Phelan, the only other 
brother, and himself a leading mer- 
chant of that city. The recollections 
of Mr. Phelan of the fluctuations in 
values and the opportunities for suc- 
cessful speculation, guided by judg- 
ment and shrewdness, in " the early 
days," are extremely interesting. 
In one instance au invoice of five 



overstocked. Prieeff fell very low, 
and Mr. Phelan here saw an oppor- 
tunity of which he at once took ad- 
vantage. He secured control of the 
market, buying all in Bight at from 
10 to 12 cents per gallon, and sub- 
sequently when lamps arrived closing 
out at from 81.50 to $2.00, with a 
profit of from 1,500 to 2.000 per cent. 

In the memorable fire of June, 
1851, which destroyed the commer- 
cial portion of the young city, Messrs. 
J. & M. Phelan were burned oat, 
and sustained a loss of $75,000, but 
the business rose Phoenix-like from 
the flames, new arrivals by sea re- 
plenishing their stock, and the firm 
re-entered upon its prosperous career. 

Mr. M. Phelan died iu 1859, and 
his interest reverted to the surviv- 
ing partner. 

James Phelan then made a spe- 
cialty of imported liqnors.though also 
extensively dealing iu other lines. 
Iu 1865, this gentleman entered into 
the wheat trade, and was among the 
first to ship this cereal to Great 
Britain, continuing until 1869, in 
which year he retired from active 
commercial affairs and sought a well- 
earned rest and recreation. He 
made an extended trip to the old 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



283 



1870, and which was the first in 
California, and the second gold bank 
to be established in the United 
States. Mr. Phelan was the first 
President of this popular and stable 
bank, which has a surplus at present 
of $500,000, and has paid its stock- 
holders $2,000,000 in dividends since 
its organization. The new bank 
building, a tall, elegant and stately 
structure, completed in 1889, is one 
of the most imposing architectural 
ornaments of our city. Mr. Phelan 
was also instrumental in organizing 
"The American Contracting and 
Dredging Company," having for its 
object the dredging of the Panama 
Canal, aud was elected to the Vice- 
Pi esidency of the company. The 
stock which was offered on its foun- 
dation in 1882 at $30, has paid 38 
dividendsaggregating $335 per share. 
In 1859 Mr. Phelan led to the al- 
tar Miss Alice Kelly, eldest daugh- 
ter of Jeremiah Kelly of New York. 
He has had three children, two 
daughters and a son, all " native 
here and to the mauor born/' The 



only son, Mr. James D. Phelan, has 
charge of his father's banking inter- 
ests, and the fact of his being in- 
trusted with the responsible duties, 
is the highest proof of his ability and 
managerial skill. 

The residence of Mr. James Phelan, 
located at the Mission Dolores, stands 
in the midst of three and a half 
acres of ground, charmingly laid out 
aud planted with a variety of trees, 
shrubs and flowering plants. It is a 
home of quiet ease and comfort, well 
adapted for a geutlemau of unosten- 
tatious habits and domestic tastes, 
which are among the personal pecu- 
liarities of its owner; and at Santa 
Cruz by the sea Mr. Phelan has his 
summer home. 

Mr. Phelan is a member of the 
Society of California L'ioneer*, of 
which excellent association he has 
acted as director, and his connection 
with other organizations is very lim- 
ited. Personally he is of sturdy 
frame, hale aud vigorous in mind 
aud body, and bids lair to welcome 
the coming century. 




William Pi. Pierson. 



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William m. Pierson. 



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HEN I arrived in San Fran- 
cisco, fifteen years ago," said 
a well-known citizen to the 
writer, "I had occasion one day to 
visit the courtroom of the old Fif- 
teenth District Court, then situated 
at the corner of Montgomery avenue 
and Montgomery street. The late 
Judge Samuel H. Dwindle was 
upon the bench, and when I entered 
tne room a young lawyer was address- 
ing the Court. His tones, as well as 
his presence, impressed me, and as I 
listened to his argument, I was at once 
astonished and pleased. His reason- 
ing was convincing; at times his lan- 
fuage was really eloquent. While 
is handsome face and grace of man- 
ner would have been sufficient to ar- 
rest attention anywhere, the sound 
logic of his utterances secured the 
careful consideration of the bar as 
well as of the Court itself. I found 
upon inquiry that the young lawyer 
was William M. Pierson." 

Perhaps no higher encomium 
could be paid the subject of our 
sketch so iar as it gives the cursory 
views of a very close observer of 
human nature. But Mr. Pierson is 
more than a showy, eloquent and 
logical speaker. He is a sound 
lawyer, in the broadest sense of that 
term. His mind is of an analytical 
turn, and beneath the Chesterfield- 
ian grace of his manner there lies 
an active, never-slumbering intellect 
that is ever ready to avail itself 
of any weak spot in his opponent's 
armour ; to meet with deadly foil 
any false thrusts from his adversary's 
weapon. 

William M. Pierson was born in 
Cincinnati in February, 1842, where 
his parents were living temporarily. 
He comes of Knickerbocker stock, his 



mother being a lineal descendant of 
Anneke Jans, the grantor of real estate 
to Trinity Church in New York city, 
which has made that institution the 
wealthiest church corporation in the 
country. He came to California, 
via the Horn, arriving here on Inde- 
pendence Day, 1852. For a while 
he attended a school then kept by 
Ahira Holmes at the corner of Broad- 
way and Kearny street. There the 
restless spirit of the lad asserted 
itself ; he left school and found em- 
ployment in the picture and station- 
ery store of Marvin & Hitchcock, 
located on Montgomery street, be- 
tween Washington and Jackson. 
After eighteen months of this 
work he attended a session at the 
High School, and then entered the 
office of the late Judge Nathaniel 
Bennett as a law student. After- 
wards he studied with Frank Pixley, 
and completed his studies in the 
office of Henry H. Haight. He was 
admitted to the Bar in 1862, at the 
age of twenty years, a special act 
of the Legislature being passed for 
that purpose. He formed a law part- 
nership with Mr. Haight, which con- 
tinued until the latter was elected 
Governor in 1867. Mr. Pierson has a 
vivid recollection of the Vigilante 
Days, and witnessed from his home 
roadway the taking from the jail 



on 



of Cora and Casey, when they were 
executed. 

In 1863 he was a candidate for the 
Legislature on the Republican ticket 
but with the other nominees suffered 
defeat at the polls. Some years later 
he left the Republican party and has 
ever since acted with the Democracy. 
In 1875 he was elected to the State 
Senate, where he served with credit 
to himself and benefit to his con.- 



BUILDERB OF A GREAT CITY. 



the "Retraction Bill," bj the torn 
of which newspapers vera to be com- 
pelled to retract libellous articles, 
and that there might be no hiding 
behind the ambiguous "we," writers 
were compelled to sign their names to 
their articles. The bill passed the 
Senate, but was killed in the lower 
house. He also framed a divorce 
bill, limiting the grounds for divorce 
to adultery. This also passed the 
Senate, but failed in the House. 

While Mr. Pierson's practice has 
been general, it is mostly confined to 
civil cases, his specialty being corpo- 
ration law. In this class of juris- 
prudence he has been eminently suc- 
cessful. One of the most important 
litigations in which be has been 
engaged was the case of the Peo- 
ple vs. Wells, Fargo, where he appear- 
ed for the people. The Commercial 
Banks, when the act creating the 
Bank Commission went into effect, 
refused to submit to examination by 
the Bank Commissioners, claiming 
that the Act only applied to Savings 
Banks. Half a dozen of the most 
prominent lawyers of the city took 
this ground, and advised the banks 
accordingly. Mr. Pierson argued 
the case with great ability, and 



broaghi to dissofm toe corporation 
became it had joined the Sugar 
Trust. This action was begun 
simultaneously with one of a like 
character in New York city. Judge 
Wallace recently decided the case is 
favor of the people and against the 
Sugar Trust, taking the positions as- 
sumed by Mr. Pierson in his argu- 
ment. 

Later a Receiver was appointed 
by Judge Wallace and the Refinery 
closed. The proceedings were sought 
to be restrained by a writ of prohi- 
bition issued by the Supreme Court, 
and the whole matter was reargued 
by Mr. Pierson in that Court. 

A member of the profession has 
said that a mere lawyer is at most a 
moiety of a man — heathen and soul- 
less. Mr. Pierson is not a mere law- 
yer. Besides having fine literary 
tastes, which Ms means permit him to 
enjoy, he is a fine amateur astrono- 
mer, and at his residence on Van Mess 
avenue he has the largest telescope 
in the city, the object-glass being 
8J inches in diameter. It is mount- 
ed in an observatory attached to his 
residence, and here of a cloudless 
night Mr. Pierson spends many an 
hour gazing at "the starry cope of 
Heaven." Mr. Pierson is a member 





E. B. Pond. 



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Edward B. Pond. 




DWAED B. POND, who, in his 
high office, represents the repre- 
sentative men of San Francisco, 
the men who have builded the com- 
mercial metropolis of the Pacific, is 
a native of Jefferson County, New- 
port. 

He was born on the 7th of Decem- 
ber, 1833, the fifth of eight children, 
three brothers and four sisters. His 
ancestors came from England about 
fifteen years after the "Mayflower" 
landed the first stock of sturdy Puri- 
tans, and were of the same sort. His 
grandfather served with distinction 
in the Revolutionary war, and won the 
rank of Major. His father was a Con- 
gregational clergyman, a gentleman 
of liberal education and honorable 
repute. 

Young Edward received an acad- 
emic education, principally in Gov- 
erneur, N. Y. But after having been 
prepared for college he was impelled 
by the spirit which in these latter 
days controls so many young men — 
to enter upon political life, and 
establish an individuality of his own. 
In this case the venture has proven 
more than usually successful The 
California epidemic seized him, as 
it seized thousands of the flower of 
the East, and in 1854, when scarcely 
twenty-one years of age, he started 
across the great plains, lying over to 
winter in Salt take, and reaching 
this coast in the Spring of 1855. He 
tarried in Butte County and engaged 
in the live stock business with some 
profit. Two years later, in 1858, he 
returned to Texas, bought more 
cattle, and in the following year 
drove them across the plains, again 
stopping in Butte County. Having 
disposed of his stock he' located in 
Chico, and engaged in general mer- 



chandising. He was one of the very 
first settlers on the site of the present 
town of Cbico, for Gen. John A. 
Bidwell resided on the opposite side 
of the river. Here in November, 
1861, he was married to Miss Sarah 
McNeill, a cultured lady, a native 
of Ohio, of Scotch and German 
extraction — the same who has been 
his helpmeet through the intervening 
years, and who still presides with 
great grace over his home. They 
fcnjoy the distinction of being the 
first white couple ever married in 
that beautiful little city. After 
about six years of mercantile life in 
Chico, and a total residence of ten 
years in Butte County, Mr. Pond 
returned East, and, as he expressed 
it, "cruised about" for two years. 
As almost invariably to those who 
have tasted the sweets of Western— 
and especially of California — life, the 
East was uncongenial to him, and in 
1866 he returned, this time to San 
Francisco — to live hero forever. 

In this city he again entered mer- 
chandising, thistimo in the wholesale 
liquor business, as the head of the 
firm of Pond, Reynolds & Co., after- 
ward for many years known through- 
out the length and breadth of the 
coast for its commercial standing. 

But mercantile life was not con- 
genial to one of such active tempera- 
ment and speculative turn, and after 
eight years Mr. Pond again retired 
with a competency. 

Since his retirement, however, he 
has been even more busily engaged 
and more prominently identified 
with the various interests of the city 
than before. He is director in the 
San Francisco Savings Union, one of 
the largest and most substantial 
banks on the coast, and his name i& 



BUILDEKS OP A GREAT CITY. 



not least uncos those which secure 
for it the confidence of the public. 
He is also the director in the Son 
Insurance Company, and several 
other mercantile corporations. 

In 1SAJ he was elected as one of 
the Board of Supervisors, in which 
his services so commended him to the 
confidence of his fellow-citizens, that 
in 1 SS4 he was re-elected to the same 
position. In the Fall of lt*S6 Super- 
visor Pond was elected Mayor, not 
t>u strict party lines, hut by a large 
and complimentary vote from all par- 
ties. How well he served is better 
evidenced by the fact of his re-elec- 
tion iu the Fall of 1SSS. Daring the 
bitter contest of that memorable year 
in the political history of this citv, 
Mayor Pond's name was uusniirche^, 
ami in the midst of the frictions of 
this current term he has without ob- 
sequiousness or compromise of his 



iutogrity, retained the confidence of 
all factions. 

He is a gentleman of liberal and 
varied culture, broadened, and not 
narrowed, by the conflicts of life. In 
self-reliance, in a higher sense of 
honor, and in breadth of sympathy 
with his fellow-toilers in "iife'sdusty 
war," he is a typical Californian. 

tie is only fifty-six, of fine physique 
for endurance, and in perfect health. 

Our honorable and honest Mayor 
resides in a model American home 
on California street. He has been 
blessed with two sons and a 
daughter, but the latter died very 
young. The elder son, Charles Ed- 
ward, aged twenty-four, graduated 
from Tale in the class of '88, and 
gives promise of a successful career 
in whatever path he may choose. The 
younger, Samuel Frank, is a student 
in High School. 

* Tb»»boTe (ketch iu wrilteu io 1890. 





Col. Horace D. Rani.ett. 






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HORACE DODGE RANLETT. 



£hLHE subject of this sketch was 
all born in Charlestown, Mass., 
Vp April 4, 1842. He is the fourth 
son of Captain Charles A. Ean- 
lett, a well known shipmaster who for 
over forty-five years sailed out of Bos- 
ton, New York and other ports of the 
Atlantic to all parts of the world. 
Such a birthplace, the site of the first 
great battle of the Eevolutionary 
War, "Bunker Hill, " would seem 
to give a boy a military spirit, and 
Col. Banlett's long and honorable 
service in the National Guard of 
California will be an excuse for some 
record of his soldierly descent, as 
well as the fact that "in this Cen- 
tennial year" particular interest cen- 
ters in any long line of American 
ancestry. Two of his great grand- 
fathers fought in the Eevolutionary 
War, one on the maternal side as a 
"minute man" at Concord, Mass., 
where, as Emerson says, " the em- 
battled farmers stood and fired the 
shot heard round the world," and 
where now the bronze "minute man" 
stands to commemorate the event. 
His father's grandfather, Captain 
David Low, served in Col. Cogswell's 
famous Essex County Eegiment, in 
many of the hardest battles of the 
war. His own grandfather Charles 
Banlett, was a sergeant in a com- 
pany from Augusta, Maine, in the war 
of 1812. To go still farther back he 
derives direct descent from Major 
Simon Willard of Lancaster, Mass., 
a celebrated Indian fighter in King 
Phillip's War, who married Mary 
Dunster, sister of Henrv Dunster, 
the first President of Harvard 

College. 

He is seventh in direct descent from 
Col. Thomas Stevens, a celebrated 



armorer of London, England, who in 
1629 supplied arms to tne infant col- 
ony of Massachusetts, and also con- 
tributed four children as pioneers to 
the new world. 

His ninth direct ancestor was Cap- 
tain John Low, who commanded the 
fleet that brought Gov. Jolin Win- 
throp to Massachusetts in 1860. 
There is also direct descent on the 
maternal side from a doughty 
knight, Sir Peter Dodge, who fouglit 
under Edward First of England in 
1306 at "Falkirk, Methven and 
Dunbar," from whom a coat-of-arms 
descends in the family. As a boy 
he grew up under the inspiration of 
the old battle-ground on which he 
lived and in the shadow of the great 
shaft which commemorates the event 
of the Battle of "Bunker Hill," June 
17, 1776. 

Educated in the grammar and 
high schools of Charlestown, he en- 
tered the counting room of a large 
wholesale house in Boston, where 
he remained three years. He then 
went to sea and worked his passage 
as a sailor boy around Cape Horn in 
a clipper ship via San Francisco to 
Yokohama, Japan. There he engaged 
in mercantile business for a year and 
also a year in Shanghai, China; the 
latter in the house of Thomas 
Hunt & Co. Ill health in 1864 com- 
pelled him to return to his New 
England home, where after a short 
rest, he entered the office of his 
brother, then State Auditor of New 
Hampshire, as Chief Clerk, remain- 
ing with him a year, when with re- 
established health from the pure air 
of the Granite State, he again, in May, 
1866, camo to San Francisco, Cal- 
fornia, which has since been his hom&~ 



290 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Debarred, by absence from the 
country and ill health, from 
active participation in the nr of 
18G1 (in which, however, his family 
and kindred were largely represented 
in the Union Army), the inherited 
military spirit could not be re- 
pressed, and soon after coming to 
this State he entered the California 
State militia, in Co. " B " (City 
Guard), First Regiment, where he 
served as private, corporal, duty 
sergeant, first sergeant, and second 
and first lieutenants successively. 
He then took command of the 
" Oakland Guard," a "separate" or 
"unattached" company of the Second 
Brigade, and for seven years was 
captain of that well-known organiza- 
tion, now Co. "A," Fifth Regiment. 
He then organized the "Fifth Ba- 
talliou," and reorganizing and re- 
building ono company after another, 
as they were added, to his com- 
mand, in different cities around 
the bay, he finally last commanded 
the regiment of which he is justly 
styled the " father," and held the 
rank of colonel which rank he last 
held and resigned as Colonel of 
the Fifth Infantry Regiment, National 
Guard of California, going on the 
"retired " list in 1887, after 21 years 
, durin" 17 of which he 



As * copper dealer and expert, 
bis reputation is too well known to 
the business community to require 
extended notice. For 22 years 
Colonel Banlett has handled copper 
and other ores, being purchasing 
agent for the largest smelting works 
in the East, at New York, Baltimore, 
etc., and is now managing for the 
Oliver Ames & Sons' Corporation 
(the Boston owners) the working of 
the famous "Union Copper Mine," 
at Copperopolis. In his business 
during the past 20 years Colonel 
Ranlett has crossed the continent 
more than forty times, and has also 
been abroad to interview the English 
and French on copper matters. 
While in London in 1887 he was 
the recipient of many courtesies as 
a guardsman (from the National 
Guard of California) from the 
English Rifle Volunteers as well as 
the regular troops. 

Colonel Ranlett is a Mason and 
Knight Templar, and served as a 
member of the Triennial Committee 
in the recent conclave held in this 
city. He resides in San Francisco, 
in the Western Addition, having a 
wife and two sons, the eldest of 
whom is now a student at the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technol- 





Irh P. Rhnkir 



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Ira p. Rankin. 



jj4#HE sons of New England have 

Jjl , cut a broad swath in the field of 

^jr history. Their mother land has 

not only supplied great streams of 

Kopulation to fill the waste places of 
forth America, but has supplied more 
than her share of talent and intellect 
as well as to add to the common stock. 
Among the men whom New Eng- 
land has sent forth, Ira P. Rankin 
is entitled to an honored place. He 
was born in Hampshire county, Mass- 
achusetts, in 1817. After receiving a 
good common school education he 
began clerking in a country store 
while still young. Leaving this em- 
ployment he went to Boston in 1835. 
Here he clerked in a dry goods store, 
and having learned the trade set up 
in business for himself. 

The gold discoveries came and 
filled the minds of young and old with 
dreams of wealth and emprise. Mr. 
Rankin was no exception, and in 
May of 1852 he was animated with 
so strong a desire of transferring the 
sphere of his usefulness to the Golden 
West that he was unable to resist it, 
and sought our shores by way of 
Panama. On the trip were several 
men whose names afterward became 
of note in the history of California. 
On arriving at San Francisco he 
wisely concluded that there was 
as much gold to be found here as 
in the mines, and he at once started a 
shipping and commission business 
under the title of Rankin & Co. He 
located on Front street, then the front 
street of the city. He sold all sorts 
of mining supplies — provisions, dry 
goods, boots and shoes, etc., etc. In 
the spring of 1853 he built a new 
store on the corner of Battery and 
Clay streets, where that of Tillmann 



& Bendel now stands. Two years 
subsequently Mr. Rankin moved to 
the location of the Golden Gate Mills 
on Battery street. 

He was quite successful in the 
commission business, but he saw that 
there was a great industrial future 
before San Francisco, and that the 
foundry business, called into existence 
by the growth of the mining industry, 
otfered the most advantages to a prac- 
tical man. In 1858 he therefore pur- 
chased an interest in the Pacific 
Foundry, which, until 1873, was car- 
ried on under the firm name of 
Goddard & Co. Mr. Goddard having 
died, the firm became known as 
Rankin, Brayton & Co., which title it 
has ever since retained. The estab- 
lishment has always kept well to the 
front in the iron industry, which 
owes not a little to Mr. Rankin's bus- 
iness tact and practical knowledge. 
Though so engrossed by the demands 
made on him by the great industry 
that he has so long controlled, he has 
always found time to attend to the 
call of country, religion and charity. 
He was a Republican as early as the 
Fremont campaign, and lived to see 
the party triumph. He was appointed 
Collector of the Port by President 
Lincoln and filled the position with 
ability and credit. He was twice an 
aspirant for Congressional honors, 
but, though not attaining them, 
owing to party divisions and other 
causes, he received a much greater 
than the party vote. San Francisco, 
where he was best known, stood by 
him nobly in 1856, and, had it de- 
pended on her, he would have been 
elected. He was an active member 
of the Vigilance Committee, and when 
the war broke out, did much to keep 



202 



BUJLDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



California in line on the side of the 
Union. Through his active exertions 
the California contingent was enabled 
to go to the front He contri- 
buted liberally to the sanitary fund. 
There are few public institutions 
with which he has not been connected. 
He has been a member of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce for twenty-seven 
years, and was its President during 
1889. He was President of the Mer- 
cantile Library of which he is a life 
member. He is a Trustee of the Lick 
Trust. He was one of the Trustees of 
the College of California, which way 
succeeded by the State University. 
Ho was Chairman of the State Board 
of Commissioners for selecting a site 
for the Deaf and Dumb Asylum, as 
well as Chairman of the Building 
Committee, both of which positions he 
tilled to the satisfaction of on adminis- 
tration opposed to him in politics. He 



is President of the Engineers* and 
Foundry men's Association of Sao 
Francisco. He is a leading member 
of the Societies for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children and to Animals, 
and has done good work in both. 
He is a Trustee of the California Bible 
Society. He was married in 1841, 
but his wife died in 18S1. He 
has no children. For over thirty- 
two years he has been a member of 
the First Congregational Church. 
Though he has passed the psalmist's 
three score and ten, he looks much 
younger. He is of lithe, smart figure 
— active both in mind and body, and 
has done much to build up the iron in- 
dustry on this coast He is pleasant 
and gentlemanly in character, and 
is respected by his numerous em- 
ployes, for whose welfare he has al- 
ways been solicitous. He is truly a 
representative man. 





John Reynolds. 



I I 



I ; 



i J 



I* 



■ i 



• 



JOHN REYNOLDS. 



JjHlATINU back to the days of al- 
JH cheiny, its true, if not venerated 
*• progenitor, chemistry can point 
to a long series of triumphs — all, or 
nearly all,in the interest of human pro- 
gress and welfare. And the end is not 
yet. The science may still be said to 
be in its early youth ; and, indeed, so far 
as its possible achievements are con- 
cerned, might be looked on as immor- 
tal As the day can never arrive 
when nature would have unfolded the 
last of her wonderful secrets, San 
Francisco and San Francisco men 
have not been behindhand in the race 
for fame in the chemical domain, as 
witness the success achieved by some 
of its representatives among us. Of 
these, ono of the oldest practical man- 
ufacturers and inventors, too, must be 
said to be John Reynolds, who hails 
from Mohill, County Leitrim, Ireland, 
where he was born May 3, 1829, the 
year after Catholic emancipation. 

Mr. Reynold's ancestors had been a 
power in the land, as they were one 
of the leading families of Breifine, as 
Leitrim was anciently called — one of 
the richest, most fertile and best cul- 
tivated parts of ancient Ireland, and 
linked with many memorable, some 
tragic, events in her checkered history. 
West Breifine was divided between 
the powerful families of the McGran- 
uills, the McGlaughlins and the Mc- 
Glancies. The old castle of Rynn, of 
which now only the walls are stand- 
ing, sheltered his ancestors, the Lords 
of the McGranuills. The name is to- 
day anglicized Reynolds. 

Mr. Reynolds left school when not 
quite 14 years old to make acquaint- 
ance with the great world and its 
ways. 'He left home to go to his 
uncle, who was in the employ of James 
Muspratt & Sons, the celebrated chem- 



ical manufacturers of England. His 
uncle was one of the foremen, and his 
uncle's son one of the clerks in the 
office, so that he was on good footing 
from the start, was well received and 
favorably treated. 

He first studied the plumbing busi- 
ness, acquiring in that department a 
fair knowledge of the construction of 
chemical apparatus, that afterwards 
stood him in good stead. He then 
was desirous of learning how to build 
furnaces, and through the influence of 
his uncle was transferred to the brick- 
layers' department. There was a gang 
here steadily employed, and from them 
he learned how to construct the fur- 
naces, etc., themselves, should he ever 
need it. It, too, made him competent 
to superintend the construction of his 
own works. From this he went to the 
chemical department, where he re- 
mained three years, and acquired a 
thoroughly practical knowledge of 
manufacturing chemistry. 

Being thus fairly well equipped, he 
turned his thoughts to the United 
States, where so many of his country- 
men for over two centuries had found 
their way. He was fascinated with 
the free institutions of the New World, 
and the opportunities they afforded to 
talent for advancement. 

He arrived in New York on the 
" Patrick Henry," July 17, 1848. The 
name was an auspicious one for Mr. 
Reynolds, the year a bad one for his 
native land. He went to work at 
once at a chemical works at Newark, 
N. J. After spending a year there he 
went to Pittsburg, and was a few 
months at work in Birmingham, but 
not liking the place, and being mind- 
ful of Horace Greeley's aphorism, he 
started for Cincinnati. Here he was 
employed in the winter of 1 849 by 



294 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Howard & Marsh. The business was 
carried on very crudely, but he was 
not called on to remain there long, as 
the works were burned down in the 
following May. 

Returning to Newark, N. J., he 
married. The lady on whom he had 
fixed his affections hail waited there 
for him ten months. Having now an 
additional responsibility there was an' 
additional inducement for him to be- 
stir himself. He might have gone to 
work in Newark at his old business, 
but his pride would not rc-nuit him to 
ask for employment after having been 
West. So he concluded, as he had 
changed his station in life, he would 
also change his business. He em- 
barked in the grocery trade, and 
started a store, with a boarding and 
ledging-housc attached. He was fairly 
successful, and continued in the gro- 
cery trade till January, 1851. But he 
could not remain away from the chem- 
ical business ; it had taken possession 
of his whole sout, and ho yearned to 
get back to it and spend his life in a 
solution of some of its abstruse prac- 
tical problems. 

Selling out he started West again. 
When in Cincinnati he had heard a 
great deal about St. Louis, and now 
made up his mind that this was the 



rived in thirteen days. Taking the 
cars to what was then called the West- 
ern Terminus, they journeyed thence 
on muleback to Panama, a distance of 
over thirty miles. 

" the most difficult road I have ever 
traveled." Some of the ladies rode 
side-saddle, some rode man fashion. 
From what ho had seen of them on 
that memorable ride Mr. Reynolds 
says he would not be afraid to form a 
company of light cavalry of the gen- 
tler sex, go into battle and win. It 
took ten hours to Panama. Next day 
they embarked on the " Sonora, 
which, after a very pleasant voyage, 
reached San Francisco in fourteen 
days. Most of the passengers bad 
limited their stay in California to two 
years, after which, loaded with sacks 
of gold, they were to return in tri- 
umph to the places whence they had 
departed. 

Mr. Reynolds found a chemical 
works already in existence here, and 
was much disappointed thereat, as had 
he known it he would not have left 
St Louis. And now Fortune, the 
fickle jade, seemed to turn against 
him, for he turned his attention to 
other kinds of business until the 
Fraser river excitement, when Mr. 
Reynolds was a victim, as well as 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



295 



brought them two days in the direc- 
tion of Fort Thompson before they 
discovered their mistake. It took 
them nine days to reach their desti- 
nation. They had no food, save wild 
nettles, which they boiled in their 
prospecting pans, and some snails that 
they caught in the morning. Some 
wild, unripe raspberries made those 
who ate them sick. These lay down 
and died. But thirteen made Fort 
Hope. The rest were never again 
heard from. Mr. Reynolds, it is hardly 
necessary to say, was back in two 
months from this, his first and last 
trip to the mines. 

On his return things took a change 
for the better. He was en^a^ed to 
build a small acid works for the gold 
and silver refinery on Brannan street. 
While waiting for material ho went to 
work as assistant refiner. In a few 
weeks he became head refiner. He 
remained here until 18G2, when, feel- 
ing that he was too long in the em- 
ploy of others, he started for Washoe. 
The old inspiration came. There he 
established the Nevada Chemical 
Works in conjunction with James 
Fraser and L. C. McKeeby. But the 
institution did not prosper, and in 
1865 Mr. Reynolds left and returned 
to this city. So gloomy was the out- 
look that he gave his share to James 
Fraser to do as he pleased with it. 
His time was not lost, however. While 
in Carson City he experimented on 
refining bullion. This led to his pat- 
ent bar refining process, which he 
brought to perfection in the Brannan 
street refinery, then run by Kellogg, 
Hueston & Company The Govern- 
ment subsequently using this process 
without reference to the rights of the 
inventor, a suit was instituted in the 
United States Courts, and the rights 
of Mr. Reynolds vindicated — a ver- 
dict for 360,000 damages being re- 
turned. Other suits are pending. 

In January, 1866, Mr. Reynolds 
started the California Chemical Works 



on the San Bruno road, between 
Tweny-seventh and Twenty-eighth 
streets. The business here has grown 
year by year, till now the works have 
a capacity of turning out ten tons per 
day of acids and other chemicals. 

Japan and South America are laid 
under tribute to furnish the raw ma- 
terial — the sulphur coming from the 
volcanic cone of Fujiyama, the ni- 
trate of soda from Chile and Peru. 
Acids for making nitro-glycerine, the 
separation of gold and silver from the 
ores, in refining bullion, coal oil re- 
fineries, woolen mills, cotton mills, 
paper mills, galvanizing works, tan- 
neries, dye works, sugar refineries, soda- 
water works, telephone works, for 
making land fertilizers, ammonia in 
gas works, white lead, etc., are pro- 
duced, showing how important and 
far-reaching the chemical industry is 



among us. 



Besides the regular acids he has in- 
troduced the manufacture of blue- 
stone, copperas, sal soda, Prussian 
blue, glauber salts, Reynolds' patent 
solution of prussiate of potash, Rey- 
nolds' excelsior soldering solution and 
many others. The solution of prus- 
siate of potash was introduced as a 
substitute for red or yellow prussiate 
of potash, and is of great importance to 
woolen manufacturers in the matter 
of dyeing, as by its use gumming was 
obviated, bright, fast colors obtained, 
and all much more cheaply than by 
the old method. The good results 
achieved by its use have been borne 
testimony to by the officials of the 
leading woolen mills in this State and 
Oregon. The improvement in the re- 
lining of crude bullion consisted in 
dispensing with melting, alloying and 
granulating before separating with the 
acids. Other inventions have kept up 
the reputation of California in the 
domain of chemistry, and show that 
a great deal of the talent, as well as 
the enterprise, of the world has found 
its way hither. 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



In 1870 Mr. Reynolds bought one- 
half interest in the natural carbonate 
of soda lake, known as the Ragtown 
Lake, in Churchill County, State of 
Nevada, and introduced hundreds of 
tons of it into this market at a loss 
of about $30,000 to himself through 
a loose and over-confiding copart- 
nership. The California Chemical 
Works were all burned in 1878, and 
a loss sustained of, at least, $20,000 
more than the insurance covered. 

Mr. Reynolds, who is a widower, 
has but one living son, who has been 
Superintendent of the works for the 
past ten years, and the success of 



which owes a great deal to his close 
and able attention. 

The successful establishment of his 
factory for many years tested severe- 
ly, as no says himself, Mr. Reynolds' 
brain and muscle, bnt he adds, 
"Thank God, I am sufficiency re- 
warded for all my pains." Mr. Rey- 
nolds is also a considerable real es- 
tate owner in this city. He is of 
stout build, ruddy, robust and be- 
nevolent of features, giving one the 
impression of wearing a perpetual 
smile, and is not one of the least use- 
ful citizens who claim Hibernia as 
their fatherland. 





Geo. H. Roe. 



George Henry Roe. 



<j4>HE subject of this sketch was 
Jfl L bom June 7, 1852, and ra ; sed 
nr on a farm in what was then 
known as Upper Canada. 

When he was 13 years of age his 
father died and thereafter he received 
no help from any source, but relied 
upon his own energies to make his way 
through life. Ho found employment 
in a country store and by the timo he 
was 16 had saved enough money to 
enable him to attend school for two 
years at Upper Canada College. 
Leaving school he returned to the 
position he had left and remained 
until he was satisfied that Canada 
was a good country to emigrate from, 
when he took the advice of Horace 
Greeley, moved West, going first to 
Chicago, finding various employ- 
ments, and remaining there three 
years. A portion of the time he was 
a commercial traveler throughout 
the Western States. Profiting thus 
far by the advice "Go West," he 
determined to follow it to the 
fullest extent, and arrived in San 
Francisco in the Summer of 1875. 
He brought with him a little money, 
which he deposited in the Bank of 
California a few hours before it sus- 
pended payment, leaving him among 
strangers with no money and a 
month's board bill coming due in a 
few days. During the excitement 
young xtoe applied to the Paying 
Teller to certify his check, which was 
refused, but obtaining a personal in- 
terview with the President, Mr. Ral- 
ston, and explaining the circum- 
stances to that gentleman, he ordered 
a check certified for the amount of 
Roe's deposit, which was probably 
the last order Mr. Ralston gave, for, 
within an hour, he was drowned. 



This check Mr. R>e could not nego- 
tiate even at forty cents on tho dollar, 
but this evidence of indebtedness en- 
abled him to live at tho hotel where 
he was quartered until it became 
known that tho bank would resume 
business. 

Shortly after this he entered into a 
partnership with W. P. Plummer, 
under tho namo of Roe & Piuinmer. 
They began business as money aud 
note brokers, with offices on Steuarfc 
street, near tho water front. Their 
business prospered and was freely 
discussed in banking circles; for it 
was a well known fact that the capital 
of the concern was but $5,000, while 
ten times that sum was often involved 
in a singlo day's transaction. 

In 1878 the electric light made its 
first appearance here, at the Palace 
Hotel, and at about the same time 
the agents of different Eastern elec- 
tric lighting concerns put in an ap- 
pearance also. Among them was one 
who came to Roe & Plummer, to have 
his note discounted, offering his ma- 
chinery as collateral security. 

The risk was great, but tho dis- 
counting was even greater than the 
risk, and in the end the brokers 
became possessed of the machinery, 
which they soon found to be very 
defective and inefficient. 

About this time the Jones Silver 
Bill "knocked the bottom out" of 
the money brokerage business and the 
firm of Roe & Plummer dissolved part- 
nership. In the settlement Mr. Roe 
was awarded the electrical machin- 
ery. He immediately associated him- 
self with John Bensley, O. F. Willey, 
J. R. Hardenbergh aud R. A. Robin- 
son, and on June 30, 1879, incorpor- 
ated the California Electric LLgi&G*. 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Electricians and mechanics were 
employed to improve the machinery, 
ana finally an entirely new dynamo 
was constructed, with a polished 
band of iron surrounding the arma- 
ture, to give it a finished appearance. 
Upon trial it was found to be a com- 
plete failure. In after years the cause 
was plain; the iron band had cut off 
the lines of force from the field mag- 
nets, rendering the machine useless. 
While it was being tested Mr. Roe, 
in his anxiety, placed both ends of 
the line wire In his mouth, endeavor- 
ing to taste enough current to hang a 
hope upon. Hud tho machine com- 
menced generating at this timo there 
would have been a funeral in the 
feimily. Mr. Roe had, however, been 
reading (he electrical papers and be- 
coming enthused with the idea of 
electric lighting, concluded that it 
was the business he would like to 
follow. He at once made arrange- 
ments with Mr. Kerr, the Pacific 
Coast Agent for the Brush Electric 
Company of Cleveland, Ohio, and in 
September, 1879, began the business 
of electric lighting from the station, 
corner of Market anil Fourth streets, 
where the Flood Building nowstands. 
This is said to be tho first public 
electric lighting station established 



has been constructed on Townsend 
street, near Third street, which is 
said to be the largest electric lighting 
station in the world to-day. The ac- 
tual money invested in Ibe plant is 
nearly $1,000,000. This company 
has not, however, confined its busi- 
ness to Sin Francisco, but through 
individuals and " Sub-Companies " 
has established electric lighting 
plants in seventeen other cities and 
towns and has also erected some fifty 
private plants; making a total of 
nearly 5,000 arc lights that have been 
introduced during the past ten years. 
It bos donealarge business in incan- 
descent lighting also, which is soon 
to be greatly extended. The com- 
pany is also engaged in the business 
of the distribution of electrical power 
and in establishing power plants. 
Starting with one small sewing ma- 
chine electric motor in 1837, the 
business has increased until it has 
assumed very large proportions. The 
company lias lately established a 
power plant at Virginia City of over 
500 horse power capacity. 

"While Mr. Roe has associated 
with him some of our most energetic 
and substantial business men, still 
to his personal supervision, pluck 
and perseverance is due the success 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



299 



of representation as might afterwards 
be determined upon. Then, when 
there came a dispute between two or 
more countries, such as the dispute 
between Germany and France over 
Alsace and Loraine, the Congress of 
Nations would meet, hear both sides 
and render its decision, which must 
be final. 

An eminent jurist once said it was 
not of so much importance that a 
case should be decided right as that 
it should be decided. So with the 
little disputes between nations; it is 
not of so much importance that they 
should be decided right as that they 
should be decided, and save the 
shedding of the blood of the subjects 
of both nations. The strip of dis- 
puted territory between Germany 
and France is not worth the sacrifice 
of the life of a single subject, and yet 
thousands have been killed over it. 
Objections may be found to this 
proposition, because it will be asked : 
How are you going to enforce the 
decision of the International Con- 
gress? The answer is, by having 
an army and navy under the control 



of the International Congress, and 
when the Congress renders its decis- 
ion, the commander-in-chief of the 
international army will be instructed 
to enforce the decision of the Con 
gress, and the nation itself having 
no army, will be powerless to resist 
the international army and must 
therefore comply with and abide by 
the decision. These views of Mr. 
Roe are new and novel, but are in 
sympathy with the spirit of 
the age and the general desire 
of enlightened nations to settle 
international vjuestions by arbi- 
tration. 

Mr. Roe was married April 15, 
1885, to Laura 13. Rice, the daughter 
of a pioneer, and a neice of Judge 
Finn of this citv. They have one 
chiid, a boy. Mr. Roe belongs to 
the Masonic Fraternity, being a 
Knight Templar. He is also a mem- 
ber of the Pacific Union Club, but 
better than all these, he is a loving 
and dutiful son to a mother whoso 
pathway through life has been made 
smooth by the affectionate attention 
of her son. 



i 
t 

i 




Jos. Rothschild. 




HE subject of our sketch is one 
of the most popular and pro- 
gressive of the younger mem- 
bers of the San Francisco Bar. 
Born in this city thirty-four years 
ago, he is a thorough San Francis- 
can. His father, Henry Bothschild, 
was one of our most respected 
Hebrew citizens, and being pos- 
sessed of means ho afforded his son 
ample opportunities for obtaining 
an excellent education. That these 
opportunities were improved no one 
who is acquainted with the son will 
question. He attended the public 
schools, and after graduating from 
the High School, underwent a 
course of instruction from a private 
tutor in order to make him thor- 
oughly fitted for college. He en- 
tered Yale College and soon took a 
prominent place among his class- 
mates. He was not only successful 
in his studies but endeared himself 
warmly to all with whom he came in 
contact. As an evidence of the re- 
gard entertained for him by his fellow 
students, it might be stated, that he 
was presented with the " Scales of 
Justice," a prize annually awarded 
to the most popular student in the 
law class. 

After pursuing a course at tbe 
Tale Law School, Mr. Bothschild 
was admitted to practice by the 
Supreme Court of Connecticut. 
Soon afterward he returned to this 
city, and at once entered upon the 
active work of his profession. For 
a time he remained in the office of 
the well-known law firm of Stanly, 
Stoney & Hayes, but after a brief 
season he "hung out his shingle" 
on his own hook, and his wide 
acquaintance and the favorable esti- 
mation entertained for his ability 



soon brought to him a large clientage. 

While devoted to his profession 
Mr. Bothschild has found time to dc 
much good work in connection with 
several of the benevolent orders. 
He has been for many years an 
active member of the Independent 
Order of the Free Sons of Israel 
and of I. O. B. B. He is a Past 
President of the former, and in 
January, 1890, he retired from ser- 
vice as Grand President of the last 
named order, which is a representa- 
tive body of the wealth and intelli- 
gence of our Hebrew citizens, and 
whose jurisdiction covers the entire 
Pacific Coast. At the close of the 
last session of the Grand Lodge a 
banquet was held at which the re- 
tiring Grand President was present- 
ed with an elegant gold watch, as 
a token of the regard and esteem 
entertained for him as a man and 
in appreciation of his services in be- 
half of the order. During this ses- 
sion of the Grand Lodge, also, a 
series of resolutions were adopted 
sympathizing with Mr. Bothschild in 
the deep affliction sustained by him 
a fow months before in the loss of 
both his parents. One of these reso- 
lutions reads as follows: 

" That this Grand Lodge proffers 
the sentiment of warmest regards to 
Brother Joseph Bothschild, and the 
earnest and heartfelt hope that the 
future may recompense him for the 
bitter sorrow of the year 1889, and 
that it may bring him ample reward 
for the devotion and love he lavished 
on his parents, for having been a 
good, dutiful and obedient son, an 
affectionate and faithful brother, a 
friend staunchly to be depended on. 
Mav he ' live long in the land ' which 
is the blessing that came to ota&sR& 



302 



BTTILDKRS OP A GREAT CITY. 



sons, and may 'length of days,' 
honor and prosperity crown a career 
that already gives indication of 
shedding lustre on himself and his 
relatives." 

Mr. Rothschild was elected by the 
Grand Lodge one of the District 
Judges for this coast, and also a 
Delegate to the National Convention 
of the World, which met at Rich- 
mond, Va., in June of the present 
year. 

Mr. Rothschild has always had a 
fondness for politics. In the mem- 
orable straggle for the adoption of 
the new constitution in 1879 he was 
a member of th« Executive Commit- 
tee of the New Constitution party, 
and at the local convention he was 
a member of the Conference Com- 
mittee of Five, to confer with a like 
committee appointed by the Demo- 
cratic Convention to agree upon a 
Slan of fusion. In the last Presi- 
ential campaign he was selected by 
the Democratic State Central Com- 
mittee to open the campaign at 
Merced, and all through the cam- 
paign he did effective work on the 
stump for the Democracy. 

Mr. Rothschild was elected by 



the Democrats a member of the 
Board of Education in 1887, and 
served on several important commit- 
tees, besides acting as legal adviser 
of the Board. He declined a re- 
nomination from the last Demo- 
cratic Municipal Convention, feeling 
that a proper attention to the duties 
of his office trenched too greatly 
upon the demands made upon his 
time by his profession. 

Mr. Rothschild's practice, while 
general in its character, is largely in 
the line of commercial law. He is 
attorney for many of the heavy mer- 
cantile firms of this city, and also 
has charge of the property of a num- 
ber of our leading capitalists, acting 
as their agent and caring for their 
interests. As a speaker Mr. Roths- 
child is fluent, forcible, and when 
occasion requires it, rises to true 
eloquence. One of the best speci- 
mens of his oratorical ability was 
displayed in his response to "The 
Bar," at the memorable Democratic 
banquet in this city in May, 1884. 

Mr. .Rothschild is a member of 
the Democratic State Club, and is 
prominent in the councils of the 
party. 





Charles P. Sheffield. 



I f 



Charles P. Sheffield. 



rF foreign immigration has not in 
all cases been of a desirable 

L character, certainly the instances 
are more than numerous where it has 
conferred inestimable benefits, not 
only in helpingto fill the waste places 
of the land and cause smiling towns 
and cities to spring up, but also in 
bringing to our shores men fitted to 
advance the cause of the industrial 
arts. 

There are many such here among us 
in San Francisco. Of these, is Charles 
P. Sheffield, who, with James Patterson 
and N. W.Spaulding, combined to form 
the " Pacific Saw Manufacturing Com- 
pany " just about a quarter of a cen- 
tury since. Mr. Sheffield is a native 
of England, having been born in Der- 
byshire in 1819. While young he 
attended night school, and there re- 
ceived the rudiments of an education. 
He learned his trade, that of sawmaker, 
in Sheffield, the great center of Eng- 
lish edge tool manufacture. He ar- 
rived in New York in 1845, when 
about twenty-six years of age. He 
worked there at saw making for Wor- 
rell & Co. and Hoe & Co. He also 
worked in Baltimore, where he first 
made the acquaintance of Mr. Patter- 
son. He visited Pittsburg, too, every- 
where doing good work at his trade. 
The gold discoveries in California at- 
tracted him, and after waiting long 
enough to know that they had left a 
permanent impress on the character 
of the coast and room for workers in 
other avocations than that of mining, 
lie set out for San Francisco, where he 
arrived on July 6, 1850. He came 
by the Panama route and in the steam- 
ship Panama. From this city he went 
to JDownieville, Sierra County, where 
ho engaged to run a saw mill for Col. 
Durgan. 



He was afterwards partner with 
Craycrof t in a saw mill in the same 
place. But there was a broader field 
of operations opened to him, and in 
1852 he removed to this city. As 
early as 1845, Mr. Sheffield had seen 
a solid plate with inserted teeth, but 
in 1848 he himself made nineteen 
saws in Pittsburg, each saw in six 
parts and joined together by flanges. 
Mr. Sheffield made the first circular 
saw manufactured on this coast in 
1852. It was of boiler iron with 
inserted teeth. It was run in a mill 
at Twenty- Six Mile House on the 
Auburn road. In the same year this 
gentleman went to the mountains 
where he remained till 1855. In the 
latter year be came to San Francisco. 
Mr. Sheffield started a repairing shop 
and an importing saw establishment 
at the corner of Battery and Jackson 
streets with George Stead, his old em- 
ployer. For all these years he was 
engaged in saw milling and saw 
repairing, but in no wise dreaming of 
the future in manufacturing that was 
before him. In 1859 he sold the 
business out to his partner and went 
to the mountains for the second time. 
In the fall of 18G3 he came to this city, 
and went into partnership with Mr. 
James Patterson. In 1865, Mr. Pat- 
terson and Mr. Sheffield made two mill 
saws, each 12 feet long, and they were 
placed on exhibition at the Mechanics' 
Institute Fair and were awarded a 
premium, being the first ever made 
on the Pacific Coast. One was used 
by McPherson & Wetherbee's mill 
and the other at Duncan's saw mills. 
It was then that both conceived the 
idea of making instead of repairing 
saws, and being joined in 1866 by N. 
W. Spaulding they proceeded to carry 
out their ideas practically and with 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



SC4 



the greatest success in the teeth of the 
most overwhelming obstacles. 

The rest of Mr. Sheffield's life story 
belongs to the history of the industry 
to which, for twenty-five years, it has 
been unremittingly devoted. Mr. 
Sheffield was first manied in Mew 
York in 1847, and in 188G to his 
present wife in California. Ho had 
one son, Mr. Charles M. Sheffield, a 
bright, promising youth, born in 185G 
in California, who graduated from the 
State University with honors in 1879, 
and who subsequently graduated from 
the Hasting.' Law College in 1882 and 
was admitted to the bar of San Fran- 
cisco the following year. He gave 



promise of a successful career in the 
profession of law, but unhappily died 
in 1884. 

Though seventy years of age, Mr 
Sheffield is active and vigorous, at- 
tending to every department of the 
manufacture with the same care and 
efficiency that be did over twenty 

?ears ago. He is a lif j member of the 
editorial Pioneers and uls;> a lift. 
member of the Mechanics' Instimtc 
Ho belongs to the Masonio Order of ih i . 
city. He is stout and robust, under 
the middle height, and in figure and 
features is a typical Englishman. 
His mother country has no reason to 
be ashamed of her s in. 





Isaac H. Small 



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Isaac henry Small. 



GSrHIS gentleman, well and widely 
^ii known as the senior tneraber of 

♦^ the firm of I.H. Small & Son, at 
574Braunan street, has been for many 
years prominently identified with 
the manufacture of wood-working 
and other machinery in this city, 
and is therefore entitled to a more 
extended mentiou in this connection 
than our limited space will permit. 
He may properly be referred to as 
the father of the iudustry of which 
he has for many yeara made a spe- 
cialty, the establishment of which he 
is the head having been founded by 
him in 1864, and having always been 
the leading and indeed the only one 
of importance in its line upon the 
Pacific Coast Mr. Small has also 
been the iuventor of many ingenious 
and useful appliances and improve- 
ments in labor-saving machinery, 
which have been of great utility in 
the wood-worker's art, besides hav- 
ing perfected and put into practical 
form the ideas of hundreds of others. 

Isaac Henry Small is a native of 
Bowdoinham, in the State of Maine, 
where he was born on November 
6, 1828, and is therefore now in 
his sixty-firstyear. His ancestors on 
his father's side were among the 
early colonial settlers of New En- 
gland, from Scotland originally, while 
his mother was of English and Irish 
extraction. Beyond a doubt Mr. 
Small has inherited the shrewdness 
and business tact of his Scottish- 
Irish ancestry, with the good-natured 
bonhommie of the latter,while strongly 
predominating are the mental traits 
and characteristics which distinguish 
New Englanders, and which nave 
made them the greatest inventors of 
the age. This gentleman is of Revo- 



lutionary stock, his grandfather hav- 
ing served in the War of Indepen- 
dence, and his father having*" done 
the state some service " in that of 
1812-15 with Great Britain. 

After receiving his education in 
the public schools of Brunswick, in 
his native State, at the age of six- 
teen he entered the employ of his 
father, who was engaged in the mer- 
chandising business. Young Small 
early showed a decided penchant for 
mechanics and kindred pursuits, and 
finding the confinement of his posi- 
tion irksome, he retired from his 
father's counting-room and engaged 
in the business which was to be 
the employment of his future life. 
He entered a factory extensively 
engaged in the manufacture of ma- 
chinery, and which was especially 
noted for its output of the vari- 
ous machines used in saw-mills and 
flouring mills. His adaptability to 
his chosen business was soon made 
evident He progressed rapidly in 
the knowledge of his trade in all its 
departments and details, and while 
yet a very young man had risen to 
be the master mechanic of the es- 
tablishment. His position was a re- 
sponsible and lucrative one, but he 
was young, active, energetic, and 
withal ambitious, and California of- 
fered a more promising field for the 
attainment of his desires than did 
older Atlantic States. He contracted 
the "gold fever/' and on the 18th of 
January, 1854, he bade adieu to fam- 
ily and friends, and started to seek 
his fortune on the shores of the Pa- 
cific. Coming by the Nicaragua 
route, he arrived in San Francisco on 
February 23, 1854, remaining in the 
city hut a few days, when he started 



306 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



for the mines at Horseshoe Bar, 
where his two brothers — who had 
preceded him to California — had lo- 
cated a mining claim. Here he had 
his first experience with the " pan," 
the "rocker," and the "long torn." 
The claim was a good one, and in a 
single season ho was made compar- 
atively rich, bnt becoming badly af- 
fected with the poison oak of the 
locality he left the mines and re- 
turned to San Francisco. He hero 
engaged in teaming on an extensive 
scale. The business was successful 
and profitable; he made money, and 
finally disposing of his interest to ad- 
vantage, he returned to his Eastern 
home on a visit to his relatives and 
friends, to whom the recital of the 
adventures and experiences of the 
young and adventurous Argonaut in 
tho then distant California were, of 
course, of great interest. 

Possessed of the necessary capital, 
Mr. I. II. Small established a ma- 
chine shop at Old Cambridge, near 
Boston, Mass., but, as has been the 
case with hundreds of old Califbr- 
nians, ho concluded to make the 
Golden State his future home and 
base of operations. This was in 
1857, and Mr. Small sold out his cs- 
tablishment at Old Cambridge and 



of the Pacific Foundry in San Fran- 
cisco. In 1862 he filled a similar 
position in the Golden State Foun- 
dry, and some two years subsequent- 
ly, in 1864, he bought the machine- 
shop at the corner of Market and 
Beale streets, and began the manu- 
facture of wood - working machin- 
ery. The establishment thus founded 
was the first devoted exclusively 
to this class of machinery, and, as 
we have said, Mr. Small thus 
became entitled to be called the 
father of this new and important 
industry. This gentleman now de- 
voted his entire time and attention 
to the development of his business, 
and was very successful. He made 
several inventions and improvements 
upon principles already formulated, 
among the most important of which 
were thejustly celebrated Small plan- 
ers and wood catting machinery, 
which have achieved the reputation 
of being by far the best ever produced. 
These valuable machines have come 
into very extended use, aud tho de- 
mand on Messrs. Small & Son's estab- 
lish menthasnot been confined locally, 
but extends throughout the neigh- 
boring States and Territories, British 
Columbia, Mexico, the Hawaiian Is- 
lands, and even to distant Australia 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



30' 



Francisco several years before it 
came into use in the Eastern States, 
and had Mr. Small taken the pre- 
caution to patent it, it would alone 
have yielded him a fortune. 

The inventive and mechanical fac- 
ulty possessed by this gentleman 
has also been of great practical ad- 
vantage to hundreds of others, who, 
having conceived an idea of value, 
were unable to develop it, and 
through his instrumentality num- 
bers of machines and devices have 
added to the working power of ma- 
nipulators of wood and the useful 
metals. Mr. Small is not only a 
skilled and experienced mechanic, 
but is an accomplished draughtsman 
and designer. Designing may be 
considered his "forte," and an im- 
portant branch of the busiuess. 

In 1876 the tactory and works were 
removed from their old location to 
Nos. 574-576 Brannan street, near 
Fifth, where Messrs. I. H. Smull & 
Son haveenjoyedamonopoly, and still 
control the business in the lines of 
which they make a specialty. In 
August, 1886, the establishment was 
destroyed in the memorable fire 
which swept that portiou of the city, 
but from its ashes, PhcBuix-like, has 
risen a completely and thoroughly 
equipped factory for the production 
or wood -working aud other machin- 
ery; a specialty, as said, being made 
of the former. 

Mr. I. H. Small has thus seen our 
fair city grow from comparative in- 
significance to its present greatness 
and prosperity, aud he may well take 
a pride in the geueral advancement 
and manufacturing progress in which 
he has been so largely interested. 

This gentleman is an old aud 
prominent member of the Indepen- 
dent Order of Odd Fellows, in which 
great organization he is at present a 



Past Grand. He has been for many 
years Treasurer of the order in Ban 
Francisco, and now fills that honor- 
able and responsible position. He is 
a member of the Board of Directors 
of the I. O. 0. F. Hall Association, 
and as such took a prominent part 
in the erection of the magnificent 
aud stately building which rears its 
lofty walls at the comer of Market 
and Seventh streets, and which is 
the most elegant aud imposing hall 
of the I. O. O. F. in the world. Mr. 
Small took a leading part in the sale 
of the old property on Montgomery 
Street, aud has since been on the 
Auditing Committee in the new tem- 
ple. 

Mr. Small has been twice married, 
having lost his first wife by death 
some eighteen years ago. His son 
by this union, Mr. Charles Henry 
Small, is now his business associate, 
and has displayed rare ability both 
as a mechanic and a general business 
man. This geutleman was born 
March 2, 1852, and has been an 
invaluable addition to the firm orig- 
inally founded by his father. He is 
spoken of in the highest terms by 
all who know him, both in his busi- 
ness relations and social capacity. 

The present wife of Mr. Small is 
an estimable lady whose maiden 
name was Julia Helen Gerow. The 
light of the household is a charming 
aud interesting child of less than 
three years, with the pretty and 
poetical name of Gladys. 

In addition to his prominent con- 
nection with the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, Mr. Isaac II. Small 
is also a member of the A. O. U. W. 
and of the Knights of Honor, in the 
deliberations and operations of which 
societies he takes a lively and active 
interest and participation. 



; it 



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John Spaulding. 



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John Spaulding, 



Hfr striking instance of the certain 
71 reward which follows the efforts 
&l* of a man possessed of unswerv- 
ing integrity, close observation, in- 
domitable perseverance and strict 
attention to ousiness is to be found 
in the subject of this sketch. John 
Spaulding comes of good old New 
England stock, and is a direct de- 
scendant of Captain Job Shattuck, 
who served with distinction in the 
old French war, and also in the Rev- 
olution. Captain Shattuck's wife.. 
Sarah Hartwell, was a woman of 
strong characteristics. She was one 
of tbose patriotic women, known in 
her neighborhood, as "Mrs. David 
Wright's Guard," who, a few days 
after the 19th of April, 1775, hearing 
that Leonard Whiting, a noted Tory, 
of Hollis, N. H., would pass through 
Pepperell, collected at the Bridge 
over the Nashua river and when Whit- 
ing appeared, seized and searched 
him. Dispatches from Canada to 
the British in Boston were found in 
his boots. 

Mr. Spaulding was born in the 
town of Milford, New Hampshire, 
March 2, 1827. His father was a 
farmer, but also owned sawmills, 
shingle mills and clapboard mills. 
Here the first twenty years of 
his life were passed. He attended 
the district school during the Winter 
months, and a good part of the time 
assisted his father upon the farm or 
in the mills. It was in this latter 
occupation that he developed a taste 
for mechanics, and obtained a knowl- 
edge of machinery which was of great 
value to him in after years. As he 
neared man's estate, young Spauld- 
ing had a longing to see more of the 
world, and he started off, as many 
a New England boy had before and 



since, to seek his fortune. He firs! 
located at Lowell, Massachusetts, 
where .he started to learn the trade 
of wood-turning. He soon found 
that he had made a mistake; that 
the avocation was not what he had 
fancied, and he pushed on to Boston. 
There he got work with a painter, 
and after a brief apprenticeship was 
soon making good wages. For some 
time he worked in the Old Colony 
Railroad Company's shops, and after- 
ward in carriage painting in South 
Boston. He was then 26 years of age. 
There was a steady emigration going 
on to California. Tales of the groat 
fortunes to be made in the Golden 
State were current all through the 
East, and many of the brightest and 
brainiest of the young men of New 
England were among the number of 
those who were thronging to the new 
El Dorado. Spaulding caught the 
fever, and the Summer of 1853 found 
him in San Francisco. Like most 
new arrivals, his first point of destina- 
tion was the gold fields. He went to 
Sonora and located a claim which he 
worked for eight or ten months. 
He found his hard labor poorly re- 
paid, however, and resolved to re- 
turn to San Francisco. The young 
metropolis was at that time filled 
with a floating population, and em- 
ployment was scarce. He soon found 
an opportunity to obtain work in the 
redwoods of San Mateo County, of 
which he availed himself. The mill, 
which belonged to Col. E. D. Baker, 
was located on the Pulgas Bancho, at 
what is now known as Woodside, a 
few miles back from Redwood City, 
just at the base of the Coast Bange. 
At this mill there were twenty-four 
saws in the gang and they used to do 
wonderful execution upon the pros- 



310 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



trate monarchs of the forest. Here 
Spaulding's experience in his father's 
mill in early days proved serviceable. 
At the time he began work, early in 
the year 1854, redwood lumber was 
worth $50 a thousand, and shingles 
810. As other mills were started up, 
however, the market became better 
supplied, and by May the price of 
lumber had declined to $25 per 
1000. About this time he engaged 
to work in an o titer mill owned 
by Richardson Brothers. The mill- 
men became short of funds and 
offered to pay Mr. Spaulding for his 
work in lumber at $20 per 1000, but 
as it would cost him $22 to get it 
to San Francisco, ho refused these 
terms and returned to the city. 
Two weeks after Mr. Spaulding left 
Richardson's mill it was blown 
up. After a few days in San Fran- 
cisco he wont to Napa where he 
worked during the harvest season. 
When that was over he came back to 
San Francisco aud resolved to remain 
here. For a short time he worked at 
painting and then went into the water 
business. He supplied water to the 
citizens before Spring Valley did, 
though his system was not so elabor- 
ate. 

Ho bought a water-cart, and obtain- 
ing water from wells sold it to i 



ure of that journal he bought a 
route on the Evening Bulletin, and 
also one on the Morning Call. These 
routes he retained until four years 
ago, and he considered them the 
beet investment he ever made. For 
what he paid $2,200, he realized 
over $10,000, besides paying him a 
handsome monthly income during 
twenty-seven years. One day in 
March, 1865, Mr. Spaulding saw an 
advertisement in a Boston news- 
paper offering for sale the patent 
right of a newly-invented machine 
for cleaning carpets. He entered 
into correspondence with the par- 
ties, and as a result purchased 
the right for the machine on this 
coast. This was the begi nnin g of 
his present large carpet-beating busi- 
ness. Since that time Mr. Spauld- 
ing has, by the exercise of his 
mechanical skill, made numerous im- 
provements which have been patent- 
ed, until the machines used by him 
are, without doubt, the most perfect 
in the United States.' A few years 

The engaged in the manufacture 
excelsior, but a fire destroyed 
the factory in Puyallup, Washing- 
ton, and the venture ultimately 
resulted in quite a loss to him. 
About this time he added a cleaning 
and dyeing business to his carpet 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



311 



fk)u again. He set to work, however, 
and invented a style of boiler tubes 
by means of which the water is so 
heated and purified, that it enters 
the* boiler perfectly clean ; there is 
no adhesion to the tubes and no scale. 
This invention, which he has had 

J>atented, saves him, he estimates, 
rom $50 to $65 a month. 
Mr. Spaulding has been twice mar- 
ried. By his first wife he had two 
children, a son and a daughter. The 



former is in business with him, and 
the latter is married and living in 
this city. Mr. Spaulding is a mem- 
ber of xerba Buena Lodge, I. O. O. 
F., and also of California Lodge, 
No. 1, Knights of Pythias. Although 
Mr. Spaulding's life has been a 
most active one, he is very well pre- 
served, and now, somewhat past 
middle age, his vigorous health gives 
promise of many years of usefulness 
to come. 



1 



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N. W. Spaulding- 



Nathan Weston Spaulding. 



^StHE naa>o of N. W. Spaulding 
^Jn is well known to the people of 
^i the Pacific Coast as an inven- 
tor and as a representative business 
man. His ancestry is traced back to 
as early ns 1630, and through two 
centuries and a half has the name 
come down connected with America 
and American affairs. 

He was born at North Anson, 
Maine, on the 24th day of Septem- 
ber, 1829. Early in life he exhibited 
a mechanical turn of mind, and his 
father being a practical mechanic, 
and his uncle a millwright, their 
valuablo assistance enabled him to 
rapidly acquire a thorough knowl- 
edge in these branches, and at the 
age of 20 ho was competent to lead, 
and found employment as such in 
Boston and in Portland, Maine. 

In 1851, he joined a party from 
his native State, determined to seek 
their fortunes in the new land of 
gold. They cimo to California by 
way of Panama. The mines being 
their objective point, they soon 
found themselves in old Calaveras. 
The friends here separated, Mr. 
Spaulding finding employment in the 
construction of the first quartz mill 
ever built in the State, the castings 
for which had been shipped around 
Capo Horn but were lost before 
reaching here In this dilemma, 
Mr. Spaulding went to San Fran- 
ci co and made a new bet of patterns 
for the mill, and Peter Donahue 
having just opened his foundry, on 
First street, engaged to make the 
castings for the same which he did, 
only one lot of work having been 
turned out of the foundry previous to 
the irons for this mill. But mining 
still had its charms, and in the Sum- 
mer of 1852, he and others cut with a 



whip-saw over 20,000 feet of lumber, 
and flumed the bed of the Mo- 
kelumne Biver. After six months' 
unremitting toil their flume was 
swept away by a flood and all their 
hopes of a fortune vanished. After 
this he constructed the saw-mill 
on the headwaters of the Mo- 
kelumne Biver that cut the lumber 
used in the construction of the old 
Mokelumne flume and canal, which 
ho was also engaged in building. 
Ho subsequently built and con- 
ducted the first hotel in Campo 
Seco, at which place he married in 
the year 1854. In August of the 
same year a conflagration destroyed 
not only the hotel, but the town as 
well. After this he removed to 
Clinton, in Amador County, where 
he continued in the mill business 
and built two bridges which spanned 
the Mokelumne Biver. Seeing the 
opening which existed for a new in- 
dustry in the State, he started a shop 
for the repairing of saws in Sacra- 
mento in 1859. Hero it was that 
he invented the adjustable saw- 
tooth which has so completely 
revolutionized the business through- 
out the whole country. Im- 
provement succeeded improvement, 
until the chisel-bit saw-tooth 
was introduced to the trade. In 
1861 he removed to this city, and in 
18G4 became associated with James 
Patterson and Charles P. Sheffield, 
the trio forming the Pacific Saw 
Manufacturing Company. The N. 
W. Spaulding Saw Company is, 
however, a distinct institution, be- 
ing incorporated under that name 
and of which he is the President and 
Manager. Its principal feature, 
distinct from the Pacific Saw Manu- 
facturing Company, is in manufact- 



S14 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



aring large circular saws with in- 
serted teeth, and chisel-bits and 
saw- mill machinery. 

As previously noted he haa taken 
a prominent part in public affairs. 
Although he is by no means a pub- 
lic office-seeker, he served four 
years in the City Council of Oak- 
land, and was twice Mayor. He 
was the originator of many of the 
most substantial public improve- 
ments of our sister city. When 
President Garfield succeeded to the 
Executive Chair, he was appointed 
Assistant U. S. Treasurer, which he 
filled for four years, to the entire 
satisfaction of the country. Daring 



that time over three hundred and 
twenty millions of dollars were safely 
handled by him, without the loss of 
one cent. He is a zealous Mason, 
and has held many of the higher 
offices in that fraternity. He has a 
residence in Oakland, and is the 
father of a large family. He is a 
picture of health and vigor, being 
tall and stately, six feet three inches 
high, and weighing two hundred and 
thirty -five pounds. A true friend, a 
good citizen, a man of good judg- 
ment and of quick perception as an 
inventor, be has made his mark, and 
is regarded as one of the best gen- 
eral mechanics on the Pacific Coast. 





Slahs Spreskles. 



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40E many years the name of 
Claus Spreckels has been a 
household word in California, 
and later throughout the length and 
breadth of the United States. What 
he has contributed to the development 
of the agriculture and industry of the 
Pacific Coast, and the impetus given 
by the enterprises in which ho has 
been engaged to the commerce of San 
Francisco, will be better understood 
half a century hence than it is 
even to-day. As in many other nota- 
ble examples calumny and misrep- 
resentation have not failed to assail 
him, but for some time past, 
in the light of his eminent 
services to his adopted State and 
city, the voice of envy has been 
hushed, and little else has been 
heard save eulogy. His career would 
furnish ample material for a volume 
in itself, and as the record of the 
struggles and triumphs of a self- 
made man it would relate a story of ab- 
sorbing interest. But here we must 
be brief, and can only give the lead- 
ing features of a successful life 
spent in the service and bettorment 
of his fellow-men. 

Mr. Claus Spreckels was born in the 
kingdom of Hanover in the year 1828. 
But despite his sixty odd years he 
may still be regarded as in the prime 
q! an active life. He sought the land 
of liberty at a comparatively early age, 
settling in Charleston, S. C., in 1846. 
Here his eldest son, John D., was 
born. For some years he carried on 
a grocery business in that city. He 
thence sought New York where his 

frevious occupation was continued, 
n 1856 he directed his steps to Cal- 
ifornia and in this city established 
the Albany Brewery. Here he intro- 
duced some practical improvements 



which for a long time gave the Albany 
a lead in the trade in this city. But his 
experience in the grocery line would 
not long allow him to remain outside 
of it. Accordingly, we soon find him 
determining to connect himself with 
the principal branch of the trade — 
sugar refining. 

In 1864, in conjunction with his 
brother, he established the Bay Sugar 
Refinery, now known as the Ameri- 
can. Mr. Spreckels conducted this 
refinery for two years. At that time 
the sugar refining interest in San 
Francisco was at its lowest ebb, and 
for long previously had been in a 
most unsatisfactory condition. The 
East had an almost virtual monopoly 
of the sugar trade of the coast, and 
the efforts at sugar refining here were 
for a long time marked by the wrecks 
of unhappy enterprises. The outlook 
was not inviting. This, however, 
in no way discouraged Mr. Spreckels. 
He had long determined to rev- 
olutionize the sugar trade. At that 
time, by the old method of refining, 
it took a period of six weeks to com- 
plete the operation. How to shorten ' 
it was the problem, and one to 
which Mr. Spreckels devoted him- 
self with untiring assiduity for a 
Seriod of nearly two years. The 
ifficulties were such as not one in a 
thousand would have successfully 
overcome, but he was not to be de- 
feated. Night and day he toiled. 
He made costly experiments. He 
put all his fortune in the venture, 
invented new machinery, and at last 
succeeded. The refining and clarify- 
ing processes were shortened, and 
twenty-four hours after the centrifu- 
gal process was completed, refined 
sugars were turned out. For the 
first time in history the terma <rah& 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



and crushed sugar were given to the 
world of commerce. Prom this time 
forth the refining industry on the 
coast began building up until 
it attained the distinction of being 
the leading one, and now we not 
only do without Eastern supplies, 
but our sugars are distributed over 
the central States as far as the Mis- 
souri, and have been sold in New 
York and Chicago. 

In 1867 Mr. Spreckels began refin- 
ing with the new processes in a small 
wooden building, which subsequently 
became the cooperage of a larger 
refinery. But such was the skill 
with which the business was con- 
ducted that new buildings had soon 
to be put up. What was known 
as the old refinery was erected in 1868; 
what was known as the new, in 1871. 
Together these had a capacity of 
fifty million pounds a year. It was 
now considered that the summit of 
possibilities had been reached, but 
here again all were agreeably disap- 
pointed. After long negotiation the 
Hawaiian treaty was concluded, and 
though at first Mr. Spreckels, in 
common with others, had opposed it 
believing it to be inimical to Pacific 
Coast interests, he made the best of 
it, and iu his hands it was converted 



satisfied with this achievement, but 
luckily such was not the case. 
From refining sugar to sugar growing 
in California was bnt a step. This 
he determined to take. The beet 
sugar business had been carried 
on here in a desultory way, 
but with no great success to 
those interested. He soon found 
out that the soil was especially suita- 
ble for it. The next thing was to 
learn something practical about not 
only the culture of beets, but the 
methods used in extracting the 
sugar. To this end he went to 
Germany in 1887, and made himself 
thoroughly master of all the process- 
es used both in factory and field. In 
1888 he erected a 1400,000 beet sugar 
factory at Watsonville and entered into 
contracts with the farmers in the neigh- 
borhood to buy up all the beets they 
could grow on 2,500 acres. The re- 
sult has been a great success, and in 
various parts of the Pacific Coast 
farmers are bestirring themselves iu 
the matter, more especially as Con- 
gress has provided for the payment 
of a substantial subsidy, chiefly 
through the representations of Mr. 
Spreckels. He has also built eight- 
een miles of narrow gauge railroad 
from Watsonville through Pajaro 




317 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



that he intended to join the Sugar 
Trust, Mr. Spreckels said: "I never 
yet have gone into anything unless I 
could have it all my own way. I have 
the finest location m the world. There 
on the Delaware, I have a site that I 
paid half a million for, but I could 
get a million and a half for it to-day. 
Ships can come right up to my 
wharves with raw sugar, and on the 
other side are railroad tracks on which 
I can distribute all over the country. 
I will use my California re- 
finery to supply all local trade 
and points this side of the 
Missouri River From Philadelphia 
I can send sugar to Chicago, St. 
Louis and New Orleans, and cut un- 
der the Trust prices/ 1 

Speaking of his beet sugar enter- 
prise, which is confined to Califor- 
nia, Mr. Spreckels said : "I do 
not believe in low wages. We 
do not want our workingmen re- 
duced so that they must live as do 
some of the laborers of Europe. 1 
want my beet sugar industry protect- 
ed and nursed until, like a growing 
child, in time it will be able to stand 
alone. I believe that California 
alone can, in a few years, produce 
enough sugar to supply half the de- 
mand of the United States, and that 
California, Oregon and Washington 
together can produce enough to supply 
the entire country. Some of the land 
around Watsonville paid the farm- 
ers who raised sugar beets as high 
as $55 an acre. Beet sugar making 
has been tried here before, but the 
people did not know how to manage 
it. In the Sacramento scheme sev- 
eral years ago some $600,000 were 
lost. People were doubtful and 
hesitated aoout going in with me, 
but it was really not an experiment 
as I was sure of success before 
starting at Watsonville. We are 
going to put up ten factories in 
California like that at Watsonville, 
and have organized the Occidental 
Feet Sugar Company, with $5,000,- 
000 capital stock. Having distribu- 
ted seed for experimental growing, 



as a result I have now a map which 
shows me exactly where beets that 
yield the most saccharine grow best." 

Through the growth of the sugar 
industry, fostered by Mr. Spreckels, 
the Hawaiian group has taken rank 
in the world of industrial States, 
while our trade with it has rapidly 
developed from small volume to 
an annual value of over fourteen mil- 
lions of dollars, and the fleet of 
Pacific Coast built vessels engaged 
in the Hawaiian trade have add- 
ed an unusually large proportion 
to our share of the American 
mercantile marine. The number of 
men employed in the various indus- 
tries thus created by Mr. Spreckels 
may be reckoned by thousands, 
and were our trade with the 
Islands, which is largely due to his 
enterprise, taken away, our mer- 
chants would find that a conspicuous 
portion of their business had slipped 
from their grasp. 

The Oceanic Steamship Com- 
pany, which was organized on De- 
cember 24, 1881, with a capital of 
two millions of dollars, by the 
Spreckels Brothers, and which has 
done such yeoman's service in the 
developement of commerce with 
Australia, is an offshoot of the great 
sugar industry, founded by their en- 
terprising and energetic father, 
Claus Spreckels, who may have other 
industrial achievements in view, but 
who has already accomplished 
sufficient to place his name on an en- 
during pedestal of fame. He is still 
physically strong and perfect, of a 
ruddy, healthy hue, with a fine pres- 
ence, an open, pleasant countenance 
and a cheerful word for everybody. 
His sons, John D., Adolph B. and 

C. A., forming the firm of John 

D. Spreckels & Brothers, are amongst 
our most successful business men, 
and give promise of a career as 
distinguished as that of their gifted 
father, who is truly the architect of 
his own fortune and one of the 
greatest master builders of this 
queen city of S&xl ¥T«x&Yg&fe« 























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Luke George Sresovich. 



I 



Luke George Sresovich. 



<UKE George Sresovich was born 
in the beautiful city of North 
Ragusa, Austria, on the 18th day 
of August, 1850. His father was an 
architect and builder by profession, 
but was better known as the 
great ship and house joiner of Ra- 
gusa, as he did all such work for the 
ship-builders and house carpenters 
of that city. He was also largely 
interested with other members of his 
family in the lumber trade and gen- 
eral merchandise. 

At the age of eleven young Sreso- 
vich, in company with a relative, be- 
gan visiting the various countries of 
Europe. Some three or more years 
were thus profitably employed. In 
1866 he bade farewell to home aud 
kindred and came to the new world 
in search of fortune. He remained 
in New York for a short time, and 
then took passage for California in 
the ship Andrew Jackson, arriving 
in San Francisco in the fall of 1867. 
Hero he began a course of study 
under Dr. Hoddard. He subsequent- 
ly became a student at Santa Clara 
College, where he carried off several 
medals and diplomas for proficiency 
in studies and good conduct. 

After the completion of his educa- 
tion he entered a large commission 
house, that of his uncle, J. Ivanco- 
vich, as shipping clerk. In 1870 he 
went into the wholesale fruit busi- 
ness on his own account on Sansome 
street. His venture proved so suc- 
cessful that he was soon forced to 
procure more commodious quarters. 
By au arrangement with the Lick 
estate, a large building on Washing- 
ton street was remodeled to accom- 



modate his growing trade. Unfortu- 
nately, his health began to fail, and 
by tihe advice of his physician he re- 
turned to his old quarters, which had 
been improved and enlarged. 

Early in the " seventies " heavy 
consignments of cocoanuts from Ta- 
hiti and other South Sea Islands were 
made to the San Francisco market, 
which was often overstocked, when 
the cocoanuts had to be thrown into 
the bay. Mr. Sresovich attempted 
to save the nuts by a drying process. 
He did not meet with much success at 
first, but patience and well-directed 
effort were eventually rewarded, and 
to-day his "Pioneer brand" of desic- 
cated cocoanut is claimed to be the 
best in the world. It has taken the 
medals and premiums at all our 
State fairs and exhibitions. At the 
World's Exposition, at New Orleans, 
it was awarded a diploma; it also 
gained a medal at the Oregon State 
fair. 

At the present time the manu- 
facture of desiccated cocoauut is 
an important industry. Whole car- 
goes of the nuts are now received 
and converted into a delicious crystal, 
line condition defying climate aud 
time. Several vessels are engaged 
by Mr. Sresovich in this trade. He 
is not only a dealer in fruits aud a 
manufacturer of fruit products, but a 
grower as well. His great fruit ranch 
at Byron is among the noted ones of 
the State, and will excel them 
all in certain varieties. He has 
also a large packing and drying estab- 
lishment at San Jose. He also car- 
ries on a steady export trade with 
the South Sea Islands 'and Australia. 



320 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



Eighteen years ago he opened up a 
market for our Trait to Australia, 
Mexico, China and other remote 
countries. By Mr. Sresovtch'a enter- 
prise and foresight, tho orcbardist 
us well as the steamship companies 
were greatly benefited. 

At the present time the yearly 
shipments to foreign parts aggregate 
over 200,000 cases. This is all the 
more gratifying from the fact that 
when the shipping of fruit to Sydney, 
Dunedin and Christcburcb was first 
started, eighteen years ago, very dis- 
couraging Tetters were received, stat- 
ing that there was no market. Sub- 
sequent events have shown what 
perseverance can do. The Australian 
fruit trade has grown to such dimen- 
sions that the steamers -to the an- 
tipodes had to refuse large consign- 
ments in 1888 as they could not 
accommodate more than 16,000 to 
20,000 cases by each boat. Mr. 
Sresovich is largely interested in tho 
banana trade between tho Hawaiian 
Islands and Sau Francisco. He has 
made contracts with Mark P. Robin- 
son of Honolulu to raise and ship to 



this port large quantities of the lus- 
cious fruit. Five years ago the trade 
was less than one-tenth of what it is 
now, the arrivals being from 6,000 to 
8,000 bunches per month, and the 
freight being 75 cents per bunch with 
five cents premium. 

Mr. Sresovich has solved a knotty 
railroad problem at San Jose, where 
all the goods are shipped direct 
from his warehouse. He has also 
pushed the Bale of fruits raised at 
Watson vi lie, Sau Jose, San Pablo 
and Soquel, by establishing packing 
houses in each town and transporting 
their products to other markets. He 
is connected with the Masonic fra- 
ternity, and is an Odd Fellow and a 
member of the Austrian Benevolent 
Society, etc. Some 15 years ago he 
married the daughter of a prominent 
farmer, who has blessed him with 
three children— one daughter, Eve- 
lyn, and two sons, George L. and 
Byron L., aged five and one year 
respectively. This is the life history 
of one of onr esteemed and enter- 
prising citizens. 




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Leland Stanford. 



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QjlMHEN a man, by his abilities, 
*lrnrl whatever may be their char- 
it'* acter, raises himself to a 
position of great wealth and in- 
fluence in the country, he wins, 
perhaps, more of the envy of his less 



fortunate competitors than anything 
else. If the works which have led 
to his wealth have been such as to 
confer large and increasing benefits 
upon the world, then he compels our 
admiration; but if while yet in the 
vigor of manhood he conceives and 
carries out some grand enterprise 
which shall advance the welfare of 
future generations, bestowing with 
liberal hand the millions he has ac- 
quired in order that this good may 
be made as secure to posterity as 
human skill aod wisdom can make it, 
then he commands not only our ad- 
miration, but the reverence and love 
of our hearts. 

And this is what Leland Stanford 
bas done. It is not necessary that 
his life should be written in books 
in order to perpetuate his name, for 
that he has indelibly impressed upon 
the continent by the iron road which 
winds its way across the plains and 
over the Sierras, connecting the At- 
lantic and Pacific seaboards, and he 
has erected a still greater monument 
so that posterity shall cherish his 
memory in the Leland Stanford Jr. 
University, one of the greatest gifts 
made at any time by one man to any 
people. It is well, therefore, if not 
necessary, that every book which is 
intended as a work of reference, with 
regard to the lives of those who have 
taken an active part in the advance- 
ment of San Francisco, and especially 
adapted for the use and satisfaction 
of those who shall come after us, 
should contain a biographical sketch 



of Leland Stanford. And that is all 
we can do here, just give a mere 
sketch, briefly alluding to the princi- 
pal works of his life. The effect they 
will have upon the State and county 
a century hence, no man can calcu- 
late, for the possibilities, when 
viewed in comparison with works of 
lesser magnitude instituted in the 
past, are beyond human comprehen- 
sion. 

Leland Stanford is a native of 
New York State, where he was born 
in Albany County, on the ninth day 
of March, 1824. He comes of Eng- 
lish ancestry, though the branch to 
which he belongs settled in America 
as early as 1644. Ho received a good 
education in his native State, and de- 
termined upon the law as a profes- 
sion, beginning its study in the office 
of Wheaton, Doolittle & Hadlev, of 
Albany, in 1845. On being admit- 
ted to the bar he looked to the West 
for a place in which to settle, and de- 
termined upon Port Washington, 
Wis., where he located in 1848. 
Two years later he was married to 
Miss Jane Lathrop, daughter of 
Dyer Lathrop, a prominent citizen 
and merchant of Albany. 

While in the practice of his profes- 
sion at Port Washington his library 
and the most valuable portion of his 
effects were burned. This apparent 
catastrophe gave to the Pacific Coast 
one of its greatest financiers, philan- 
thropists and statesmen, for instead 
of continuing in the practice of the 
law Mr. Stanford deciaed to emigrate 
to California, where his brothers were 
engaged in business and mining, join- 
ing them in 1852. Soon afterwards 
he settled in Michigan Bluff, Placer 
County, where he conducted a suc- 
cessful business for about four years. 



322 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY- 



His brothers were now in Sacramen- 
to, where their trade had grown to 
large proportions, and in 1856 Mr. 
Stanford joined them as a partner, 
devoting himself in the interests of 
the establishment, « hich hod various 
branches throughout the State and 
demanded close attention, as well as 
executive ability to properly con- 
duct it. 

Id 1860, Mr. Stanford was chosen 
delegate to the Chicago Convention, 
where he made the acquaintance of 
Abraham Lincoln, iind voted for him 
as R publican candidate for the 
Presidency. He was in full accord 
with tho Union party, and it is 
worthy of note that President 
Lincolu, with his shrewd judgment 
of men, recognized in him an able 
and trustworthy friend of the Gov- 
ernment, seeking hi j counsel and ad- 
vice with regard to Pacific Coast ap- 
pointments. He spent considerable 
time in Washington after Mr. Lin- 
coln's inauguration, and was there in 
1861, when he was tendered the 
nomination for Governor of Cali- 
fornia by the Republican party, 
but sent a letter of declination, 
which was not accepted or made 
public by the recipients, who had 
full faith that when lie became aware 



that at the close of his term of office 
there was no more loyal State in the 
Union than California, and that the 
unusual compliment was paid him of 
a unanimous resolution by both 
Houses expressing their sense of ob- 
ligation to him in the following 
words: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of the 
people of California are merited 
and ore hereby tendered to Leland 
Stanford, for the able, upright and 
faithful manner in which he has dis- 
charged the duties of Governor of 
the State of California for the past 
two years." 

Mr. Stanford declined the most 
urgent appeals to accept a second 
nomination, for there was a project 
in consideration of snch magnificent 
grandeur that to insure its being 
brought to a successful completion 
would require the concentration of 
his every faculty. 

" In the year 1860 (before Con- 
gress had passed any act looking to 
the construction of a transconti- 
nental railroad) a few gentlemen liv- 
ing in California met together, and 
as a result of this meeting concluded 
to have preliminary surveys made 
over the Sierra Nevada Mountains to 
see if it were possible to build a rail- 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



323 



continent, thai the wondrous work 
was finished and that the Atlantic 
and Pacific were connected by the 
greatest iron highway in the world. 

The effect which it has had in 
developing the resources of Califor- 
nia and making its superior advan- 
tages of climate and products known 
abroad is beyond computation. 

The writer of a biography can 
only deal with facts, he has no right 
to judge of the inner feelings or 
promptings which led the individual 
under consideration to act as he has 
done, but if one may surmise, re- 

§arding the motives which have in- 
uenced Mr. Stanford in much of 
his work, the conclusion would be 
that he had an intense love for and 
belief in the State of his adoption 
as a land of the greatest promise in 
the future, and that he had taken 
upon himself the task of demonstrat- 
ing to the world that such was the 
case. The great estate of Palo Alto, 
in Santa Clara and San Mateo Coun- 
ties, and tbe Vina Ranch in Tehama 
County, would seem by their man- 
agement and disposition to indicate 
that such is the case, but when we 
come to this part of Leland Stan- 
ford's life we feel that we have a 
most difficult task. No mere words 
will ever be adequate to express 
what he has done for California, and 
probably the best and only way is 
to state bare facts and let the reader 
weave around them all that his fancy 
or imagination may dictate. 

The Palo Alto estate is where the 
thoroughbred horses which have sur- 
prised the world were raised. In ali 
it comprises upwards of 7000 acres, 
and in its several departments of 
trotting horse, running horse, farm- 
ing, vineyard, park, house, etc., it 
probably has no equal as an exempli- 
fication of what can be accomplished 
in this State by a proper expendi- 
ture of labor and capital. It forms 
a part of his donation to the Univer- 



sity which he has founded and which 
is here located. The Vina Ranch, 
which has also been donated by Mr. 
Stanford, consists of 55,000 acres, 
3,575 acres of which are in vines* 
constituting the largest vineyard in 
the world. There are 1,500 acres of 
alfalfa, 3,000 acres in grain, also or- 
chard, hay, grazing and timber 
land, the whole constituting an ex- 
ceedingly valuable domain. 

The Gridley Ranch in Butte Coun- 
ty, comprising 20,000 acres of wheat 
land, constitutes a third donation. 
To designate all this as a princely 
gift would be but a tame and sense- 
less expression; it is only with the 
imagination, and not by words, that 
we can gain a proper idea of its 
magnitude. 

Of the University itself, it is still 
more difficult to frame a proper 
description. It is called the Lieland 
Stanford Jr. University, in memory 
of a beloved and only son. It is de- 
signed to furnish an education reach- 
ing from the kindergarten of child- 
hood to the mechanical, scientific, or 
professional occupations of manhood. 

Mr. Stanford was elected United 
States Senator in 1888, by one of the 
largest majorities ever given to a can- 
didate, and will be his own successor. 
Wo could not pretend in such a brief 
sketch as this to give even a tithe of 
the works of public utility in which 
he has been engaged. We have 
briefly indicated the most noticeable. 
Ho has a palatial residence in this 
city where he lives when his Sen- 
atorial duties do not call him to 
Washington. He was President of 
tho great road which will ever bo 
linked with his name from its in- 
ception in l he year 1889, when his 
Senatorial duties induced his resigna- 
tion. 

Even if he did no more to entitle 
him to our gratitude he will ever be 
regarded in this country as one of the 
foremost men of his time. 




* 



William Steinhart. 



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1 1 






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WILMAM STEINHART. 



<jtf F the true particulars of the his- 
fll tones of all those who started in 
♦ business in early times in San 
Francisco could be obtained and given 
to the public, a history of surpassing 
interest could be written. But many 
have died and made no sign, while 
the failures of others induce them to 
keep in the shade. Enough, however, 
remains to help to give the story of 
San Francisco as it has never before 
been told. As a whole, the commun- 
ity has been fortunate and progress- 
ive, and the history of this progress 
is narrated in the lives and fortunes 
of those who exemplify the maxim of 
the survival of the fittest. The his- 
tories of successful men, however, 
often show but a continued career of 
good fortune, as has been that of 
William Steinhart. 

Born in the Grand Duchy of Baden, 
Germany, in 1830, he received his 
education in that country and early 
served his apprenticeship to a mer- 
cantile career. He came to New 
York in 1848 when only eighteen 
years of age. In that city he was 
engaged in the dry goods business 
until 1853. In the same year he was 
attracted by the fame of California 
and concluded that there was a fortune 
there for the ambitious and enter- 
prising, and so it proved in his case. 
He opened up a clothing and dry 
goods store on Sacramento street, 
then the leading and fashionable bus- 
iness street of San Francisco. He 
prospered from the start. He con- 
tinued to do business on Sacramento 
street for four years, but there was an 
interregnum of two years when he was 
in New York. In 1859 he returned to 
his old business again and pursued it 
with such success that a new building 
had to bo provided for its accommo- 
dation. This was done, and' in 1867 
it was removed to its present loca- 
tion. Here for twenty-two years the 
trade carried on has prospered 
and has grown to wonderful dimen- 
sions if we compare what it is now 
with its status thirty-six years ago. 



His brother was admitted as a mem- 
ber of the firm in 1859. In 1867 he 
formed a co-partnership under the 
firm name of W. & I. Steinhart & 
Co., with William Scholle, Charles 
Adler, and I. Steinhart. 

Mr. Steinhart was happily married 
in 1859 while on a visit to Europe. 
His amiable wife has presented him 
with six children — five girls and a 
boy, Jesse Steinhart. 

He has not been unmindful of the 
duty of lending a helping hand to 
home industries, and is interested in 
several. He was Director in the Pio- 
neer Woolen Mills, in the Gold and 
Stock Telegraph Company, and the 
Western Mineral Company. Ho was 
Trustee of the California Immigration 
Association from its start to its close. 
He is a charter member and trustee 
of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum. He 
has been a trustee of the Widows' 
and Orphans' Fund of Fidelity Lodge, 
F. and A. Masons. He has been also 
actively interested in the cause of 
charity, and was President for six 
years of the Eureka Benevolent 
Society. He is a Mason, being a mem- 
ber of Fidelity Lodge, F. and A. M. 

Possessed of an ample fortune, he 
does not need to engage in business 
any longer, but his active tempera- 
ment will not allow him to retire. His 
success in life may be attributed not 
only to a good early training in busi- 
ness principles and methods, but also 
to a happy, even temper, and a cour- 
teous and gentlemanly demeanor 
towards all. Men like him it is who 
render possible not only the foun- 
dation of great cities, but also of 
great commonwealths, which are more 
indebted to commerce and industry 
than many historical writers are will- 
ing to allow. 

He was the founder and first Presi- 
dent of the B'nai B'rith organization, 
a powerful order which was started 
in 1856, and which now has on this 
coast close to 3,000 members. He 



I 



1 




Cyrus H. Street 



Cyrus h. street, 



MpHOUGH Cyrus H. Street is not 
JH . a pioneer of California, the posi- 
^r tion which he holds in San Fran- 
cisco entitles him to a place among 
those who have and are taking an 
active part in the growth of both the 
city and State. Whatever may be 
said about the inheritance of certain 
traits of character, it is certain that 
we find many who show distinctively 
by their walk in life that they are pos- 
sessed of the most prominent features 
of an ancestor. To some extent at 
least, Mr. Street is an example of 
this fact. His grandfather, Aaron 
Street, laid out the towns of Salem, 
0. , Salem, Ind. , and Salem, la. The 
ground on which the latter town is 
built he took up by pre-emption im- 
mediately after the Black Hawk War, 
and kept a hotel at this point for sev- 
eral years. He was noted at this time 
for his historical knowledge, entertain 
ing his guests during many a Winter 
evening by the recital of facts and in- 
cidents in history, while he walked 
back and forth in front of the great 
fire-place, such as has now itself be- 
come a matter of history. 

Cyrus H. Street, himself, was born 
on a pre-emption in Iowa, near where 
Bloomfield now stands, on September 
7, 1843. He received his education 
chiefly at a private school in Council 
Bluffs. He studied law four years 
with his father, who was one of the 
most prominent and successful lawyers 
in Iowa. His health not permitting 
him to practice, he engaged in the 
now active business of real estate, in 
which he has ever since remained. He 
laid out an addition in the town of 
Council Bluffs, now known as Streets- 
ville. It is not an undue compliment 
to his ability as a business man to 



state that he has been largely instru- 
mental in advancing the real estate 
interests of this State, and in making 
the superiority of California lands 
known abroad. In this conjunction 
it may be mentioned that for six 
years Mr. Street held the position of 
Secretary and Land Officer of the Im- 
migration Association of California, 
which was organized by the Board of 
Trade of San Francisco and support- 
ed by the merchants, bankers, railway 
and steamship companies and business 
men of San Francisco generally, in 
crder that immigrants might be 
thoroughly and correctly posted re- 
garding the land values, climate and 
productions of different sections of 
the Pacific Coast, without personal 
cost to themselves. 

It is estimated that the population 
of California has increased by 500,- 
000 persons since 1880. The Immi- 
gration Association has, by the dis- 
tribution of reliable literature and 
other means at its disposal, exercised 
a most decided influence in bringing 
about such a large increase, and as 
the Secretary of that institution's 
affairs, Mr. Street must be given the 
credit. His life-long residence in the 
growing West and intimate connection 
with the real estate business had sup- 
plied him with an accurate knowledge 
of the needs and requirements of the 
different classes of settlers, and he was 
thus enabled to point cut to them the 
best means in accordance with their 
resources of carrying out their desires 
and becoming permanent residents of 
California. Many who have helped 
to make up the large increase and to 
triple the value of the land by plant- 
ing vineyards, orchards, etc., would 
have returned home t<5 dissuade others 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



from making a similar effort had no 
one been at hand to direct them in the 
proper road to success. It is estimated 
that the Immigration Association set- 
tled 125,000 people on the Govern- 
ment lands of California; lands which 
it had been believed for years were 
only suitable for grazing purposes. It 
was only by the hearty support of the 
merchants and other business men of 
San Francisco that Mr. Street was 
enabled to accomplish this work against 
the strong opposition of wealthy stock- 
men, who were using these lands for 
grazing purposes. 

Before coming to California, and as 
early as 1863, Mr. Street was in part- 
nership with his father in Council 
Bluffs, la., and also with Judge A. 
H, Church, in North Platte, Neb. 
In 1876 ho came to San Francico via 
the Union Pacific and Central Pacific 



Railroad, since which time he has 
taken an active part in the city's ad- 
vancement. 

The real estate firm of C. H. Street 
& Co. was established in 1888, at 
which time the business, books, papers 
and good will of the Immigration Asso- 
ciation were turned over to him as a 
compliment fur his faithful services 
while in its employ. Mr. Street was 
married in 1866, his wife dying No- 
vember 16, 1887, and leaving four 
children, ono of whom is Assistant 
Cashier of the Woodland Bank, of 
Woodland, Yolo County, in this State; 
one is a student in Harvard Univers- 
ity, and the other two are young and 
are attending school. He was remar- 
ried on June 11, 1889. Mr. Street is 
a member of the Presbyterian Church 
of Berkeley and an honored citizen in 
both social and business circles. 





I. W. Tabes. 



I 



II 



jm;EW things tendered more to 
^1 develop inherent talent and 

^^1 ability than the California gold 
discoveries, and the spirit of adven- 
ture which they prompted. But for 
them, many who have attained wealth 
and honors would have been con- 
tented tj have lived a quiet life in 
some obscure valley or on some lone- 
ly farm. Therefore, irrespective of 
the wealth created by the work of the 
mines, the world is better off for the 
energy and talent developed in the 
race for riches to which they gave 
rise. One of the most notable men 
who have come prominently before 
the world from causes connected with 
this hegira to the West may be said 
to be Isaiah West Taber. His name 
as an artist and photographer has 
long been a household word on the 
Pacific Coast. He was born in New 
Bedford, Mass., in 1830, and inher- 
ited a passion for the sea. He at- 
tended the public schools of his 
native city till when 15 years old he 
could no longer resist the desire to 
become a sailor. So in 1845 he 
shipped on board the "Adeline 
01008," on a three years' whaling 
cruise in the North Pacific. The 
voyage was very successful and the 
individual share of each sailor was 
very considerable for the time. 

One year after his return to his 
native city Mr. Taber took passage 
for San Francisco. He arrived here 
in February, 1850, when the gold 
excitement was at its height. He 
did not, however, go to the mines, 
but deeming that there was as much 
riches to be gained on the sea as on 
the Lind, he engaged for a trading 
trip to Valparaiso and the Marque- 
sas. While on this cruise a boat's 
crew of which he was one were 



attacked and surrounded by savages 
at one of the islands. Mere Mr. 
Taber was severely wounded and 
returned to San Francisco. He then 
went to the mines where he had a 
reasonable amount of success. He 
also embarked in farming, having 
taken a mountain ranch among the 
foothills. Here he remained till 
1854, when he returned to New Bed- 
ford. In that city he commenced to 
study dentistry, and later opened an 
office and was a skilled operator ; 
but he always had a taste for photog- 
raphy and made several excursions 
in the course of which he obtained 
some excellent views*. He had at 
last found his profession and has 
ever since been passionately devoted 
to it. He facilitated the mechanical 
operations of his art by many notable 
inventions and soon acquired much 
fame and popularity. He opened 
one of the first galleries in Syracuse, 
N. T. His name as a photographer 
soon reached even the Pacific Coast, 
and Bradley & Kulofson offered him 
exceptional inducements to become 
attached to their establishment. This 
he did, arriving in San Francisco in 
1864. He remained in their employ- 
ment till 1871, but he soon saw that 
there was a fine field for him to enter 
into business for himself, and after 
being with Mr. Morse for three 
years, he established a gallery at 12 
Montgomery street. The present 
gallery over the Hibernia Bank was 
opened in 1878. Since that time his 
well-won fame has gone on increasing, 
till to-day, as an artist, he is cele- 
brated all over the world. His 
gallery in appointments, equipment 
and variety of work has no superior. 
Most of the notable people who have 
visited our shores have had their 



BUILDERS OF A GHEAT CITY. 



portraits taken by him. At his 
gallery can be seen life-like portraits 
of some of the leading men of many 
lands. His landscape views and 
scenery, which embrace scenes 
from all the most noted parts of the 
Pacific Coast, may be said to be no- 
rivalled. He married in 1871, and 
has two lovely daughters as the re- 
sult of the onion. His appointment 
as one of the Commissioners of the 
Tosemite Valley was a tribute to his 
artistic skill. He is a member of 



Golden Gate Lodge, No. 18, A. 0. 
U. W., as well as of several other 
social organizations. In manner he 
is genial and unostentatious. He 
is generous of heart. His •judg- 
ment is sound, his intellect keen, 
his nature sensitive. His cordial- 
ity adds an additional charm to 
his manner, and is calculated to 
enhance the impression produced 
by his well and merited renown. He 
is one of San Francisco's notable 





Matthew Turner. 



II 



1 

1 



Matthew Turner. 



^ APT AIN MATTHEW TURNER 

all . was born on June 17, 1825, on 
f^ the shore of Lake Erie, in the 
Township of Geneva, County of Ash- 
tabula, State of Ohio. He was edu- 
cated in the log school-houses of the 
neighborhood. He learned seaman- 
ship on the lakes in the Summer, 
and shipbuilding on shore in the 
Winter. He arrived in San Fran- 
cisco (via New Orleans and Panama) 
on the third day of May, 1850. He 
mined in Calaveras County three 
and a half years. He subsequently 
went to sea for twenty years. Since 
1874 he has resided in this city, and 
has been engaged in shipbuilding 
and merchandizing. He has helped 
to develop an industry that is quite 
important amongst us to-day, and 
which has a most promising future. 



,„»#«**>•■ ■ 




Isaac Upham. 



II" 

I 



I 



ISAAC UPHAM. 



SljpHE booksellers and publishers 
SH\j of San Francisco constitute an 

^l honorable and important body 
of citizens, and one which is in every 
way prominent and respected in the 
commercial community. One of the 
most esteemed amongst them is 
Isaac Upham, of the firm of Payot, 
Upham & Co. 

His standing in his business and 
in the community may be judged 
by the regard in which he has been 
held by his associate merchants, who 
have shown their appreciation by the 
honors they have seen fit to bestow 
on him. He came of an honorable, 
if not renowned stock, his pro- 
genitors being counted amongst the 
men of substance of the land. The 
origin of the Upham family is not 
certain, though we find it settled 
in England and recorded among the 
gentry early in the thirteenth century. 
A. scion of this stock was among the 
early settlers in America. In 1635 
John Upham with his family settled 
first in Waymouth, Mass. Later, in 
the settlement of Molden, he was a 
deacon in the church and for several 
terms a member of the general count 
in the colony. From him it is thought 
is descended all of the name in the 
United States and British America. 
Isaac Upham is of a good revolu- 
tionary stock, his grandfather having 
fought on the patriotic side in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. Isaac Upham 
was born at Union, Me., May 22, 
1837. His father, Benjamin P. Up- 
ham, was brought up as a farmer, 
but in after years added to farming 
the occupation of storekeeper, and 
accumulated considerable property. 
Young Isaac left his native place in 
1843 when only seven years old, and 
went to Apple ton, Me. On the death 



of his mother we find him in New- 
buryport, Mass., where he attended 
school for one year and supported 
himself by carrying newspapers. 
Returning thence we find him at 
Union again, where he lived on 
a farm with his uncle, John 
Upham. He attended the High 
School at LincolnviJle for three 
terms. Ho be^an teaching school 
at the early age of 17. Next 
year he entered the Maine Wesleyan 
Seminary at Kent's Hill, remaining 
there until 1860, having graduated 
from the scientific department the 
preceding year. On leaving the 
seminary he decided to cast his lot 
with the dwellers on the shores of 
the Pacific. On March 20, 1860, ho 
sailed from New York to California. 
His first employment in the Golden 
State was in the capacity of clerk for 
Paulin Bouse, in a store near Han- 
son ville, Yuba Coun ty. Here he had 
to be satisfied witli the small re- 
muneration of $25 per month. This 
did not content him long and a few 
months later ho commenced teaching 
school in a district of Butte County, 
still known as Upham District. He 
followed the occupation of teacher 
in various districts in this county, 
until the Fall of 1863, when he was 
elected County Superintendent of 
Schools for two years, from March, 
1864. Besides attending to his duties 
as County Superintendent, he taught 
at Oroville during this period. In 
the Fall of 1867 Yuba County honor- 
ed him as her School Superintend- 
ent, he occupying the position until 
March, 1870. He was recognized as 
an able Superintendent and an effi- 
cient teacher. When his term of 
office in Yuba County had expired, 
Mr. Upham moved to San Francisco 



884 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



as a representative of the firm of 
WUsod, Hinkle & Co., of Cincin- 
nati. He at.ended faithfully and 
successfully to their interest for one 
year, then purchasing a half interest 
in the business of Henry Payot & 
Co. At this time, the firm, which 
did business at 622 Washington 
street, deult principally in foreign 
books, works of value and interest 
in the French, Spanish, and other 
European tongues. At that time the 
entire tride only sufficed to employ 
the energies of the members of the 
firm and three clerks. Five years 
subsequently its headquarters were 
moved to 204 Sansome street. 

In the years intervening since Mr. 
Upham acquired his interest in the 
firm, now Payot, Upham & Co., 
business has increased very largely 
in volume, and has changed some- 
what in character. It has been ex- 
tended to Eastern and English publi- 
tions, and stationery in all its branch- 
es, so that it is now one of the largest 
wholesale and importing stationery 
and bookselling firms on the Pacific 
Coast. Its success is largely due to 
the energetic business methods and 
practical business knowledge of Mr. 
Upham. He was married in San 
Francisco, February 7, ■ 1874, to 



Nancy R. Delzelle, a native of 
St. Louis, Mo., of mingled French 
and Scottish ancestry. They have 
two children, both promising boys 
— now at school — Isaac O. and 
Benjamin. Mr. Upham was Pre- 
sident of the Oakland Board of 
Education from March, 1885, to 
March, 1889. He has been Presi- 
dent of the Union Loan Association 
since its organization, nearly nine 
Tears ago, and Vice-President of the 
People s Home Savings Bank since 
it started in June, 1885. He was 
elected Director of the San Fran- 
cisco Board of Trade in February, 
1888, and in appreciation of his fine 
business qualities was chosen Presi- 
dent in Frebruary of the following 
year. He has been re-elecled to 
the position for the present year. 
This in itself is a sufficient testi- 
monial to the estimation in which 
he is held in the business commun- 
ity. In the prime of life and a 
leading business man, he looks 
forward to a distinguished career 
in the commercial world of San 
Francisco. Such men reflect honor 
on the city of their adoption, and 
help to place it in a commanding 
position among the leading ones of 
the world.' 





Otto F. von Rhein. 



O. R. Von Rhein. 



CJJ^O the German fatherland arc we not a pioneer in the technical sense 
JlJL indebted for some of our ablest of the word, a residence of thirty 
^l and most useful citizens, years amongst us has given him the 
Among the latter can justly be right to c'uim a participation in 
classed O. F. Von Rhein, the whatever honors are usually associ- 
popular real estate agent. As his ated with the term. For these thirty 
name indicates he comes of an excel- years have seen San Francisco grow 
lent German family, which for gen- from a small to a great city, her in- 
erations has given many worthy sons dustries to develop in a manner al- 
to the fatherland. Ho was born in most magical, and her commerce to 
Berlin, then the capital of the king- spread to the ends of the earth, and 
dom of Prussia, and now the metro- Mr. Von Rhein has done his .share of 
polis of tho Gorman empire, in 1837. the work needed to accomplish these 
Unusual attention was given to his wonders. Successful from the start 
education; after attending to what ho sold out his real estate business in 
answers to our preparatory and gram- 1868 and spent a year with his family 
mar schools he was sent to the Prus- in travels in tho East and Europe, 
sian Military Academy at Potsdam, returning in 1869 as the manager of 
This institute compares favorably the Empire Life Insurance Com- 
with West Point in its exclusiveness, panj . Ho divided for a time his 
thoroughness, and the wide fi<ld of energies between life insurance and 
knowledge covered by its curriculum, real estate, but the latter branch of 
Some of the advantages derivable the business rapidly assumed such 
from the care given to his instruction proportions as to make it necessary 
may be inferred from the fact that he as well as profitable to follow it to 

Eeaks and writes German, the exclusion of everything else. So 
lglish and French with unusual fully indeed has the firm of O. F. 
fluency and correctness. Indeed his Von Rhein shared in the prosperity 
accent, or rather want of any foreign that has marked its line of busi- 
accent, would lead one to believe that ness in San Francisco during the last 
Mr. Von Rhein is a native American. 10 years, that now his transactions 
Leaving Germany at the age of 17 average not less than $2,500,00 an- 
years he came to New York. From nually. This is a not inconsiderable 
there, led by that adventurous spirit proportion of the total annual real 
which characterizes so many Calif or- estate business of the city. There 
nians, he went to Central America, are other real estate firms, however, 
but soon, tiring of the enervating lux- in San Francisco the volume of whose 
urious life of the tropics he decided business is fully as great as that of 
to come to California. Still a young Mr. Von Rhein, but nearly all of 
man, he found in San Francisco the these are conducted by corporations, 
mental and business atmosphere cal- or by two, three or four gentlemen, 
culated to develop the natural associated as partners, whereas he 
faculties with which nature has has no associate, hence his duties are 
endowed him. He arrived here in numerous and so exhausting that 
1860 via Panama on the steamer once in about ten years he has been 
"Golden Gate." Therefore, though obliged to make a European trip for 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT GITT. 



recreation. The last of these was 
made in 1870. The next vacation 
which Mr. Yon Rhein has promised 
himself is to consist of a trip around 
the world which is planned to begin 
this Fall. 

Mr. Yon Rhein's operations not 
only include public and private pales 
but he frequently acts as attorney-in- 
fact for non-resident real estate own- 
ers. His experience, judgment and 
ability in this respect have caused 
him to be named as commissioner- 
trustee or referee by our courts in 
many important cases, involving in 
some instances transactions of hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars. 

The competency which the subject 
of this sketch has accumulated is 
naturally mostly invested in real 
estate, but he is also interested in 
other enterprises. Among such, for 
instance, is the Inyo Marble Quarries 
which produce a quality of marble 
equal it not superior to the best East- 
ern and Italian. For ten years he was 
the President of the San Francisco 
Abend Post Publishing Co. , the oldest 
German paper in San Francisco. 

Politically he is and always has 
been a consistent Republican. Often 
honored by private trusts he has 
never held political office, except 



for two years when he served on 
the Board of Education, at a time when 
only two Republicans were elected. 
A ready and pleasing public speaker, 
he has never hesitated from the plat- 
form or with the pen to give expres- 
sion to his political convictions. 

The fact that Mr. Yon Rhein is a 
Knight Templar and a Past Grand 
and a Past Chief Patriarch, proves 
that in his earlier years he gave some 
attention to fraternal orders, but of 
late, after the labors of the day, he 
seems to find his entire happiness in 
the home circle. He has a wife, four 
children and ihree grandchildren,and 
as he is now only 53 years of age, may 
fairly hope to arrive at the dignity of 
being great grandfather. 

The welfare and progress of San 
Francisco have always been dear to 
his heart. He has been associated 
with both in no mean degree. A 
man of refined and quiet tastes — 
a well-read and scholarly gentleman, 
he has still a career of future useful- 
ness before him, and both physical- 
ly and mentally may be cl issified 
as a young man. Though a Repub- 
lican, he is thoroughly independent 
in his estimate of men and things. 
He is able, progressiva, conscientious 
— the true type of a useful citizen. 





George Wallenrod 



GEORGE WALLENROD. 



^jrHE name of this gentleman is a 
^Ju familiar one to residents of San 
^i Francisco, with whose inter- 
ests he has been identified for nearly 
thirty years. Since its erection ho 
has been well and favorably known 
to amusement lovers as manager of 
the Alcazar building, in which is lo- 
cated the elegant and popular theater 
of the same name, and the construc- 
tion of which stately structure he 
personally superintended. Wo are 
glad to present herein a brief sketch 
of the principal events in the life of 
George Wallenrod, which cannot fail 
to be of interest to his many friends 
and our readers in general. 

Mr. Wallenrod is a native of Ger- 
many, having been born in Leipsic 
on the 23d day of June, 1835, and is, 
therefore, now in the fifty-sixth year 
of his age. When a child he came 
with his parents to New York, and 
received his education in the public 
schools of that city. When a boy of 
fifteen, young Wallenrod first came 
to California, making the long and 
arduous voyage in a sailing vessel 
" around the Horn." This was in 
1850, shortly after the discovery of 
gold at Sutter's Fort, which electri- 
fied the world and resulted in the 
memorable "rush" of thousands of 
young, hardy and adventurous men, 
who were to be the founders of a 
new empire upon the shores of the 
distant Pacific. 

As was the case with a large pro- 
portion of new arrivals, Mr. Wallen- 
rod proceeded to the mining districts 
and delved for the precious metal in 
El Dorado and Placer Counties for a 
time and with varying success. In 
1859 the 60-Mile House was erected 
by him, and in 1865 be went to Vir- 
ginia City and purchased the Buss 



House. Juno 1868 he disposed of 
his interest in the hotel, closed up 
his affairs, and decided to make San 
Francisco his place of residence, 
which it has been for the past twenty- 
nine years. Coming here in 1868, 
Mr. Wallenrod engaged in merchan- 
dising and continued therein for 
some five years, or until 1873. In 
that year a favorable offer was made 
to him by the late Charles De Young, 
of the San Francisco Chronicle, which 
had already become a prominent 
factor in metropolitan journalism. 
The position was one of responsi- 
bility and trust, and for ten years, 
or thereabouts, Mr. Wallenrod dis- 
charged his duties in an exemplary 
and highly satisfactory manner, se- 
curing the respect and esteem of all 
with whom he w r as thrown in contact 
in business or socially, and forming 
a large circle of friends and acquaint- 
ances. 

The project of erecting the hand- 
some Alcazar building having been 
determined upon, Mr. Wallenrod 
was entrusted with the superin tend- 
ency of its construction, and upon its 
completion assumed the manage- 
ment, which position he has held for 
the past four years. The magnifi- 
cent structure, now so familiar to 
San Franciscans, was completed in 
1885, from designs specially con- 
ceived and matured by Mr. M. H. 
De Young, who selected a style of 
architecture at once unique and im- 
pressive, the Moorish and Arabesque 
predominating, in accordance with 
the name itself, which is of Arabian 
origin. The beautiful and well- 
arranged theater, with a seating ca- 
pacity of 1,050 persons, was com- 
pleted in 1885, and the public first 
admitted o\i MajtcJcL^ftVJ^ ^V si&ak ^*sx ^ 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



though the formal opening did not 
occur until the 16th of October fol- 
lowing. It may properly be de- 
scribed as & jewel among theaters, 
and has received a well-deserved, 
liberal and appreciative patronage 
from the public. The opening night 
was an event in theatrical circles, 
celebrated with great eclat, the lead- 
ing role being taken by Miss Emma 
Nevada, with the beauty, wealth and 
fashion of San Francisco as pleased 
and applauding spectators. Mr. 
George Wallenrod may well feel 

Croud of the splendid propertynnder 
is efficient management, which re- 
ceives his full and constant care. 

This gentleman is a Benedict, and 
has a family of two t-ons, Masters 
George, named after his father, and 
Leon, aged respectively 15 and 13 
years. The boys are attending school 
in this city, the oldest being an at- 
tendant at business college and the 
youngest at tho public school, and 
ore promising lads, who give strong 



indications of " making their mark " 
in the future. 

Mr. Wallenrod is personally agree- 
able and affable in manner, enter- 
taining in conversation, genial and 
sunny by nature, and sociable and 
kindly in disposition. As a result be 
is a general favorite, as before re- 
marked, and his friends, "their 
name is legion." He is a member 
of the Knights of Honor, Improved 
Order of Red Men, and has taken a 
lively interest in the affairs of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, in 
which organization he holds an hon- 
orary membership, conferred by rea- 
son of the many kindnesses and 
courtesies extended to the various 
Grand Army Posts in this city and 
vicinity, fie has ever been ready to 
aid, by benefits at the theater under 
his control and otherwise, this worthy 
organization, and few, if any, citi- 
zens are better entitled to the kindly 
feeling and appreciation of the veter- 
ans than is George Wallenrod. 





Jas. A. Waymire. 



JAMES A. WAYMIRE. 



IN a small farm bouse, located 
where the flourishing city of St. 
Joseph, Mo., now stands, the 
subject of our sketch was born 
forty-eight years ago. Stephen 
K., the father of James Andrew 
Waymire, was at that time a 
carpenter and farmer, and owned 
16() acres of land adjoining the 
then small village of St. Joseph. 
Three years after the birth of James 
he started overland with his family, 
in a company of which his I rothers — 
Frederick and John — with their fami- 
lies were members, for tho new terri- 
tory of Oregon. The emigrants had 
only made a few days' journey past 
the Missouri River, when Stephen 
Waymire was thrown from his horse, 
sustaining fatal injuries. This sad 
accident so grieved the widow that, 
with her young son James, she re- 
turned to her father then residing 
in Buchanan County, Mo. Here 
mother and son lived until 1852, 
when her father, James Gillmore, 
decided to emigrate to Oregon, tak- 
ing with him his family, including 
the widow and her boy. They set- 
tled near Roseburg, and thero young 
Waymire aided his grandfather in 
building his new home. On tho farm 
he was always busy, fencing, culti- 
vating and clearing the land, while 
during the long "Winter evenings ho 

E erased such books as the home 
brary afforded, and early stored his 
mind with much useful knowledge. 
When 14 he branched out for 
himself and was soon earning good 
wages in the harvest field, in split- 
ting rails, and other work on neigh- 
boring farms. When he was 16 
years old, having purchased a horse 
and saddle, he obtained employment 
in driving cattle to Washington Ter- 



ritory at $2 50 per day. During all 
this time he continued his reading 
and studying as opportunity offered. 
When 17 he had a good knowledge 
of mathematics and Latin, had 
mastered tho rudiments of Greek, 
and had learned phonography. In 
1860 he began teaching school at a 
salary of $50 per month. This was 
the year of the presidential election, 
and though not entitled to vote, 
young Waymire espoused Republi- 
can principles and made numerous 
speeches in behalf of Lincoln. In 
the Fall of that year he assisted in 
reporting the proceedings of the 
Legislature for the Oregonian and 
several other papers. At this time 
he formed the acquaintance of Col. 
E. D. Baker, and at his suggestion 
resolved to study law. Ho set about 
it at once, continuing his school- 
teaching in tho Spring. Then came 
tho opening of the civil war. 
Although young Waymire had set 
his heart upon entering college, and 
was working hard to that end, his 
patriotism was too strong to resist 
his country's call. He gave up 
school, invested part of his precious 
savings in the purchase of a horse 
and accouterments, and on his nine- 
teenth birthday entered as a private 
in a cavalry regiment then being 
raised in Oregon. His first military 
servieo was as a member of an expe- 
dition during the following year 
under the command of Col. R. F. 
Maury, sent eastward to protect the 
frontier and care for overland emi- 
grants. In February, 1863, Way- 
mire was made a corporal, and two 
months later he was commissioned 
second lieutenant. Soon after this 
he was sent with a detachment of 
twenty men aad ta<a '&sl> "&«srrs^ 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



scouts to pursue and punish a party 
of Snake Indians who had been 
making a raid among the white 
settlements. Lieutenant Way mire 
overtook the savages and adminis- 
tered a crushing defeat, capturing 
their horses and destroying their 
camp. In the course of the action 
he was at one time engaged with 
three of the enemy; two ho disabled, 
and timely aid arriving, the unequal 
contest was ended in his favor. The 
success of this expedition gave the 
young officer a reputation asan Indian 
tighter, and early in the following 
year he was ordered to take a detach- 
ment of twenty-five men and pro- 
ceed to the south fork of John Day's 
River, whero he was to form a camp 
and protect the white settlers from 
the incursions of the Indians. The 
frontier which ho was expected to 
protect extended for a distance of 
nearly 100 miles. He succeeded in 
inducing the minors located at Can- 
yon City to raise a company of vol- 
unteers to aid his slender forces. 
This reinforcement, which was com- 
manded by Joaquin Miller, the poet, 
increased his force to seventy-four 
men. The severity of the weather 
which the little army encountered in. 
their pursuit of the enemy diseour 



against the Indians. When Sherman 
by his march to the sea broke the 
backbone of the rebellion, Waymire 
felt the war was virtually over, and 
tendered his resignation, returning to 
civil life, becoming private secretary 
to the Governor of Oregon. During 
the two years which followed, in addi- 
tion to his duties in the office of the 
executive, he studied law, wrote for 
the press, and occasionally appeared 
upon the lecture platform. In Feb- 
ruary, 1867, he was commissioned 
a second lieutenant in the regular 
army, and remained in the army un- 
til September, 18G9, having been 
promoted to first lieutenant in the 
meantime, when he tendered his 
resignation, saying that he wished to 
establish a homo for his family. Ho 
had tired of the monotonous existence 
of army life in a period of peace. He 
resumed his law studies at Salem, 
Or., and in September, 1870, was ad- 
mitted to practice. During the ses- 
sion of the California Legislature in 
1869-70, and again in 1871-2, he re- 
ported the proceedings for the old 
Sacramento Union* In May, 1872, he 
was appointed phonographic reporter 
for the California Supreme Court, in 
which position he served throe years. 
In 1973 he delivered the oration on 




BUILPER8 OP A GREAT CITY. 



841 



lucrative practice, haying been coun- 
sel in many cases of great public im- 
portance. He is prominent in Grand 
Army circles, ana is now serving bis 
fifth lermasPresidentof the Veterans* 
Home Association of California. It 
was chiefly through his efforts that a 
branch of the National Home for dis- 
abled volunteer soldiers and sailors 
was established in California. 

Though not a politician in the 
ordinary sense, he nas always taken 
an active interest in public affairs, 
being a zealous ^Republican. He 



wrote the platform of the party in 
1890, and is a member of the wtate 
Executive Committee. 

Judge Waymire was married in 
June, 1865, to Miss Virginia Ann 
Chrisman, a lady whose parents were 
born in Virginia and came West by 
way of Kentucky and Missouri to 
Oregon. The fruit of this union is 
two sons and two daughters. At his 
lovely home in Alameda the Judge 

!>uts off the cares of his professional 
ife, and in the domestic circle is a 
devoted husband and father. 





Adolph C. Weber. 



AlXDLRH C. WEBER. 



AF those men at the head of the 
Jig different banking institutions 
A5f of San Francisco, none are 
more possessed of the differ- 
ent qualifications necessary in fill- 
ing such a position of trust than 
Mr. Adolph C. Weber, the sub- 
ject of this brief sketch, whose ca- 
reer of twenty years at tbe head of 
one institution, which he has placed 
upon a financial footing equal to that 
of any in the country, has marked 
him as one of the city s most capable 
and eminent financiers. 

Mr. Weber was born in Homburg, 
Bhenish Bavaria, May 29, 1825. He 
was brought up amidst the influences 
of a refined and happy home, and 
his father, who was the presiding 
Protestant Minister of a district com- 
posed of fifteen parishes, looked 
after the education of his childhood. 
When he arrived at a capable age 
he entered college, pursuing his 
studies for eight years, at the end of 
which time he was prepared to take 
up the study of a profession, and of 
the many branches open to him he 
concluded to adopt that of engi- 
neering. Accordingly, in 1844, he 
entered the Polytechnical school of 
Munich, from which institution he 
graduated four years later. Realiz- 
ing then the necessity of practically 
furthering his knowledge of the sci- 
ence of engineering, he voluntarily 
offered his services to the military 
branch of the government. Being 
accepted he was appointed to the 
corps of Boyal engineers, serving as 
an officer until 1853. At this time 
his parents became very solicitous 
as to the welfare and whereabouts of 
his oldest brother, who had embarked 
for America, in 1836, and from whom 



they had not heard since he left the 
Missouri Biver in 1841, on his way to 
Sutter's Fort in California. 

After 1848, meager reports of the 
first returning gold seekers from Cal- 
ifornia had led them to believe he 
was the Weber located in the south- 
ern mines and at Stookton, which 
city he had laid out at the head of 
the navigable waters of the San Joa- 

Suin Biver. This news increased 
leir anxiety, and being unable to 
bear up under this long silence any 
longer, the parents conferred with 
their younger son, Adoiph, upon 
the advisability of his going in search 
of his brother. He at once con- 
sented, and obtaining a furlough, in 
1853, for one year for this purpose, 
he started for the United States. 
Upon his arrival in New York he lost 
no time in obtaining passage on the 
steamer "Union," which, after an un- 
eventful trip, landed him at Aspin- 
wall. Crossing the Isthmus he en- 
dured all the inconveniences which 
were then incident to that journey, 
and on this side took the steamer 
"California" for San Francisco, where 
he arrived in July, 1853. The same 
day he set out for his brother's home 
in Stockton, reaching there the next 
morning. The meeting between the 
two brothers, who had been so long 
separated, may be better imagined 
than described. 

His brother, Capt. Charles M. 
Weber, had emigrated to California 
in 1841 with the first train leaving 
the Missouri Biver that separated 
from a regular Oregon caravan, for 
the purpose of coming to California. 
With the party were Gen. Bidwell, 
Capt. Bussell, Josiah Belden, Henry 
Huber, and others, and after arriv- 



344 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



ing here, Ospt. Weber entered the 
employ of Capt, Sutter, to whom he 
had letters of introduction. He re- 
mained during the winter season 
with Capt. Sutter, and in 1842 en- 
gaged in San Jose in the merchan- 
dising business which he followed 
until 1845. He then purchased and 
located on the Rancho Campo de los 
Franceses, a Spanish grant, where is 
now the present site of Stockton, 
which city, in 1848-9, he had laid out 
in conjunction with Major R. P. 
Hammond. Many immigrants had 
pronounced the San Joaquin country 
entirely barren, fit only for mining 
and stock growing, and that all ef- 
forts to cultivate it would be futile, 
bat Capt. Weber believed otherwise 
and practically demonstrated the fer- 
tility of the soil, by planting around 
his home a great variety of imported 
vines and fruit trees, and fine flowers 
and berries, and as early as 18S2 
produced excellent wine from his 
grapes. He was untiring in his 
efforts to encourage thane cultures by 
distributing plants, trees and cut- 
tings, gratuitously, to settlers, and 
thereby advance the agriculture of 
the young State of California, His 
death, which occurred at Stockton in 
1881, removed from our midst one 
of California ■- i '■ i^ii. --t ami most 



cisco, and fonnd employment in the 
assay office of the U. 8. Mint, of 
which Judge Lott was then Superin- 
tendent, and Major Jacob E. Snyder 
was Treasurer. In 1859 he resigned 
his position, owing to ill health, and 
went to Geyserville, Sonoma County, 
to regain it; there engaging in mer- 
cantile pursuits until 1861, when he 
went to Stockton, his brother desir- 
ing him to take charge of his affairs 
there, so that he could visit his old 
home in Germany. The disastrous 
floods, however, of 1861-2 frustrated 
the proposed visit and it had to be 
indefinitely postponed. For six 
weeks the property where Mr. Weber 
lived was under water. During this 
time he assisted in Bavins and right- 
ing matters till the flood was down. 
He then again returned to San Fran- 
cisco to rejoin his family, whom he 
had sent down by tbe steamer daring 
the highest stage of the flood, this 
time to make this city bis permanent 
home. Ashort time after nis arrival 
he engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness, especially in the management of 
property for both resident and non- 
resident owners and friends. In this 
business he has continued ever since. 

It ts as a banker, however, that Mr. 
Weber baa attained an honored prom- 




BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



845 



since then the bank has remained in 
that location — its own property. 

The many friends and founders of 
the institution comprised pioneers 
and ea'ly residents of this city, like 
Gen. E. D. Keyes, H. Luchsinger, 
P. Glein, W. J. Lowry, David 
Porter. Rudolph Jordan, Joseph 
Frank, F. J. Thibault, John Wieland, 
John Pforr, Charles Mayne, M. J. 
Dooly, M. Ro->enbaum, H. liarroilhet, 
A. Hoelscher, Rudolph Herold, S. A. 
Drinkhouse, Isaack Kohn, M. Wa- 
terman, B. E. Tittel, F. Grasshoff, 
W. H. Schmidt, A. Gansl, Charles 
and F. Lemme, Theodor Koehler, B. 
Schweitzer and others. They, with 
their elected directors, and assisted 
by their able attorneys, first the late 
Julius George, Esq., and at present 
Alexander H. Loughborough, Esq., 
have supported the enterprise stead- 
ily. The line of deposits increased 
constantly until it had reached at 
the last semi-annual period the sum 
of $2,607,505 26, with a reserve 
fund of $66,000. The present direc- 
tors are: Adolph C. Weber, Presi 
dent; Henry Luchsinger, Vice-Presi- 
dent; W. S. Keyas, A. H. Ryhiner 
and W. J. Lowry. As the head of 
this flourishing institution, Mr. 
Weber is deserving of much credit, 
and the immovable financial rock 
upon which the Humboldt Bank 
stands is due to his executive ability 
and management in financial affairs. 



Mr. Weber is a life member of the 
German Benevolent Society, and a 
member of the Deutscher Verein. 
He was alsoono <>f the firs' members 
of the Sun Francisco Verein, and 
afterwards of the Thalia Verein. He 
has, at times, inteiested himself in 
various c >rporations in the city, and 
has contributed liberally to every 
obje« t tending to the advancement of 
the city of his adoption. Though 
repeatedly urged to do so by his 
friends he has never accepted office. 
Of a retiring disposition, he his 
always avoided notoriety, being con- 
tent to live unostentatiously and true 
to bis friends, within the sphere of 
usefulness he had laid out to follow, 
doing such good as within his power. 
In his ideas he is progressive and 
liberal and his friends are numerous. 
As one of the builders of a great city 
he deservedly takes rank. 

Mr. Weber was married in 1857, 
the result of which union was three 
children. The first is dead, while 
a son and daughter are living. His 
second son, Adolph H. Weber, a 
promising engineer and a graduate 
of the State University of Berkeley, 
and of the Royal Saxon School of 
Mines, Freiberg, was assistant under 
Professor E. W. Hilgard, in the 
Agricultural Department of the 
State University at Berkeley, Cal., 
and now attached to the State Mining 
Bureau. 



jut 




Chas. H. Wetmore. 



CHARLES A, WETMORB 



j£k KB of the moat public-spirited, 
ID energetic end progressive of 
*Zf Sen Franciscans is the sub- 
ject of this sketch* He is 
not only a man of affairs, 
bet a man of ideas as well. 
Bodowed by nature with an active, 
vigorous mind, he has done much to 
advance the interests not alone of San 
Francisco, but of the whole State. 

Oharles A. Wetmore was born in 
Portland, Maine, January 20, 1847, 
but came to California when he was 
nine years of age with his mother 
aod other members of the family, 
whither his father, Jesse L. Wetmore, 
who was of the pioneers of the State 
and prominent in the earhr days in 
the development of San Francisco, 
had preceded them. 

In 1869 Oharles, then twelve years 
old, while a student in the Hyde 
Street Grammar School, in company 
with &.' L. Taber, edited, printed 
and published the Young Calif ornian, 
which was the first, juvenile paper on 
the coast He afterwards attended 
the Oakland College School prepar- 
atory to entering the College of 
California in 1864, from which he 
graduated, being valedictorian of his 
class, in 1868, at the age of twenty- 
one* Daring the last year of his 
ooUqge course young Wetmore' s act- 
ive intellect was drawn to the labor 
problem and he became Secretary of 
the House Carpenters' Eight Hour 
Iieague. He soon succeeded in or- 
ganising all the leagues of Alameda 
oountylntp a Mechanics' Institute, 
• of which he was elected President, 
During the last two years of his col- 
lege course he was the Oakland re- 
porter of the Evening Bulletin of this 
city- His vacations were spent in 
exploring the State on practical mis- 



sions. In 1866 he took charge of the 
leveling party of an expedition which 
was conducted under a State appro- 
priation directed by the Hon. Chas. 
F. Reed, in the Sacramento Valley, 
to determine the practicability and 
cost of bringing the waters of the 
Sacramento from Bed Bluff along 
the Coast Range, through the coun- 
ties of Tehama, Colusa, Tolo and 
Solano. In 1867 he devoted the sum- 
mer, at the request of the college 
authorities, to canvassing the central, 
northern and mining counties on be- 
half of the proposed creation of a 
State University. His success in 
awakening the public sentiment was 
so great that, when at the next ses- 
sion the question came before the 
Legislature, there was practically no 
opposition to the plan of the founders 
of the College of California, whose 
magnificent property was accepted 
by the State as the first endowment 
of what is now the State University. 
As a testimonial of their appreciation 
of his labors the trustees refused to 
accept any further payment of dues 
from Mr. Wetmore. He was also 
honored by having the degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts 
conferred upon him. On the day of 
his graduation he was elected Secre- 
tary and Treasurer of the Associated 
Alumni of the Pacific. 

In 1868, immediately after his 
graduation* Mr* Wetmore went to 
San Diego, which it was then whisp- 
ered was to be a future commercial 
metropolis. He had a strong taste 
for journalism and he intended to 
publish a newspaper, but changed 
his mind und established a real estate 
ncy, the first one in the new city, 
had printed- an outline map of * 
the harbor and had copies of it placed 




848 



BUILDEKS OF A GREAT CITY. 



conspicuously in San Francisco of- 
fices to attract attention. Studying 
law and searching records led him 
into partnership with Solon S. 
Sanborn, a very able lawyer then 
practicing there. The members of 
the firm devoted themselves to un- 
ravelling and perfecting old land ti- 
tles. There were a horde of squatters 
there then, who, influenced by un- 
principled lawyers, were misled into 
seizing the property of absent owners 
with the hope of defeating their ti- 
tles. They claimed that the city 
lands had been improperly disposed 
of, and a reign of confusion was 
threatened. Mr. Wetmore was one 
of the organizers and a leading mem- 
ber of the Pueblo League, whose 
mission it was to protect the inter- 
ests of bona fide holders of property 
from the raids of these sharks. An 
attempt was made to steal Cleve- 
land's Addition, and Mr. Wetmore, 
in company with Clarence L. Carr 
and Major Swope, armed for defense, 
rode up from Old Town, destroyed 
the string fences before they were 
completed, and stood guard all day 
to prevent further aggression. On 
another occasion, by his prompt and 
energetic action, he thwarted the 
scheme of a party of real estate pi- 
rates who attempted to steal 



attached to the editorial staff of the 
Alia California. He was soon sent to 
Washington as the special corre- 

rndent of that paper, and while at 
national capital he had frequent 
opportunity to aid San Diego in her 
infantile development. He secured 
for the ex-mission lands the United 
States patent. During his stay in 
Washington he was a member of the 
Land Attorneys' Association. 

In 1875 he was appointed by the 
Government special commissioner to 
report upon the condition of the 
Mission Indians in San Diego coun- 

S, and during a flurry of excitement 
ong the Mexican border he secured 
an order of the War Department es- 
tablishing the military post which is 
still maintained in the city of San 
Diego. 

In 1878, he was appointed delegate 
for the California Viticultural Asso- 
ciation to the Paris Exposition. The 
letters written during his studies of 
vineyards in France to the AUa Cali- 
fornia created a sensation throughout 
the country, and aroused the people 
to the importance of developing viti- 
culture on a grander scale than had 
been dreamed of before. 

On his return from Paris he mar- 
ried a young lady of Washington and 
abandoned journalism, returning to 




BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



849 



Blanca, that Mr. Wetmore began his 
own vineyard. This was done in 
accordance with the theory of adap- 
tation of certain vines for certain 
grades of wine. There was not a 
single vineyard then planted that 
produced high grade wines except- 
ing those of Rhenish type. There 
were no medocs or sauternes. 
After eight years of careful experi- 
menting, the vineyardists of Califor- 
nia have succeeded in reproducing 
the medocs, sauternes, burgundies, 
sherries, ports, madeiras and cognacs 
of the old world. That these are rec- 
ognized for what they claim to be by 
European taste and judgment was 
toado manifest when, at the late 
Paris Exposition, a gold medal was 
Awarded to the California State 
Viticultural Commission for its 
cognac, while a similar reward of 
merit tfas bestowed upon Mr. Wet- 
more personally for his exhibit of 
aaedoc and sauterne, made at Cresta 
Blanca. These wines, by the way, 
were but two and a half years 
old, and were brought into com- 
petition with those produced in 
(he most famous wine districts of 
JYanCe. If wines as young can thus 
fa classified with the best wines in 
the world, it can readily be seen that 
after age has matured and ripened 
•heir quality they will achieve a rep- 
utation equal to any ever acquired 
l\j the most famous productions of 
lhe vine wherever grown. 

This consummation is a practical 
proof of the soundness of the propo- 
sition long since laid down by Mr. 
Wetmore, that by using the same 
variety of vines as in the old coun- 
tries, and in suitable locations, we 
ran approximate and in time, may 



even surpass in excellence the 
models we follow. Two years ago 
Mr. Wetmore advanced the theory 
that the hygrometric condition of 
the atmosphere was of the ut- 
most importance in the maturing 
of wine, and here has experi- 
ment substantiated its accuracy. 
Unlike many other cellars in the 
State, Cresta Blanca' s are not venti- 
lated ; the dry atmosphere so char- 
acteristic of our climate is not sought 
to be introduced, but rather ex- 
cluded, and they are dark and mouldy 
as any cellar in Bordeaux. As a re- 
sult his wines are devoid of that 
pungency and headiness which have 
so long proved detrimental to the 
reputation of California clarets. Mr. 
Wetmore is a firm believer in the 
opinion that the educated American 
gentleman has the finest taste in the 
world and is willing to pay to have 
it gratified. He is capable of judging 
when wine is good whether it be made 
in California or on the banks of the 
Garonne. He believes it is for the 
best interests of the California wine 
growers to cater to the American 
taste, and to make high priced wines 
rather than quantities of lower grade. 
At an auction sale of his wines held 
in this city, Mr. Wetmore received 
better prices for those sold than ever 
were obtained in the United States, 
and higher than the same brands of 
foreign wines usually sell for. The 
development of the Livermore dis- 
trict has proved the wisdom of Mr. 
Wetmore's selection, and the beauti- 
ful valley is now dotted with healthy, 
productive vineyards. It received 
the gold medal at the Paris Exposi- 
tion and its future is assured. 




J. N. E. Wilson. 



J. N. E. WILSON. 



4EW members of the San Fran- 
cisco Bar have been more suc- 
cessful in their profession, or 
made more rapid progress in popular 
preferment, than the subject of our 
sketch. Elected District Attorney at 
the age of 28, sent to the State Senate 
two years later, and, before the expi- 
ration of his term, appointed Insur- 
ance Commissioner, it is certain that 
his career has been a brilliant one. 

J. N. E. Wilson was born in this 
city, December 4, 1856. His pa- 
rents had emigrated to this city 
from Ohio, but his family origin- 
ally came from Massachusetts. The 
uncle of Mr. Wilson's father, Samuel 
Lewis, was a distinguished lawyer in 
the Buckeye State, and from him it 
is possible he inherits his legal 
tastes. Mr. Wilson was educated in 
the public schools here, and after 
graduating from the High School 
entered the State University at 
Berkeley. While at the University 
he devoted particular attention to 
legal matters, intending to fit him- 
self for that profession, and after 
being graduated he entered upon his 
law studies in the office of E. B. 
Mastick. He passed an excellent 
examination in the Supreme Court, 
and was admitted to practice in 1878. 
His extended acquaintance secured 
for him from the start a goodly num- 
ber of clients, and the successful 
manner in which he conducted their 
causes not only retained them but 
attracted others, and he soon found 
himself in the enjoyment of a fine 
practice. 

In 1883, at the earnest solicitation 
of his party friends, he allowed his 
name to be presented before the Re- 
publican Municipal Convention, for 
the office of District Attorney. He 



was successful in the convention, and 
at the polls was elected by a hand- 
some majority, running ahead of his 
ticket, and during the ensuing two 
years he conducted the duties of the 
office, one of the most important in 
the gift of the people, in a manner 
to win credit from even his political 
opponents. In the Fall of lo85, be- 
fore his term of office as District 
Attorney had expired, Mr. Wilson 
was nominated and elected to repre- 
sent the Twenty-second District in 
the State Senate. While a member 
of that body Mr. Wilson's industry 
and ability bore good fruits, and he 
secured much important legislation. 
He was the author of the Park Bill, 
by the provision of which the com- 
missioners were given authority to 
expend large sums to beautify San 
Francisco's charming pleasure re- 
sort. He also introduced the bill 
providing for the opening of streets, 
the condemning of private property 
for street purposes, etc. A conspic- 
uous result of the value to the citi- 
zens of this law is found in the open- 
ing of Van Ness avenue through to 
Black Point, where it connects with 
the grand boulevard, about to be 
built by government aid, along the 
shore of the bay to the Presidio. 
Another important bill drawn by 
Mr. Wilson was that making the 
obtaining of goods under false pre- 
tenses a felony, where it had previ- 
ously been but a misdemeanor. 

Last Fall Mr. Wilson was appoint- 
ed Insurance Commissioner by Gov- 
ernor Waterman, to succeed Mr. 
Wadsworth. He accepted the ap- 
pointment, which was promptly con- 
firmed by the Senate, and in Janu- 
ary last he resigned his office as 
State Senator. On the 5th of April, 



BUILDERS OP A GREAT CITY. 



of the present year, he assumed the 
duties of his new position. He is 
especially qualified for this office, as 
he has for years devoted a good deal 
of attention to insurance law, and is 
well versed in it. Although the 
term of Insurance Commissioner 
continues for four years the duties 
will not. interfere, with the practice 
of'his profession. Mr. Wilson has 
always been an active and consistent 
Republican, and in every campaign 
since his majority he has labored in 
the interest of the party on the 
stump. He is an earliest and con- 
vincing speaker, and has acquired a 
wide influence in the councils of his 

Solitical brethren. The National 
mard has no warmer friend than J. 
N. E. Wilson, and during his term 
of service in the Senate he was able 
on several occasions to advance its 
interests. This is well known and is 
thoroughly appreciated by the mem- 
bers of our citizen-soldiery. Ho 
holds a commission as Major and 
Judge Advocate on the staff, General 
John T. Cutting commanding the 
Second Brigade. 

Mr. Wilson is identified with a 
number of the fraternal organiza- 
tions. He is u prominent Odd 



Fellow, and represented California 
at the Grand Communications held 
at Baltimore and Boston in 1885 and 
1886, respectively. He is a member 
of Excelsior Lodge F. and A. M., 
San Francisco Chapter, and a mem- 
ber of Golden Gate Commandery, 
Knights Templar and of the Shrine. 
He as also a member of the Native 
dons of the Golden West. Al- 
though since his service as District 
Attorney most of Mr. Wilson's prac- 
tice has been confined to the conduct 
of important civil actions, he has sev- 
eral times been engaged in criminal 
coses, and in these he has been re- 
markably successful. His clear, log- 
ical manner of presenting the salient 
points in a case, combined with his 
urbanity of manner and sincerity of 
address, prove very captivating to 
the occupants of the jury box, and if 
he should elect to follow that path in 
jurisprudence, there are few lawyers 
at the bar who would be his peers. 
Mr. Wilson is married, and his 
home is a most happy one, and sur- 
rounded by his family or in the com- 
pany of his books, which he loves 
next to wife and children, he finds a 
pleasant solace from professional 







%* 



Henry B. Williams. 



Henry B. Williams. 



qfr MONG the names which are in- 

7|k dissolubly linked with the phe- 

&\* nomenal growth and permanent 

Srosperity of San Francisco, that of 
[enry B. Williams must always oc- 
cupy a conspicuous position. For 
more than thirty-seven years he has 
been identified with some of the 
most extensive and successful mer- 
cantile enterprises of the Pacific 
Coast, and may bo well denominated 
one of tho "Builders of a Great 
City." The firm of Williams, 
Dimond & Co., of which ho was the 
senior member, ranks among tho 
foremost commercial houses in San 
Francisco, and has ever been in 
the forefront of any movement tend- 
ing to the promotion of the city's 
trade and the creation of a market 
for its industrial products. No 
steamer leaves our wharves that does 
not carry largo consignments of 
goods shipped under the name of 
this well known firm. Mr. Williams 
was a native of the Green Mountain 
State, having been boru at Wood- 
stock, Vt. , in 1820. 

When 14 years of age he entered 
the employ of his uncle, Thatcher 
Tucker, at that time one of the lead- 
ing wholesale merchants in woolen 
goods in New York City, whose storo 
was located on Broad street. Here 
the sterling qualities which raised 
Mr. Williams to his late enviable 
position rapidly developed, and such 
was his assiduity and aptitude at the 
age of 24, that he was advanced to a 
partnership in the firm. Having 
thus attained a recognized standing 
in the business community he soon 
after, in 1846, married Miss Mary E. 
Cooke, of Providence, B. I. The 
ambitious mind of Mr. Williams, and 
the unerring instinot ever so promin- 



ent a characteristic of the man, led 
him early into the ranks of the dar- 
ing spirits who were daily abandon- 
ing the comforts and delights of the 
Eastern civilization for the untried 
hardships but alluring prospects of 
the new El Dorado. He left New 
York for California in 1852, in com- 

Sany with his brother-in-law Joseph 
. Cooke, who, with his brother, 
George L. Cooke, was already es- 
tablished in business in San Fran- 
cisco. The Cooke Brothers were 
among the first of the Argonauts, 
having been passengers on the sec- 
end steamer that arrived at San 
Francisco in 1849. Mr. Wiliams 
remained in the employ of Cooke 
Bros. & Co., until 1855, when 
he accepted the position of cor- 
respondent in the old and re- 
nowned firm of William T. Coleman 
& Co. This position he retained 
until March, 1865, when he establish- 
ed a shipping and commission busi- 
ness under his own name on Front 
street. On January 1, 1867, Mr. 
Henry P. Blanchard was admitted 
to partnership, the firm name being 
changed to Williams, Blanchard & 
Co. On July 1, 1868, Charles B. 
Morgan was admitted into the firm 
and withdrew from it March 20, 1875. 
The firm of Williams, Blanchard & 
Co. was dissolved in 1879, and the 
present house of Williams, Dimond 
& Co. was formed, composed of 
Henry B. Williams, William H. 
Dimond, and A. Chesebrough. The 
ramifications of the business of this 
great concern extended over the 
length and breadth of the Pacific 
Coast, while its correspondents were 
located in all the leading cities of 
the world. In 1876, Williams, 
Blanchard & Co. became the agents 



354 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT CITY. 



of the Pacific Mail Steamship Com- 
pany. Mr. Williams devoted him- 
self especially to the business of the 
Mail Company, the success of which 
was largely doe to bis talent and 
sagacity. Mr. Williams was a thor- 
oughly honest man in every respect. 
Benevolent and charitable, he bore 
without reproach the grand old name 
of gentleman. He was confirmed by 
Bishop Kip in the old Grace Church 
in 1857, and became one of the 
vestrymen. Up to the time of his 
death he owned the identical pew 
purchased by him when (he; church 
was finished. He was a> member of 
Occidental Lodge, If. and A. M., 
No. 22, and San Francisco Com- 
roandery No. 1. , 



In recognition of his services in 
the promotion of the sugar trade 
in the San d w ich I sl a nds , he was 

knighted by that Government. 

He died at the Arlington Hotel, 
Santa Barbara, on the evening of 
the 8th of February, 1890, aged 70 
years and 14 days. The immediate 
cause .of his death was apoplexy. 
He had, however, suffered from 
nervous prostration for many months. 
At the , time of the fatal stroke he 
was -the victim of a complication of 
diseases, any one of which would 
have long before resulted fatally to a 
man of less ragged constitution. He 
left a widow and one daughter, the 
wife of Mr. Alfred Poett, a civil 
engineer of Santa Barbara. 





Wilbur G, Zeigler. 



Wilbur G. Zeigler. 



<jt MONG the younger members of 
TpL the Bar, who, by their ability 
&\* and public spirit are doing 
much to build up the fair city of 
San Francisco, there is none more 
entitled to a prominent place than 
the subject of this sketch. Wilbur 
G. Zeigler was born in Fremont, 
Sandusky County, O., on the 29th of 
September, 1859. He attended the 
public schools of his native town, 
graduating at the age of 18. Having 
decided upon following the profession 
of the law, he immediately began his 
studies, entering the office of Judge 
McKinnev, in Cleveland. His labors 
as a student were completed in the 
office of General It. P. J3uckland, of 
Fremont. He was admitted to prac- 
tice before the Supreme Court of the 
State, at Columbus, March 1, 1881, 
ranking first in a class of sixteen ap- 
plicants. While pursuing his law 
studies, Mr. Zeigler acted as corre- 
spondent for several leading news- 
papers, and for a short time was at- 
tached to the local staff of the Cleve- 
land Herald. At this time the ques- 
tion of following an exclusive literary 
or legal career was demanding an 
answer. Several journeys to the 
picturesque mountains of Western 
North Carolina had been made 
by him while acting as a corre- 
spondent for Northern newspapers, 
and the favorable reception which 
his communications had met, as well 
as the success which had attended the 
publication of other literary produc- 
tions written about this time, turn- 
ed his mind toward literature. While 
in this frame of thought he deter- 
mined to put the result of his travels 
and observations of life and nature 
in the Southern Mountains into book 
form. Ben. S. Grosscup, now an at- 



tornev-at-law in Ashland, O., united 
with him in the plan, and together 
they paid a last visit to Western 
North Carolina. 

The young men met with more dis- 
courgement in their undertaking 
than they had foreseen. The man- 
ner in wliich all impediments were 
overcome, however, was indicative 
of the energy and enterprise which 
later has marked the professional 
career of at least one of the asso- 
ciates. 

The plan of the work was what 
might have been termed an ambi- 
tious one. The heading of their 
prospectus, printed before a page 
of the proposed volume had been 
written, set forth that it would treat 
of the * ' Topography, History, Re- 
sources and People ; with Narra- 
tives, Incidents and Pictures of 
Travel, Adventures in Hunting, and 
Fishing and the Legends of the 
Wilderness." Through their efforts 
they were able to adopt the above 
quoted promise of their prospectus 
as their title page. 

Mr. Grosscup, who had had some 
experience in statistical and biogra- 
phical work, took up the treatment 
of the resources, history and Indian 
occupation. The other branches of 
the manifold subject were assumed 
by Mr. Zeigler, who, in order to fit 
himself for truthful representation 
of the country and people, traveled 
both on foot and horseback through 
the twenty mountainous counties of 
the region. He dragged an artist 
with him into the wilderness to 
sketch the scenery, hunted with the 
bearers of flint-lock rifles for ad- 
ventures, mingled with every class of 
life for experiences, danced at hoe- 
downs, visited moonshiners' stills in 



356 



BUILDERS OF A GREAT OTTT. 



lonely ravines, attended baptisms and . 
shooting-matches, rode the circuits 
with the lawyers, and with the 
happy faculty of seeing the inter- 
esting and amusing Bides of things, 
wrote enthusiastically of what he 
had seen, felt and heard. 

The book was printed and pub- 
lished by the authors, under the title 
of "The Heart fo the Alleghaniea." 
It was well and favorably received 
by the press both of the North and 
of the region written about, and a 
second edition was issued. 

Before being admitted to the Bar, 
Mr. Zeigler was offered a partner- 
ship with K. P. and H. 8. Buokland, 
at Fremont, and when he had passed 
his examination he accepted it. The 
senior member of that nrm had been 
for many years prominently identified 
with national and state affairs. His 
ability as a lawyer was long and 
well-established, and his record as a 
Member of Congress and military 
commander had made him a wide 
reputation. The firm was enjoy- 
ing an extensive practice, and 
as attorneys for persons representing 
large interests, it offered much in- 
ducement for a newly-fledged mem- 
ber of the profession to continue in 
it, but after two years' connection 
therewith, the subject of this sketch 



the Pacific Coast, he left his native 
State for San Francisco, arriving here 
in September, 1883. Since that time 
he has been actively engaged in 
the practice of bis profession. 
At the present time and for the past 
two years he has been associated with 
Philip G. Galpin, under the firm 
name ot Galpin &■ Zeigler. 

Among late decided cases of im- 
portance, either as to the law prin- 
ciples involved or the amount of 
Eroperty in litigation, in which the 
rm has appeared as attorneys for 
the successful litigant, might be 
mentioned the Montgomery-avenno 
Tax cases, the United States vs. 
Hite, the tide land case of the 
United Land Association vs. Knight, 
Cox vs. Delmas, the Oregon-street 
case of the People vs. Smith. 

The business of tho firm is very 
heavy, being, however, entirely of 
a civil nature, particularly land, 
patent, equity, and probate practice. 
The offices occupied by the firm in 
the new building of the First Na- 
tional Bank, are elegantly furnished, 
and contain one of the best eqnip 
ed law libraries in the eity. 

Mr. Zeigler is still unmarried. 
Soon after his arrival in this State, 
his parents crossed the Continent to 
join him, and have since made then- 




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